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Department of Philosophy

Staff

Prof Nancy Cartwright

Personal web page

Professor/Director of CHESS Centre in the Department of Philosophy
Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 46049

(email at nancy.cartwright@durham.ac.uk)

Nancy Cartwright is Professor of Philosophy at the Department of Philosophy, University of Durham and at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). She is past President of the Philosophy of Science Association and was President of the American Philosophical Association (Pacific Division) in 2008.

Professor Cartwright is also co-Director of the Centre for Humanities Engaging Science and Society (CHESS) in the Department of Philosophy.

Her research interests include philosophy and history of science (especially physics and economics), causal inference, causal powers, scientific emergence and objectivity and evidence, especially for evidence-based policy [EBP]. Her current work, for the project ‘Knowledge for Use’ [K4U], investigates how to use scientific research results for better policies. She is a member of the UK voluntary research network Policy Insight, which ‘aims to develop a new methodology for policy formulation, deliberation, evaluation and choice.’ She has worked with others on projects in this area on education, child protection and international development.

Professor Cartwright has written a number of books: How the Laws of Physics Lie (1983), Nature's Capacities and their Measurement (1989), Otto Neurath: Philosophy between Science and Politics [with J Cat, K Fleck & T Uebel] (1995), The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science (1999), Measuring Causes: Invariance, Modularity and the Causal Markov Condition (2000), Hunting Causes and Using Them (2007), Causal Powers: What Are They? Why Do We Need Them? What Can be Done with Them and What Cannot (2007 Evidence Based Policy: A Practical Guide to Doing it Better [with Jeremy Hardie] (2012), ),  Evidence: For Policy and Wheresoever Rigor is a Must (2013), and she has co-edited three collections: Rethinking Order: After the Laws of Nature [with K Ward] (forthcoming), Philosophy of Social Science: A New Introduction [with Eleonora Montuschi] (2014), and Idealization XII: Correcting the Models. Idealization and Abstraction in the Sciences [with M. R. Jones] 2005.

Nancy Cartwright is a Fellow of the British Academy and a member of the American Philosophical Society (The US’s oldest academic honourary society), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the German Academy of Sciences (Leopoldina) and a recipient of a MacArthur Fellowship.

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Indicators of Esteem

  • 2016: Associate Member, Senior Common Room at Wadham College, Oxford:
  • 2014: Tsing Hua Honorary Distinguished Chair Professor, awarded by the National Tsing Hua University :
  • 2013: Honorary Degree, Doctor of Letters, honoris causa, University of St Andrews:
  • 2012: 225 Medallion, Distinguished Alumna, University of Pittsburgh:
  • 2012: Honorary Degree. Doctor of Humane Letters, honors causa, Southern Methodist University, Dallas TX:
  • 2011: Member, Doctorate School in Philosophy of the Universita 'Ca' Foscari', Venice:
  • 2009: Chancellor’s Associates Faculty Excellence Award for Excellence in Research in Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, University of California at San Diego:
  • 2008: President, American Philosophical Association (Pacific Division) :
  • 2008: President, Philosophy of Science Association :
  • 2007: Fellow, Institute for Advanced Study, Durham University:
  • 2007: Titular Member, Académie Internationale de Philosophie des Sciences (A.I.P.S.):
  • 2007: Vice-President, American Philosophical Association (Pacific Division):
  • 2005: Senior Visiting Fellow, Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Bologna:
  • 2004: Fellow, American Philosophical Society:
  • 2002: Associate Member, Nuffield College, Oxford:
  • 2001: Foreign Honorary Member, American Academy of Arts and Science:
  • 1999: Member, Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina (The German National Academy of Natural Science):
  • 1996: Fellow, British Academy:
  • 1996: Old Dominion Fellow, Philosophy, Princeton University:
  • 1993: Fellow, MacArthur Foundation:
  • 1987: Fellow, Wissenschaftskolleg (Institute for Advanced Study), Berlin:
  • 1982: Fellow, ZiF (Center for Interdisciplinary Research), Bielefeld, Germany:
  • 1976: Fellow, Philosophy of Science Center, University of Pittsburgh:
  • 1971: Postdoctoral Fellow, U.S. National Science Foundation, Cambridge University:

Research Groups

Department of Philosophy

  • History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine
  • Mind, Language and Metaphysics

Wolfson Research Institute for Health and Wellbeing

Research Projects

Department of Philosophy

School of Applied Social Sciences

  • Revitalising the Health Equity Agenda, ESRC Seminar Series

Research Interests

  • History and philosophy of science (especially physics and economics)
  • Causal inference
  • Objectivity in science
  • Evidence, especially for evidence-based policy

Selected Publications

Authored book

Chapter in book

  • Cartwright, N. & Marcellesi, A. (2016). Deliberating Policy: Where morals and methods mix. In The Philosophy of Philip Kitcher. Pfeifer, J. & Couch, M. New York: Oxford University Press. 229-252.
  • Cartwright, N & Davis, J.B (2016). Economics as Science. In Who Runs the Economy?. Skidelsky, R & Craig, N Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Cartwright, N. (2016). The Dethronement of Laws in Science. In Rethinking Order After the Laws of Nature. Cartwright, N. & Ward, K. London: Bloomsbury.
  • Cartwright, N. (2016). The Natural and the Moral Order: What’s to Blame?. In What Reason Promises (Essays on Reason, Nature and History). Doniger, W., Galison, P. & Neiman, S. De Gruyter. 13-18.
  • Cartwright, N. & Marcellesi, A. (2015). EBP: Where Rigor Matters. In Foundations and Methods from Mathematics to Neuroscience: Essays Inspired by Patrick Suppes. Crangle, Colleen, García de la Sienra, Adolfo & Longino, Helen E. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
  • Cartwright, N (2015). How Could Laws Make Things Happen?. In Laws of Nature, Laws of God? Proceedings of the Science and Religion Forum Conference 2014. Spurway, N Cambridge Scholars. 115-135.
  • Cartwright, N. (2014). Causality. In Philosophy of Social Science. A New Introduction. Cartwright, N. & Montuschi, E. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N. (2014). Measurement. In Philosophy of Social Science. A New Introduction. Cartwright, N. & Montuschi, E. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N. & Pemberton, J. (2013). Aristotelian Powers: Without Them, What Would Modern Science Do?. In Powers and Capacities in Philosophy: The New Aristotelianism. Greco, J. & Gross, R. New York: Routledge. 93-112.
  • Cartwright, N. (2013). Evidence, Argument and Prediction. In EPSA11 Perspectives and Foundational Problems in Philosophy of Science, The European Philosophy of Science Association Proceedings 2. Karakostas, V. & Dieks, D. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
  • Cartwright, N. & Martin, E. (2012). Queen Physics: How Much of the Globe is Painted Red?. In God and the Scientist: exploring the work of John Polkinghorne. Watts, F. & Knight, C. Farnham, England: Ashgate. 67-76.
  • Cartwright, N. (2012). RCT’s, Evidence and Predicting Policy Effectiveness. In The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Kincaid, H. New York: Oxford University Press. 298-318.
  • Cartwright, N. & Stegenga, J. (2011). A Theory of Evidence for Evidence-Based Policy. In Evidence, Inference and Enquiry. Dawid, P., Twining, W. & Vasilaki, M. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 291-322.
  • Cartwright, N. & Bradburn, N. (2011). A Theory of Measurement. In The importance of common metrics for advancing social science theory and research: a workshop summary. Li, Rose Maria Washington: National Academies Press. 53-56.
  • Cartwright, N. (2011). Evidence, External Validity and Explanatory Relevance. In Philosophy of Science Matters: The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein. Morgan, Gregory J. New York: Oxford University Press. 15-28.
  • Cartwright, N. (2011). Predicting 'It Will Work for Us': (Way) Beyond Statistics. In Causality in the Sciences. Illari, P.M., Russo, F. & Williamson, J. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N. (2010). Foreword. In Fictions and Models: New Essays. Woods, J. Munich: Philosophia Verlag.
  • Cartwright, Nancy D (2010). Models: Parables v Fables. In Beyond Mimesis and Convention Representation In Art and Science. Frigg, R & Hunter, M Springer. 262 19-31.
  • Cartwright, N. (2010). Natural Laws and the Closure of Physics. In Visions of Discovery. New Light on Physics, Cosmology and Consciousness. Chiao, R.Y., Leggett, A.J., Cohen, M.L., Cohen, M.L. & Harper, C.L. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 612-622.
  • Cartwright, N. (2010). Relativism in the Philosophy of Science. In Relativism: A Contemporary Anthology. Krausz, M. New York: Columbia University Press. 86-99.
  • Cartwright, N (2009). Causal Laws, Policy Predictions, and the Need for Genuine Powers. In Dispositions and Causes. Handfield, T Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (2009). Causality, Invariance and Policy. In The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Economics. Kincaid, H & Ross, D New York: Oxford University Press. 410-423.
  • Cartwright, Nancy D (2009). What is this thing called 'efficacy'?. In Philosophy of the Social Sciences: Philosophical Theory and Scientific Practice. Mantzavinos, C Cambridge Cambridge University Press. 185-206.
  • Cartwright, N (2008). In Praise of the Representation Theorem. In Representation, Evidence, and Justification: Themes from Suppes. Frauchiger, M & Essler, W.K Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag. 1: 83-90.
  • Cartwright, N & Chang, H (2008). Measurement. In The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science. Psillos, S & Curd, M New York: Routledge.
  • Cartwright, N (2008). Replies. In Nancy Cartwright's Philosophy of Science. Hartmann, S Hoefer, C & Bovens, L New York: Routledge.
  • Cartwright, N. (2008). Why be Hanged for Even a Lamb?. In Images of Empiricism. Monton, B. New York: Oxford University Press. 32-45.
  • Cartwright, N. (2007). Causal Laws, Policy Predictions and the Need for Genuine Powers. In Causal Powers: what are they? why do we need them? what can be done with them and what cannot?. Cartwright, N. London: CPNSS, LSE.
  • Cartwright, N (2007). Counterfactuals in Economics: A Commentary. In Causation and Explanation. Keim Campbell, J O'Rourke, M.O & Silverman, H.S Cambridge: MIT Press. 191-216.
  • Cartwright, N (2007). What Makes a Capacity a Disposition?,. In Dispositions and Causal Powers. Kistler, M. & Gnassounou, B. Burlington: Ashgate. 195-206.
  • Cartwright, N (2006). Against the 'System' Is There Value in Inconsistency? In Series on Common Goods: Law, Politics and Economics. Daston, L & Engel, C Baden-Baden: Nomos. 15.
  • Cartwright, N (2006). From Causation to Explanation and Back. In The Future of Philosophy. Leiter, B Oxford: Oxford Clarendon Press.
  • Cartwright, N (2005). Another Philosopher Looks at Quantum Mechanics. In Hilary Putnam. Ben-Menahem, Y New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (2005). How Can We Know What Made the Ratman Sick? Singular Causes and Population Probabilities. In Philosophy of Religion, Physics, and Psychology: Essays in Honor of Adolf Grünbaum. Jokić, A New York: Prometheus Books.
  • Cartwright, N, Alexandrova, A, Efstathiou, S, Hamilton, A & Muntean, I (2005). Laws. In Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy. Smith, M & Jackson F New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (2005). My Understand to Philosophy [sic]. In Dang dai Ying Mei zhu ming zhe xue jia xue shu zi shu [The Academic Self-Statements of Contemporary British and American Distinguished Philosophers]. Ouyang, K Beijing: Ren min chu ban she. Publication in Chinese.
  • Cartwright, N (2005). No God; No Laws. In Dio, la Natura e la Legge. God and the Laws of Nature. Sindoni, E & Moriggi, S Milan: Angelicum-Mondo X.
  • Cartwright, N (2005). The Vanity of Rigour in Economics. Theoretical Models and Galilean Experiments. In The 'Experiment' in the History of Economics. Fontaine, P & Leonard, R
  • Cartwright, N & Reiss, J (2004). Uncertainty in Econometrics: Evaluating Policy Counterfactuals. In Economic Policy Under Uncertainty: The Role of Truth and Accountability in Policy Advice. Mooslechner, P, Schuberth, H & Schurz, M Northhampton: Edward Elgar Publishing LTD.
  • Cartwright, N (2001). Ceteris Paribus Laws and Socio-Economic Machines. In The Economic World View: Studies in the Ontology of Economics. Maki, U Cambridge University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (2001). Modularity: It Can – and Generally Does – Fail. In Stochastic Dependence and Causality. Costantini, D, Galavotti, M.C & Suppes, P California: CSLI.
  • Cartwright, N, Psillos, S & Chang, H (2001). Theories of Scientific Method: Models for the Physico-Mathematical Sciences. In The Cambridge History of Science Volume 5: Modern Physical and Mathematical Sciences. Nye, M.J New York: Cambridge University Press. 5.
  • Cartwright, N (2000). Against the Completability of Science. In The Proper Ambition of Science. Wolff, J & Stone, M.W.F New York: Routledge.
  • Cartwright, N (2000). An Empiricist Defence of Singular Causes. In Logic, Cause and Action: Essays in Honour of Elizabeth Anscombe. Teichmann, R New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (2000). Quantum Mechanics without the Observables. In The Reality of the Unobservable: Observability, Unobservability, and their Impact on the Issue of Scientific Realism. Agazzi, E & Pauri, M Dortrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Cartwright, N (1999). Capacities. In The Handbook of Economic Methodology. Davis, J.B, Hands, D.W & Mäki, U Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Cartwright, N (1999). Comments and Replies. In Proceedings of the Münster Colloquium. Paul, M Münster: LIT Verlag.
  • Cartwright, N (1999). Models and the Limits of Theory: Quantum Hamiltonians and the BCS Model of Superconductivity. In Models as Mediators. Morgan, M & Morrison, M New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (1998). Causality, Independence and Determinism. In Causal Models and Intelligent Data Analysis. Gammerman, A London: Springer Verlag.
  • Cartwright, N & Cat, J (1998). Causation. In The Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Kegan, P & Craig, E New York: Routledge.
  • Cartwright, N (1998). Otto Neurath (1882-1945). In The Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Kegan, P & Craig, E New York: Routledge.
  • Cartwright, N (1997). Comment on 'Harold Hotelling and the Neoclassical Dream', P. Mirowski and W. Hands. In Economics and Methodology. Backhouse, R, Mäki, U, Salanti, A & Hausman, D New York: Macmillan and St Martin's Press.
  • Cartwright, N & Uebel, T.E (1997). Philosophy in the Earthly Plane. In Encyclopaedia and Utopia: The Life and Work of Otto Neurath. Nemeth, E & Stadler, F Münster: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Cartwright, N (1997). What is a Causal Structure? In Causality in Crisis? Statistical Methods and the Search for Causal Knowledge in the Social Sciences. McKim, V.R & Turner, S.P Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Cartwright, N (1997). Where Do Laws of Nature Come From?. In Dialectica. Chauvire, C & Ogien, A Paris: EHESS. 51: 65-78.
  • Cartwright, N (1997). Why Physics? In The Large, the Small and the Human Mind. Penrose, R & Longair, M New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cartwright, N & Cat, J (1996). Neurath Against Method. In Origins of Logical Empiricism, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, XVI. Giere, R.N & Richardson, A Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Cartwright, N. (1995). Causal Structures in Econometrics Models. In On the Reliability of Economic Models. Little, D. Münster: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 42: 63-89.
  • Cartwright, N (1995). Entries on “Neurath”, “Duhem”, “Feyerabend” and “Lakatos”. In The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Honderich, E Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (1995). How Laws Relate What Happens: Against a Regularity Account. In Pragmatik: Handbuch Pragmatischen Denkens Band V. Stachowiak, H Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag.
  • Cartwright, N, Cat, J, & Chang, H (1995). Otto Neurath: Politics and the Unity of Science. In The Disunity of Science. Galison, P & Stump, D Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N, Shomar, T & Suarez, M (1995). The Tool Box of Science: Tools for the Building of Models with a Superconductivity Example. In Theories and Models in Scientific Processes. Herfel, W.E, Krajewski, W, Niiniluoto, I & Wojcicki, R Amsterdam: Rodopi.
  • Cartwright, N (1995). Where in the World is the Quantum Measurement Problem? In Physik, Philosophie und die Einheit der Wissenschaften: Grundlagen der exakten Naturawissenschaften. Kruger, L & Falkenburg, B Heidelberg: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag.
  • Cartwright, N & Hoefer, C (1994). Substantivalism and the Hole Argument. In Philosophical Problems of the Internal and External Worlds: Essays Concerning the Philosophy of Adolf Grünbaum. Earman, J, Janis, A, Massey, G & Rescher, N Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Cartwright, N (1993). How We Relate Theory to Observation. In World Changes: Thomas Kuhn and the Nature of Science. Cambridge. Horwich, P MA: MIT Press.
  • Cartwright, N (1993). Marks and Probabilities: Two Ways to Find Causal Structure. In Scientific Philosophy: Origins and Developments, Yearbook 1/93, Institute Vienna Circle. Stadler, F Münster: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Cartwright, N (1993). Mill and Menger: Ideal Elements and Stable Tendencies. In Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities. Maki, U Amsterdam: Rodopi. 38.
  • Cartwright, N (1992). Aristotelian Natures and the Modern Experimental Method. In Inference, Explanation and Other Philosophical Frustrations. Earman, J Oakland, CA: University of California Press.
  • Cartwright, N. & Jones, M. (1991). How to Hunt Quantum Causes. In Erkenntnis Orientated: A Centennial Volume for Rudolf Carnap and Hans Reichenbach. Spohn, W. Springer. 205-231.
  • Cat, J, Chang, H & Cartwright, N (1991). Otto Neurath: Unification as the Way to Socialism. In Einheit der Wissenschaften. Mittelstraβ, J New York: Walter de Gruyter.
  • Cartwright, N (1990). Quantum Causes: The Lessons of the Bell Inequalities. In Philosophy of the Natural Sciences: Proceedings of the 13th International Wittgenstein Symposium. Weingärtner, P & Schurz, G Vienna: Hölderlin-Pichler-Tempsky.
  • Cartwright, N. (1989). Capacities and abstractions. In Scientific Explanation. Kitcher, P. & Salmon, W.C. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 349-356.
  • Cartwright, N (1988). How to Tell a Common Cause: Generalisations of the Conjunctive Fork Criterion. In Probability and Causality. Fetzer, J.H Dortrecht: D. Reidel.
  • Cartwright, N (1988). Regular Associations and Singular Causes. In Causation, Chance and Credence. Skyrms, B & Harper, W.L Münster: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1.
  • Cartwright, N (1988). Ursachen und Mathematische Physik. In Philosophie, Physik, Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Muschik, W & Scheibe, E Berlin: Technische Universität Berlin.
  • Cartwright, N (1987). Max Born and the Reality of Quantum Probabilities. In The Probabilistic Revolution. Krüger, L, Gigerenzer, G & Morgan, M Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books. 2.
  • Cartwright, N (1987). Philosophical Problems of Quantum Theory: The Response of American Physicists. In The Probabilistic Revolution. Krüger, L, Gigerenzer, G & Morgan, M Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books. 2.
  • Cartwright, N (1986). Fitting Facts to Equations. In Philosophical Grounds of Rationality: Intentions, Categories and Ends. Grandy, R & Warner, R Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Cartwright, N (1986). Two Kinds of Teleological Explanation. In Human Nature and Natural Knowledge. Donagan, A, Perovich, A & Wedin, M Dortrecht: D. Reidel.
  • Cartwright, N & Mendell, H (1984). What Makes Physics' Objects Abstract? In Science and Reality. Cushing, J.T, Delaney, C.F & Gutting, G.M Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Cartwright, N (1983). How the Measurement Problem is an Artefact of Mathematics. In Space, Time and Causality. Swinburne, R Dortrecht: D. Reidel.
  • Cartwright, N (1980). Do the Laws of Physics State the Facts?. In Pacific Philosophy Quarterly. 61: 64-75.
  • Cartwright, N (1980). Measuring Position Probabilities. In Studies in the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Suppes, P Michigan: Philosophy of Science Association.
  • Cartwright, N (1979). Philosophy of Physics. In Current Research in Philosophy of Science: Proceedings of the PSA Critical Research Problems Conference. Asquith, P.D & Kyburg, H.E Michigan: Philosophy of Science Association.
  • Cartwright, N. (1974). How Do We Apply Science?. In Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. Cohen, R.S., Hooker, C., Michalos, A.C. & Van Evra, J. New York: Springer. 32: 713-719.
  • Cartwright, N. (1971). A Dilemma for the Traditional Interpretation of Quantum Mixtures. In Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. Schaffner, K. & Cohen, R.S. Springer. 251-258.

Conference Paper

  • Cartwright, N. (2015), Philosophy of Social Technology: Get on Board, John Dewey Lectures 89: The American Philosophical Association: 2015 Pacific Division 89th Annual Meeting. Vancouver, Canada, The American Philosophical Association, 98-116.

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Related Links

Selected Grants

  • 2015: IAS Evidence Theme
  • 2015: K4U: Knowledge for Use: Making the most of Social Sciences to build better policies (£1190079.29 from European Commission)
  • 2014: 'Impact', Durham Seedcorn Award
  • 2014: Revitalising the Health Equity Agenda (£0.00 from ESRC)
  • 2010: ‘Choices of Evidence: Tacit Philosophical Assumptions in the Debates within the Campbell Collaboration’, UK Arts and Humanities Research Council (with Eileen Munro and Eleanora Montuschi)
  • 2009: ‘A Theory of Evidence for Use’, British Academy Research Development Award
  • 2009: ‘God’s Order, Man’s Order and the Order of Nature’, John Templeton Foundation (with Eric Watkins)
  • 2007: ‘Evidence for Use’, LSE Seed Fund
  • 2007: ‘Evidence for Use: Prolegomena to a Theory of Evidence-Based Education Policy’, Spencer Foundation
  • 2005: ‘Contingency and Dissent in Science’, UK Arts and Humanities Research Board
  • 2004: ‘Biomedical Research: Towards a Well-Ordered Science’, Columbia-LSE Alliance Collaborative Research Fund
  • 2004: ‘Methods for Causal Inference: Status and Health’, British Academy
  • 2003: ‘Causal Pluralism and Causal Inference, with Applications to Health and Status’, U.S. National Science Foundation
  • 2002: ‘A Defence of Scientific Theories as Tools’, with Mauricio Suarez, New Del Amo Programme, UCSD/Universidad Compultense, Madrid
  • 2001: ‘Causality: Metaphysics and Methods’, UK Arts and Humanities Research Board
  • 1999: ‘Measurement in Physics and Economics’, Latsis Foundation (co-director)
  • 1995: ‘Philosophy in Economics’, A. K. Knight
  • 1995: ‘The Political Economy of the German Historical School’, History and Economics Centre, Cambridge University, Leverhulme (co-director)
  • 1993: ‘Modelling in Physics and Economics’, Latsis Foundation (co-director)
  • 1986: ‘Causes and Capacities’, U.S. National Science Foundation
  • 1974: ‘Philosophical Analysis of Quantum Mechanics’, U.S. National Science Foundation

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