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Durham University

The Department of Philosophy


Professor Nancy Cartwright - all publications

Authored book

Chapter in book

  • Cartwright, N. (2019). Commentary: Why Mixed Methods Are Necessary for Evaluating Any Policy. In Contemporary Philosophy and Social Science: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue. Nagatsu, M. & Ruzzene, A. London: Bloomsbury. 173-184.
  • Cartwright, N & Cowen, N (2019). Street-level Theories of Change: Adapting the Medical Model of Evidence-based Practice for Policing. In Evidence-Based Policing: Critical Reflections. Fielding, N, Bullock, K & Holdaway, S Abingdon: Routledge.
  • Cartwright, N. & Merlussi, P. (2018). Are laws of nature consistent with contingency?. In Laws of Nature, an anthology. Ott, W. & Patto, L. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 221-244.
  • Marcellesi, A. & Cartwright, N. (2018). Modeling mitigation and adaptation policies to predict their effectiveness: The limits of randomized controlled trials. In Climate Modelling: Philosophical and Conceptual Issues. Lloyd, E. & Winsberg, E. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. 449-480.
  • Cartwright, N. (2018). Will Your Policy Work? Experiments versus Models. In The Experimental Side of Modeling. Peschard, I.F. & van Frassen, B.C. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 21.
  • Cartwright, N., Bradburn, N. & Fuller, J. (2017). A Theory of Measurement. In Measurement in Medicine: Philosophical Essays on Assessment and Evaluation. McClimans, L. London: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Cartwright, N. (2017). Can Structural Equations Explain How Mechanisms Explain?. In Making a Difference: Essays on the Philosophy of Causation. Beebee, H., Hitchcock, C. & Price, H. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 132-152.
  • Cartwright, N. (2017). Causal Powers: Why Humeans Can't Even Be Instrumentalists. In Causal Powers. Jacobs, Jonathan D. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. 9-23.
  • Cartwright, N. & Marcellesi, A. (2016). Deliberating Policy: Where morals and methods mix. In The Philosophy of Philip Kitcher. Couch, M. & Pfeifer, J. New York: Oxford University Press. 229-252.
  • Cartwright, N. & Davis, J.B. (2016). Economics as Science. In Who Runs the Economy? The Role of Power in Economics. Skidelsky, R. & Craig, N. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 43-55.
  • Cartwright, N. (2016). Single Case Causes: What is Evidence and Why. In Philosophy of Science in Practice: Nancy Cartwright and the Nature of Scientific Reasoning. Chao, H. & Reiss, J. Cham: Springer International Publishing. 11-24.
  • Cartwright, N. (2016). The Dethronement of Laws in Science. In Rethinking Order After the Laws of Nature. Cartwright, N. & Ward, K. London: Bloomsbury Academic. 25-52.
  • Cartwright, N. (2016). The Natural and the Moral Order: What’s to Blame?. In What Reason Promises (Essays on Reason, Nature and History). Doniger, W., Galison, P. & Neiman, S. Berlin Boston: De Gruyter. 13-18.
  • Cartwright, N. & Marcellesi, A. (2015). EBP: Where Rigor Matters. In Foundations and Methods from Mathematics to Neuroscience: Essays Inspired by Patrick Suppes. Crangle, Colleen, García de la Sienra, Adolfo & Longino, Helen E. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
  • Cartwright, N (2015). How Could Laws Make Things Happen?. In Laws of Nature, Laws of God? Proceedings of the Science and Religion Forum Conference 2014. Spurway, N Cambridge Scholars. 115-135.
  • Cartwright, N. (2014). Causality. In Philosophy of Social Science. A New Introduction. Cartwright, N. & Montuschi, E. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N. (2014). Measurement. In Philosophy of Social Science. A New Introduction. Cartwright, N. & Montuschi, E. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N. & Pemberton, J. (2013). Aristotelian Powers: Without Them, What Would Modern Science Do?. In Powers and Capacities in Philosophy: The New Aristotelianism. Greco, J. & Gross, R. New York: Routledge. 93-112.
  • Cartwright, N. (2013). Evidence, Argument and Prediction. In EPSA11 Perspectives and Foundational Problems in Philosophy of Science, The European Philosophy of Science Association Proceedings 2. Karakostas, V. & Dieks, D. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
  • Cartwright, N. & Martin, E. (2012). Queen Physics: How Much of the Globe is Painted Red?. In God and the Scientist: exploring the work of John Polkinghorne. Watts, F. & Knight, C. Farnham, England: Ashgate. 67-76.
  • Cartwright, N. (2012). RCT’s, Evidence and Predicting Policy Effectiveness. In The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Kincaid, H. New York: Oxford University Press. 298-318.
  • Cartwright, N. & Stegenga, J. (2011). A Theory of Evidence for Evidence-Based Policy. In Evidence, Inference and Enquiry. Dawid, P., Twining, W. & Vasilaki, M. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 291-322.
  • Cartwright, N. & Bradburn, N. (2011). A Theory of Measurement. In The importance of common metrics for advancing social science theory and research: a workshop summary. Li, Rose Maria Washington: National Academies Press. 53-56.
  • Cartwright, N. (2011). Evidence, External Validity and Explanatory Relevance. In Philosophy of Science Matters: The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein. Morgan, Gregory J. New York: Oxford University Press. 15-28.
  • Cartwright, N. (2011). Predicting 'It Will Work for Us': (Way) Beyond Statistics. In Causality in the Sciences. Illari, P.M., Russo, F. & Williamson, J. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N. (2010). Foreword. In Fictions and Models: New Essays. Woods, J. Munich: Philosophia Verlag.
  • Cartwright, Nancy D (2010). Models: Parables v Fables. In Beyond Mimesis and Convention Representation In Art and Science. Frigg, R & Hunter, M Springer. 262 19-31.
  • Cartwright, N. (2010). Natural Laws and the Closure of Physics. In Visions of Discovery. New Light on Physics, Cosmology and Consciousness. Chiao, R.Y., Leggett, A.J., Cohen, M.L., Cohen, M.L. & Harper, C.L. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 612-622.
  • Cartwright, N. (2010). Relativism in the Philosophy of Science. In Relativism: A Contemporary Anthology. Krausz, M. New York: Columbia University Press. 86-99.
  • Cartwright, N (2009). Causal Laws, Policy Predictions, and the Need for Genuine Powers. In Dispositions and Causes. Handfield, T Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (2009). Causality, Invariance and Policy. In The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Economics. Kincaid, H & Ross, D New York: Oxford University Press. 410-423.
  • Cartwright, Nancy D (2009). What is this thing called 'efficacy'?. In Philosophy of the Social Sciences: Philosophical Theory and Scientific Practice. Mantzavinos, C Cambridge Cambridge University Press. 185-206.
  • Cartwright, N (2008). In Praise of the Representation Theorem. In Representation, Evidence, and Justification: Themes from Suppes. Frauchiger, M & Essler, W.K Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag. 1: 83-90.
  • Cartwright, N & Chang, H (2008). Measurement. In The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science. Psillos, S & Curd, M New York: Routledge.
  • Cartwright, N (2008). Replies. In Nancy Cartwright's Philosophy of Science. Hartmann, S Hoefer, C & Bovens, L New York: Routledge.
  • Cartwright, N. (2008). Why be Hanged for Even a Lamb?. In Images of Empiricism. Monton, B. New York: Oxford University Press. 32-45.
  • Cartwright, N. (2007). Causal Laws, Policy Predictions and the Need for Genuine Powers. In Causal Powers: what are they? why do we need them? what can be done with them and what cannot?. Cartwright, N. London: CPNSS, LSE.
  • Cartwright, N (2007). Counterfactuals in Economics: A Commentary. In Causation and Explanation. Keim Campbell, J O'Rourke, M.O & Silverman, H.S Cambridge: MIT Press. 191-216.
  • Cartwright, N (2007). What Makes a Capacity a Disposition?,. In Dispositions and Causal Powers. Kistler, M. & Gnassounou, B. Burlington: Ashgate. 195-206.
  • Cartwright, N (2006). Against the 'System' Is There Value in Inconsistency? In Series on Common Goods: Law, Politics and Economics. Daston, L & Engel, C Baden-Baden: Nomos. 15.
  • Cartwright, N (2006). From Causation to Explanation and Back. In The Future of Philosophy. Leiter, B Oxford: Oxford Clarendon Press.
  • Cartwright, N (2005). Another Philosopher Looks at Quantum Mechanics. In Hilary Putnam. Ben-Menahem, Y New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (2005). How Can We Know What Made the Ratman Sick? Singular Causes and Population Probabilities. In Philosophy of Religion, Physics, and Psychology: Essays in Honor of Adolf Grünbaum. Jokić, A New York: Prometheus Books.
  • Cartwright, N, Alexandrova, A, Efstathiou, S, Hamilton, A & Muntean, I (2005). Laws. In Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy. Smith, M & Jackson F New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (2005). My Understand to Philosophy [sic]. In Dang dai Ying Mei zhu ming zhe xue jia xue shu zi shu [The Academic Self-Statements of Contemporary British and American Distinguished Philosophers]. Ouyang, K Beijing: Ren min chu ban she. Publication in Chinese.
  • Cartwright, N (2005). No God; No Laws. In Dio, la Natura e la Legge. God and the Laws of Nature. Sindoni, E & Moriggi, S Milan: Angelicum-Mondo X.
  • Cartwright, N (2005). The Vanity of Rigour in Economics. Theoretical Models and Galilean Experiments. In The 'Experiment' in the History of Economics. Fontaine, P & Leonard, R
  • Cartwright, N & Reiss, J (2004). Uncertainty in Econometrics: Evaluating Policy Counterfactuals. In Economic Policy Under Uncertainty: The Role of Truth and Accountability in Policy Advice. Mooslechner, P, Schuberth, H & Schurz, M Northhampton: Edward Elgar Publishing LTD.
  • Cartwright, N (2001). Ceteris Paribus Laws and Socio-Economic Machines. In The Economic World View: Studies in the Ontology of Economics. Maki, U Cambridge University Press.
  • Hendry, R.F. (2001). Mathematics, Representation and Molecular Structure. In Tools and Modes of Representation in the Laboratory Sciences. Klein, U Springer.
  • Cartwright, N (2001). Modularity: It Can – and Generally Does – Fail. In Stochastic Dependence and Causality. Costantini, D, Galavotti, M.C & Suppes, P California: CSLI.
  • Cartwright, N, Psillos, S & Chang, H (2001). Theories of Scientific Method: Models for the Physico-Mathematical Sciences. In The Cambridge History of Science Volume 5: Modern Physical and Mathematical Sciences. Nye, M.J New York: Cambridge University Press. 5.
  • Cartwright, N (2000). Against the Completability of Science. In The Proper Ambition of Science. Wolff, J & Stone, M.W.F New York: Routledge.
  • Cartwright, N (2000). An Empiricist Defence of Singular Causes. In Logic, Cause and Action: Essays in Honour of Elizabeth Anscombe. Teichmann, R New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (2000). Quantum Mechanics without the Observables. In The Reality of the Unobservable: Observability, Unobservability, and their Impact on the Issue of Scientific Realism. Agazzi, E & Pauri, M Dortrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Cartwright, N (1999). Capacities. In The Handbook of Economic Methodology. Davis, J.B, Hands, D.W & Mäki, U Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Cartwright, N (1999). Comments and Replies. In Proceedings of the Münster Colloquium. Paul, M Münster: LIT Verlag.
  • Cartwright, N (1999). Models and the Limits of Theory: Quantum Hamiltonians and the BCS Model of Superconductivity. In Models as Mediators. Morgan, M & Morrison, M New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (1998). Causality, Independence and Determinism. In Causal Models and Intelligent Data Analysis. Gammerman, A London: Springer Verlag.
  • Cartwright, N & Cat, J (1998). Causation. In The Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Kegan, P & Craig, E New York: Routledge.
  • Cartwright, N (1998). Otto Neurath (1882-1945). In The Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Kegan, P & Craig, E New York: Routledge.
  • Cartwright, N (1997). Comment on 'Harold Hotelling and the Neoclassical Dream', P. Mirowski and W. Hands. In Economics and Methodology. Backhouse, R, Mäki, U, Salanti, A & Hausman, D New York: Macmillan and St Martin's Press.
  • Cartwright, N & Uebel, T.E (1997). Philosophy in the Earthly Plane. In Encyclopaedia and Utopia: The Life and Work of Otto Neurath. Nemeth, E & Stadler, F Münster: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Cartwright, N (1997). What is a Causal Structure? In Causality in Crisis? Statistical Methods and the Search for Causal Knowledge in the Social Sciences. McKim, V.R & Turner, S.P Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Cartwright, N (1997). Where Do Laws of Nature Come From?. In Dialectica. Chauvire, C & Ogien, A Paris: EHESS. 51: 65-78.
  • Cartwright, N (1997). Why Physics? In The Large, the Small and the Human Mind. Penrose, R & Longair, M New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cartwright, N & Cat, J (1996). Neurath Against Method. In Origins of Logical Empiricism, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, XVI. Giere, R.N & Richardson, A Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Cartwright, N. (1995). Causal Structures in Econometrics Models. In On the Reliability of Economic Models. Little, D. Münster: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 42: 63-89.
  • Cartwright, N (1995). Entries on “Neurath”, “Duhem”, “Feyerabend” and “Lakatos”. In The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Honderich, E Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (1995). How Laws Relate What Happens: Against a Regularity Account. In Pragmatik: Handbuch Pragmatischen Denkens Band V. Stachowiak, H Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag.
  • Cartwright, N, Cat, J, & Chang, H (1995). Otto Neurath: Politics and the Unity of Science. In The Disunity of Science. Galison, P & Stump, D Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N, Shomar, T & Suarez, M (1995). The Tool Box of Science: Tools for the Building of Models with a Superconductivity Example. In Theories and Models in Scientific Processes. Herfel, W.E, Krajewski, W, Niiniluoto, I & Wojcicki, R Amsterdam: Rodopi.
  • Cartwright, N (1995). Where in the World is the Quantum Measurement Problem? In Physik, Philosophie und die Einheit der Wissenschaften: Grundlagen der exakten Naturawissenschaften. Kruger, L & Falkenburg, B Heidelberg: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag.
  • Cartwright, N & Hoefer, C (1994). Substantivalism and the Hole Argument. In Philosophical Problems of the Internal and External Worlds: Essays Concerning the Philosophy of Adolf Grünbaum. Earman, J, Janis, A, Massey, G & Rescher, N Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Cartwright, N (1993). How We Relate Theory to Observation. In World Changes: Thomas Kuhn and the Nature of Science. Cambridge. Horwich, P MA: MIT Press.
  • Cartwright, N (1993). Marks and Probabilities: Two Ways to Find Causal Structure. In Scientific Philosophy: Origins and Developments, Yearbook 1/93, Institute Vienna Circle. Stadler, F Münster: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Cartwright, N (1993). Mill and Menger: Ideal Elements and Stable Tendencies. In Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities. Maki, U Amsterdam: Rodopi. 38.
  • Cartwright, N (1992). Aristotelian Natures and the Modern Experimental Method. In Inference, Explanation and Other Philosophical Frustrations. Earman, J Oakland, CA: University of California Press.
  • Cartwright, N. & Jones, M. (1991). How to Hunt Quantum Causes. In Erkenntnis Orientated: A Centennial Volume for Rudolf Carnap and Hans Reichenbach. Spohn, W. Springer. 205-231.
  • Cat, J, Chang, H & Cartwright, N (1991). Otto Neurath: Unification as the Way to Socialism. In Einheit der Wissenschaften. Mittelstraβ, J New York: Walter de Gruyter.
  • Cartwright, N (1990). Quantum Causes: The Lessons of the Bell Inequalities. In Philosophy of the Natural Sciences: Proceedings of the 13th International Wittgenstein Symposium. Weingärtner, P & Schurz, G Vienna: Hölderlin-Pichler-Tempsky.
  • Cartwright, N. (1989). Capacities and abstractions. In Scientific Explanation. Kitcher, P. & Salmon, W.C. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 349-356.
  • Cartwright, N (1988). How to Tell a Common Cause: Generalisations of the Conjunctive Fork Criterion. In Probability and Causality. Fetzer, J.H Dortrecht: D. Reidel.
  • Cartwright, N (1988). Regular Associations and Singular Causes. In Causation, Chance and Credence. Skyrms, B & Harper, W.L Münster: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1.
  • Cartwright, N (1988). Ursachen und Mathematische Physik. In Philosophie, Physik, Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Muschik, W & Scheibe, E Berlin: Technische Universität Berlin.
  • Cartwright, N (1987). Max Born and the Reality of Quantum Probabilities. In The Probabilistic Revolution. Krüger, L, Gigerenzer, G & Morgan, M Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books. 2.
  • Cartwright, N (1987). Philosophical Problems of Quantum Theory: The Response of American Physicists. In The Probabilistic Revolution. Krüger, L, Gigerenzer, G & Morgan, M Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books. 2.
  • Cartwright, N (1986). Fitting Facts to Equations. In Philosophical Grounds of Rationality: Intentions, Categories and Ends. Grandy, R & Warner, R Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (1986). Two Kinds of Teleological Explanation. In Human Nature and Natural Knowledge. Donagan, A, Perovich, A & Wedin, M Dortrecht: D. Reidel.
  • Cartwright, N & Mendell, H (1984). What Makes Physics' Objects Abstract? In Science and Reality. Cushing, J.T, Delaney, C.F & Gutting, G.M Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Cartwright, N (1983). How the Measurement Problem is an Artefact of Mathematics. In Space, Time and Causality. Swinburne, R Dortrecht: D. Reidel.
  • Cartwright, N (1980). Do the Laws of Physics State the Facts?. In Pacific Philosophy Quarterly. 61: 64-75.
  • Cartwright, N (1980). Measuring Position Probabilities. In Studies in the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Suppes, P Michigan: Philosophy of Science Association.
  • Cartwright, N (1979). Philosophy of Physics. In Current Research in Philosophy of Science: Proceedings of the PSA Critical Research Problems Conference. Asquith, P.D & Kyburg, H.E Michigan: Philosophy of Science Association.
  • Cartwright, N. (1974). How Do We Apply Science?. In Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. Cohen, R.S., Hooker, C., Michalos, A.C. & Van Evra, J. New York: Springer. 32: 713-719.
  • Cartwright, N. (1971). A Dilemma for the Traditional Interpretation of Quantum Mixtures. In Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. Schaffner, K. & Cohen, R.S. Springer. 251-258.

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