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ORCID, ResearcherID and Scopus Author ID

Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID)

The Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) is an open, non-profit, community-driven initiative providing you, as a researcher, a unique persistent identifier. This aims to:

  • identify and connect you with your research publications and other outputs
  • distinguish you from other researchers, globally, who may share the same or similar name
  • reduce repetitive data entry through linkages with publisher, funder and university systems

View the video below for more information, or follow the links on the right of the screen to register for an ORCID iD.


In November 2017, HEFCE published its REF 2021: Decisions on staff and outputs, which gave notice to UK HEIs that HEFCE "expect to require ORCID as a staff identifier in future [Research Excellence Framework] exercises and the funding bodies strongly encourage an ORCID to be provided for all ‘Category A submitted’ staff in REF 2021." Durham therefore strongly encourages all Durham staff and doctoral students to register for an ORCID iD.

ORCID is now mandated by several funding bodies when applying for funding (the Wellcome Trust and NIHR) with other funders advocating and supporting its use (RCUK, the European Commission). Many publishers are now also allowing author's to use an ORCID iD as part of any submission process for publication, with other publishers requiring its authors to register with ORCID if they have not already done so (The Royal Society, PLoS, AGU, Science, eLife).


What is ORCID?

What is ORCID?

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ORCID Inc. 10411 Motor City Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, MD 20817


Some examples of existing Durham ORCID iD holder profiles can be found at:


Other Author IDs

ORCiD is an open, non-proprietary and platform-agnostic system. This means it can be used easily by multiple systems and providers, which is why it is favoured by many research funders, publishers and academic institution.

There are other, commercial author identifiers which are widely used and it may be adviseable for authors to also be aware of and use these.


ResearcherID

ResearcherID

Researcher ID is an author identifier specific to what were many Thomson Reuters products, such as Web of Science. It is widely used in many Science subjects as a means of tracking both publications and citation data used in the Web of Science Citation Indices and Journal Citation Reports.


Scopus Author ID

Whilst ResearcherID is a proprietary identifier used by Thomson Reuters products, Scopus Author ID is specific to Elsevier products such as Scopus and SciVal.

Unlike ResearcherID, it is not something you need to register for. Instead, Scopus will automatically create an Author ID for all authors of publications it indexes. Where it thinks a publication may relate to an author already assigned a Scopus Author ID, it will link it to the existing ID. If it cannot ascertain a link, a new ID will be created. This can mean that as an author, you may find you have publications split between multiple Scopus Author IDs that you need to merge together (to aid others finding your research, and to avoid any impact on author level citation metrics.


Your Academic Liaison Librarian

James Bisset

Academic Liaison Librarian
Researcher Support

james.bisset@durham.ac.uk

0191 334 1589

Training Overview

ORCID Support

ORCID: Stand out from the crowd

orcid.support@durham.ac.uk

Further Reading about ORCiD and Research Identifiers

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News Feed: ORCiD News feed

Brasil na liderança da pesquisa aberta

Este post foi escrito em co-autoria com Laure Haak, Diretora Executiva da ORCID A pesquisa brasileira está se tornando mais visível internacionalmente. O número de artigos publicados aumentou substancialmente, com um crescimento médio de 10,7% ao ano, taxa cinco vezes superior à média mundial, levando o país para o top 15 em termos de produtividade em pesquisa. Grande parte desse crescimento pode ser atribuído a políticas e programas governamentais inovadores, que apoiam tanto projetos de pesquisa, quanto a infraestrutura de informação necessária para a colaboração e a disseminação de resultados. Neste artigo descrevemos o lançamento do Consórcio Brasileiro ORCID no contexto da liderança brasileira em pesquisa aberta. O Consórcio Brasileiro ORCID Iniciativas-chave brasileiras Infraestrutura tecnológica Objetivo internacional O que vem por aí? Mais informação O Consórcio Brasileiro ORCID       Entre as organizações responsáveis ​​pelo apoio ao crescimento da pesquisa brasileira e sua visibilidade internacional estão os membros fundadores e organizações líderes do Consórcio Brasileiro ORCID, oficialmente lançado em maio, na CAPES: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq, Conselho Nacional das Fundações Estaduais de Amparo à Pesquisa - CONFAP, Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia - IBICT, Scientific Electronic Library Online - SciELO e Rede Nacional de Ensino e Pesquisa - RNP. Os eslides do evento de lançamento estão disponíveis na página da CAPES. Iniciativas-chave brasileiras As organizações no Consórcio ORCID estão todas liderando iniciativas-chave em informação, incluindo: Plataformas SciELO e Portal de Periódicos Cape. Nos últimos 15 anos, a comunidade científica brasileira tem acesso à melhor informação científica disponível no Brasil e no mundo, da maneira mais ampla e aberta. Em um país com dimensões continentais e grandes desigualdades, esse amplo acesso ao texto completo é fundamental para a produção de pesquisas de alta qualidade. Plataforma Lattes do CNPq. Este foi o primeiro sistema nacional de perfis de pesquisadores, sobre o qual muitos outros foram modelados internacionalmente. Ter um perfil nessa plataforma é obrigatório para todo pesquisador solicitando um subsídio, tornando este banco de dados extremamente completo e uma ferramenta eficaz de colaboração e avaliação. Plataforma Sucupira da CAPES. Os Programas de Pós-Graduação desempenham um papel central na produção de pesquisas de alta qualidade no Brasil. A CAPES avalia esses Programas a cada quatro anos por meio de um sistema muito completo de avaliação, incluindo a ferramenta Sucupira, que recebe contribuições dos currículos Lattes do pesquisador. Avaliação Qualis da CAPES e Diretrizes do SciELO. Essas duas iniciativas visam melhorar a qualidade dos periódicos brasileiros, através da orientação aos Editores na implementação de melhores práticas e processos de profissionalização, de acordo com padrões internacionais e de ética na publicação científica. Eles também apoiam a avaliação e indexação de periódicos científicos. Programa CAPES Ciência sem Fronteiras. A mobilidade e colaboração dos pesquisadores é um fator-chave da pesquisa produzida em todos os países. Esse programa da CAPES possibilitou que a ciência brasileira fosse mais visível do que nunca nos últimos anos. Não só cientistas brasileiros viajaram para outros países graças ao Programa, mas o Brasil tornou-se mais atraente para pesquisadores estrangeiros, e os resultados dessas colaborações poderão ser vistos nas publicações em co-autoria nos próximos anos. RNP CAFe. Pesquisadores são formados e treinados em instituições acadêmicas. A CAFe fornece um sistema nacional de gerenciamento de identidade para instituições de ensino e pesquisa, para que os pesquisadores possam acessar os serviços de sua instituição e de outras organizações participantes de onde quer que estejam. Serviços de ensino à distância, acesso a publicações científicas e atividades colaborativas estão entre os maiores beneficiários da infraestrutura oferecida pelas federações. Infraestrutura tecnológica Subjacente a essas políticas e programas está uma infraestrutura tecnológica que dá suporte ao compartilhamento de informações entre sistemas. A CAFe é um exemplo muito claro dessa infraestrutura, permitindo que os usuários acessem informações em vários sites de universidades e institutos de pesquisa com um único nome de usuário e senha. Outro exemplo é o uso de Identificadores de Objetos Digitais (DOIs) na plataforma de publicação SciELO, que permite a fácil resolução do artigo científico, além de garantir a persistência do documento. Mais recentemente, pesquisadores brasileiros também vêm adotando o uso da ORCID, um identificador aberto para indivíduos envolvidos em pesquisa. Mais de 100.000 pesquisadores brasileiros se registraram para uma ORCID iD, e o país possui o sexto maior uso do Registro ORCID, globalmente. Objetivo internacional Essas mesmas organizações que apoiaram o surgimento da pesquisa brasileira no cenário global, novamente têm a oportunidade de desempenhar um papel de liderança em pesquisa aberta, desta vez incluindo as IDs ORCID nas infraestruturas de informações de pesquisa nacionais. Agora é possível que os pesquisadores combinem suas ORCID iD com suas credenciais de login da CAFe; e a Unesp, Unicamp e USP iniciaram projetos para integrar as IDs ORCID com sistemas de diretórios universitários - medidas para permitir que universidades compartilhem informações de afiliação para que os pesquisadores possam usar ao submeter um trabalho ou ao pedir subsídio. O SciELO começou a coletar IDs ORCID dos autores usando sua plataforma de publicação, e mais de sessenta revistas brasileiras estão solicitando IDs ORCID dos autores que submetem trabalhos através do SciELO. O CNPq está avaliando como usar a ORCID em seu sistema de CV Lattes. E a CAPES está pensando em como usar a ORCID, incluindo o uso em seus programas internacionais. A integração da ORCID nos sistemas-chave de publicação, financiamento e de perfis das organizações de ensino e pesquisa brasileiros apoiará os objetivos de pesquisa aberta em escala nacional. Uma abordagem nacional da ORCID oferece outra oportunidade para o Brasil ser líder no cenário mundial, expandindo a adoção nacional da ORCID em todos os setores da comunidade de pesquisa que, até o momento, envolvia principalmente organizações de pesquisa. Uma abordagem intersetorial coordenada permitirá a interoperabilidade e o compartilhamento de dados em sistemas de informações de pesquisa, melhorando a qualidade dos dados, a possibilidade de serem acessados em escala nacional, e reduzindo a carga de pesquisadores e administradores no gerenciamento de currículos e relatórios de resultados de pesquisa. Nesse cenário, os pesquisadores brasileiros poderão compartilhar sua ID com sua organização de afiliação (via CAFe) e receber, por sua vez, uma prova eletrônica de afiliação a essa organização (através do diretório da organização), juntamente com o nome e o identificador da organização (OID). Os pesquisadores podem usar essas informações (pessoa/ORCID + afiliação/OID) ao submeter um artigo (via SciELO ou muitas outras plataformas de publicação); e quando o artigo for publicado, receber uma declaração eletrônica de autoria (pessoa/ORCID + documento/DOI + editor/OID), que pode ser facilmente compartilhada com a instituição de origem ou a agência financiadora do pesquisador por meio de uma API. Da mesma forma, o pesquisador pode compartilhar suas informações eletrônicas quando submeter um pedido de subsídio (via CNPq/CAPES), e quando o subsídio for concedido, receber uma declaração eletrônica (pessoa/ORCID + bolsa/DOI + financiadora/OID). Quando um pesquisador interage com sistemas de informações de pesquisa confiáveis, ele tanto inclui verificação nessa conexão quanto reduz o trabalho necessário para que os pesquisadores gerenciem suas informações. Enquanto isso, os pesquisadores controlam quando usam seu ORCID iD e com quem compartilham suas informações. O que vem por aí? Seguindo o lançamento do Consórcio brasileiro ORCID, estamos ansiosos para trabalhar com a comunidade de pesquisa brasileira para ajudar a tornar essa visão uma realidade. Parte desse esforço será de garantir que as necessidades da comunidade sejam entendidas, e que os serviços da ORCID sejam usados ​​seguindo as melhores práticas. Algumas organizações - incluindo Unesp, Unicamp, USP, SciELO e Fiocruz já começaram. E há um apoio claro de todos os setores para aumentar a adoção e uso da ORCID no Brasil, como mostram estes comentários de participantes do lançamento: “Nosso objetivo é mudar a realidade de falta de integração e replicação de informações, e ter sistemas que operem de forma integrada, com o uso de identificadores padrão, diminuindo o trabalho manual e aumentando a qualidade dos dados. No que diz respeito à CAPES, a adoção da ORCID nos sistemas de informação será um ganho importante em agilidade e qualidade. Pretendemos que isso se dê principalmente na Plataforma Sucupira, que registra dados de programas de pós-graduação, em sistemas de concessão de bolsas e fomento e nos sistemas de editais de projetos internacionais. Contudo, isso não representa todo o ‘ecossistema’ de informações em pesquisa. Entendemos ser fundamental a participação de outros atores que detêm informações pertinentes à completude do universo da pesquisa no Brasil. Por isso, a proposta do consórcio.” Talita Moreira, Coordenadora-geral de Atividades de Apoio à Pós-Graduação, Diretoria de Avaliação, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, CAPES “Em minha opinião, o Brasil precisa urgentemente criar mecanismos de maior e melhor conexão com o mundo via processo de internacionalização do seu ensino superior, C,T&I e o meio mais fácil é a integração de bases. A ORCID será um dos mais importantes instrumentos nesse sentido.” Geraldo Nunes Sobrinho, Diretor de Programas e Bolsas no País, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, CAPES “O evento representou uma oportunidade para fortalecer o consórcio de agências nacionais que buscam intensificar a integração de bases de dados. A utilização do ORCID, nesse sentido, é ao mesmo tempo um desafio e um catalisador para a pretendida integração.” José Ricardo de Santana, Diretor de Cooperação Institucional, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, CNPq “A perspectiva de adoção generalizada do ORCID pelos pesquisadores do Brasil contribuirá para maior controle e visibilidade das pesquisas com ganhos para os pesquisadores, instituições e o para o Brasil como um todo. Para os periódicos haverá um aperfeiçoamento do controle de qualidade.” Abel Packer, Diretor do Scientific Library Online, SciELO Brasil “A iniciativa de aproximação da ORCID, por meio de um consórcio, das principais agências brasileiras de ensino, pesquisa e desenvolvimento tecnológico evidencia a maneira como a informação e o acesso a ela deve ser tratado. Estes grandes bancos de dados contendo dados de pesquisadores, suas áreas de atuação, recursos recebidos, publicações, entre outras, representam um patrimônio nacional, o qual deve ser gerido de maneira adequada, para se evitar fraudes e ações anti-éticas, bem como garantir um acesso rápido e seguro, evitando-se retrabalho na hora de preencher enormes formulários. Acreditamos que a ABEC tem o dever de ajudar a construir esta maneira de tratar a informação em nosso século e a ORCID vem para nos dar esta garantia de uniformidade global, aliada à segurança destes dados.” Rui Seabra, Presidente da Associação Brasileira de Editores Científicos, ABEC “O Consórcio Brasileiro ORCID, além de dar visibilidade internacional à pesquisa, promete efetivar a integração de sistemas de informação acadêmica e científica, iniciativa tão aguardada pelos pesquisadores brasileiros.” Elisabeth Adriana Dudziak, Sistema Integrado de Bibliotecas - DT/SIBi, Universidade de São Paulo, USP “O evento sobre o Consórcio ORCID foi um sucesso e agregou bastante conhecimento, sobretudo, para para nós, profissionais da informação. O Consórcio será um ganho pesquisa brasileira!” Fabiana de Oliveira Silva, Diretora do Sistema de Bibliotecas, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, UFU Mais informação: Entrevista da SciELO com Laure Haak, Diretora Executiva da ORCID Consórcio brasileiro ORCID: Construindo uma comunidade Fotografias Agentes chave da ciência brasileira são membros fundadores do consórcio e participaram do evento: CAPES, CNPq, IBICT, CONFAP, SCIELO e RNP (Foto: Haydée Vieira - CCS/CAPES) Ana Heredia e Talita Moreira, da ORCID e da CAPES, respectivamente (Foto: Laure Haak - ORCID)   Blog

Brazilian Leadership in Open Research

This post was co-authored with Laure Haak, ORCID's Executive Director Brazilian research is becoming more visible internationally. The number of articles published has increased substantially, with an average growth of 10.7 % per year, a rate five times higher than the world average, moving the country into the top 15 in terms of research productivity. Much of this growth can be traced to progressive government policies and programs that support both research projects and the information infrastructure needed for collaboration and dissemination of results.   In this post, we describe the launch of the ORCID Brazil consortium in the context of Brazilian leadership in open research. ORCID Brazil Consortium Key Brazilian initiatives Technology infrastructure International scope What is next? Additional information ORCID Brazil Consortium Among the organizations responsible for supporting the growth of Brazilian research and its international visibility are several of the founder members of the ORCID Brazil consortium as well as the consortium lead organization (RNP). The Brazil consortium officially launched in May, at an event hosted by CAPES.  Slides from the launch event are available on the CAPES page. CAPES (Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) - a funding agency under the Ministry of Education and plays a fundamental role in the evaluation of stricto sensu (master's and doctorate) postgraduate courses. CAPES also invests in the formation of high-level resources in the country and abroad, as well as the promotion of international scientific cooperation. CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development) - a funding agency under the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communication. It manages the national Lattes Platform, which integrates CV, Research Groups and Institutions databases in a unique information system. The Lattes Platform comprises over 3.5M curriculum vitae as it is mandatory for all researchers applying for a grant at the national and regional funding agencies. CONFAP (Brazilian National Council for the State Funding Agencies) - a non-profit organization articulating the interests of the twenty-six Brazilian state funding agencies. IBICT (Brazilian Institute Science and Technology Information) - an organization under the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communication, responsible for providing curated, organized and validated information on science and technology at the national level. IBICT promotes the development of resources and infrastructure for the production, share and integration of scientific and technological knowledge, and has two experiences on systems interoperability: the Brazilian Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations and the Brazilian Portal of Scientific Open Access Publications. SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) - a bibliographic database, digital library, and cooperative electronic publishing model of open access journals. SciELO Brasil currently indexes 289 scientific journals across all research areas. RNP (National Research and Educational Network) - the consortium lead organization. RNP’s primary responsibility is to promote technological development, creating innovative services and projects and training professionals by providing advanced network infrastructure that facilitates collaborative research. RNP is linked to the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations and Communications and maintained by them, together with the Ministries of Education, Culture, Health, and Defense. Key Brazilian initiatives The organizations in the ORCID consortium are all leading key research information initiatives, including: SciELO and Capes Portal de Periódicos Platforms. For the last 15 years, the Brazilian research community has been provided access to the best scientific information available in the world, in the most wide and open way. In a country with continental dimensions and big inequalities, this wide access to full-text is key to the production of high-quality research. CNPq Lattes Platform. This was the first national researcher profile system, upon which many others have been modelled internationally. Having a profile in this platform is mandatory for each researcher applying for a CNPq grant, making this database extremely complete and an effective collaboration and evaluation tool. CAPES Sucupira Platform. The Post-Graduation Programs play a central role in the production of high-quality research in Brazil. CAPES evaluates these Programs every three years through a very complete system of evaluation, including the Sucupira tool, which receives input from the individual researcher’s Lattes CV. CAPES Qualis Evaluation and SciELO Guidelines. These two initiatives aim at improving the quality of Brazilian research journals, through guiding editors in implementing best practices and professionalizing processes, according to international standards and ethics in scientific publishing. They also support the evaluation and indexing of research journals. CAPES Science Without Borders Program. Researcher mobility and collaboration is a key factor of the research produced in every country. This CAPES Program increased the visibility of Brazilian science in recent years. Not only did Brazilian scientists travel to other countries because of this Program, but Brazil also became more attractive for foreign researchers; the results of these collaborations are to be seen in the next years’ co-authored publications. RNP CAFe. Researchers are educated and trained at academic institutions.  CAFe provides a national identity management system for education and research institutions, so that researchers can access the services of their institution and other participating organizations from wherever they are.  Distance learning services, access to scientific publications and collaborative activities are among the biggest beneficiaries of the infrastructure offered by federations. Technology infrastructure Underlying these policies and programs is a technology infrastructure that supports sharing of information between systems. CAFe is one very clear example of this infrastructure, allowing users to access information across multiple university and research institute sites with a single username and password.  Another example is the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) in the SciELO publishing platform, which allows easy resolution of the journal article while also supporting persistence of the document. More recently, Brazilian researchers have also been adopting the use of ORCID. Over 100,000 Brazilian researchers have registered for an ORCID iD, and the country enjoys the sixth highest usage of the ORCID Registry, globally. International scope Those same organizations that have supported the emergence of Brazilian research on the global stage, again have the opportunity to play a leadership role in open research, this time by leveraging ORCID across national research information infrastructures. It is now possible for researchers to pair their ORCID iD with their CAFe login credentials. Unesp, Unicamp, and USP have started projects to integrate ORCID into their directory systems - steps toward enabling these universities to share employment affiliation information that researchers can use when submitting a paper or grant. SciELO have started to collect ORCID iDs for authors using their publishing platform, and more than 60 Brazilian journals are requiring ORCID iDs from authors submitting papers through SciELO.  CNPq is assessing how to use ORCID in its Lattes CV system; and CAPES is considering how to use ORCID, including use in its international programs. Integrating ORCID into key Brazilian publishing, funding, and employer systems, will support national-scale open research objectives. A national approach to ORCID provides another opportunity for Brazil to lead on the world stage, extending national ORCID adoption across sectors of the research community from one that has to date largely involved research universities. A coordinated cross-sector approach would  enable interoperability and data sharing across research information systems, improving discoverability on a national scale, improving data quality and reducing the burden on researchers and administrators alike for managing CVs and reporting research outcomes. In this scenario, Brazilian researchers will be able to share their iD with their home organization (via CAFe), and receive in return an electronic statement of affiliation with that organization (via the organization directory), along with the organization's name and identifier (OID). Researchers may use that information (person/ORCID + affiliation/OID) when submitting a paper (via SciELO or many other publishing platforms); and when the paper is published receive an electronic statement of authorship (person/ORCID + paper/DOI + publisher/OID), which can be easily shared with the researcher’s home institution or funder via an API. Similarly, the researcher can share their electronic information when they submit a grant (via CNPq/CAPES), and when the grant is awarded receive an electronic statement of award (person/ORCID + grant/DOI + funder/OID)  Because the connections are made as a researcher interacts with trusted research information systems, it both imbues verification into the connection and reduces the work needed for researchers to manage their information. All the while, researchers control when they use their ORCID iD and with whom they share their information. What is next? Following the launch of the ORCID Brazil consortium, we look forward to working with the Brazilian research community to help make this vision a reality. Part of this effort will be to ensure community needs are understood, and that ORCID services are used following best practices. Some organizations - including Unesp, Unicamp, USP, Fiocruz, and SciELO have already begun. And there is clear support from all sectors for increasing the adoption and use of ORCID in Brazil, as shown in these comments from attendees at the launch: "Our goal is to change the reality of replication of information, and to have systems operating in an integrated way, using standard identifiers, reducing manual input and improving data quality. With regard to CAPES, the adoption of ORCID in information systems will be an important gain in agility and quality. We intend this to happen mainly in the Sucupira Platform, which records data from postgraduate programs, in grant systems, and in international project bidding systems. However, this does not represent the entire 'ecosystem' of research information. We believe that the participation of other actors who hold information relevant to the completeness of the research universe in Brazil is fundamental. Therefore, the proposal of the consortium." Talita Moreira, General Coordinator of Post-Graduate Activities, Evaluation Office, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, CAPES “In my opinion, Brazil urgently needs to create mechanisms of greater and better connection with the world through the process of internationalization of its higher education. The easiest means of doing so is through database interoperability.  ORCID is one of the most important instruments in this sense.” Geraldo Nunes Sobrinho, Director of Programs and Scholarships, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, CAPES “The event represented an opportunity to strengthen the consortium of national agencies, aiming at increasing research information database interoperability. The use of ORCID, in this sense, is both a challenge and a catalyst.” José Ricardo de Santana, Director of Institutional Cooperation, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, CNPq “The adoption of ORCID by Brazilian researchers will contribute to greater control and visibility of research and to quality control for journals. This would be a gain for researchers, institutions and for Brazil as a whole.” Abel Packer, Director of Scientific Library Online, SciELO Brasil “The ORCID initiative, through a consortium approach of the main Brazilian agencies for education, research and technological development, highlights the way in which research information must be addressed, through ethical management of access and by  avoiding data re-entry when filling huge forms. We believe that the Brazilian Association of Scientific Editors (ABEC) has a duty to help build this way of handling information in our century. ORCID comes to give us this guarantee of global interoperability coupled with the security of this data.” Rui Seabra, President of Brazilian Scientific Editors Association - ABEC “The ORCID Brazilian Consortium, besides giving international visibility to research, promises to affect the interoperability of academic and scientific information systems, an initiative so awaited by Brazilian researchers.” Elisabeth Adriana Dudziak, Sistema Integrado de Bibliotecas - DT/SIBi, Universidade de São Paulo, USP “The ORCID Consortium event was a success, especially for information professionals. The Consortium will be a gain for Brazilian research!” Fabiana de Oliveira Silva, Director of Library Systems, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, UFU Additional information: SciELO interview with Laure Haak, ORCID Executive Director The ORCID Brazilian Consortium: Building a Community Consórcio brasileiro ORCID: Construindo uma comunidade Photos: Key Brazilian science agents are funder members of the consortium and participated in the event: CAPES, CNPq, IBICT, CONFAP, SCIELO and RNP (Photo: Haydée Vieira - CCS/CAPES) Ana Heredia and Talita Moreira, from ORCID and CAPES, respectively (Photo: Laure Haak - ORCID)   Blog

Assertion Assurance Pathways: What Are They and Why Do They Matter?

An assertion is defined as a confident and forceful statement of fact or belief, or the action of stating something, or exercising authority, confidently and forcefully.   How is this relevant to ORCID, you might ask? ORCID enables connections between individual researchers (via their ORCID iD) and their activities and affiliations (via other identifiers and APIs), which are asserted -- either by the researcher, or with their permission, by ORCID members. Anatomy of an ORCID Assertion While assertions might seem straightforward, things can get complicated quickly. We care about three relationships in an assertion.  The Item origin, the Assertion origin, and the Source. Whoever published the activity or is the affiliated party is the Item origin.  Whoever collects the ORCID iD and makes the connection to an item is called the Assertion origin. Whoever adds the information to the researcher’s ORCID record is called the Source.  The “who” in these sources may be the same or different from each other. Here are some real-world examples: All the same. Some universities collect iDs from employees and students, connect the iDs to the person’s local personnel record, and then update the person’s ORCID record with information about their affiliation with the university. In this case, the Item origin (affiliation), the Assertion origin (connecting the iD and affiliation), and the Source (updating the ORCID record) are the same member organization. Same origin, different source. Some journals collect iDs, connect them to an author’s publication (item), and then pass these assertions to the DOI registrars Crossref or Datacite, who in turn assert that information into the author’s ORCID record. In this case, the journal is both the Item Origin and Assertion Origin, and Crossref/Datacite is the Source. All different. Researchers can claim their existing papers and datasets using a search and link wizard.  In this case, the Assertion origin is the researcher, and the Source is the wizard. The item origin is usually a third party that hosts the paper or dataset (such as a journal or repository). When the “who” is different, researchers may be asked for permission multiple times in a single workflow, which can be confusing and leads to information drops and disconnects between the initial collection of their iD and updating of their record.  This is a problem. We are developing “On Behalf Of” functionality (OBO) to better describe assertions and enable researchers to share permissions across multiple systems in a single workflow. OBO will enable our members to correctly reflect who has made which assertion - the researcher, the member, or another organization acting on behalf of either the researcher or the member. Traceability and Trust using Persistent Identifiers (PIDs) In ORCID’s ideal world, all assertions made in ORCID records would include a persistent identifier (PID) as a component of the item (publication, dataset, affiliation, etc.) connected to the ORCID iD.  Specifically, we would like that PID to be resolvable and meet the FAIR data/metadata principles.  We call this a “trusted PID”. When trusted PIDs are not practical (as in the case of affiliation assertions for which no PID currently exists), for the purposes of traceability we require additional metadata to enable manual assurance of the assertion. Over time, we expect that trusted PIDs will emerge for all assertions. Assertion Assurance Pathways Given these complexities, what are the best pathways to ensure traceability of ORCID assertions?  We propose an assurance model based on three factors: Who made the initial iD-ID assertion (Assertion origin)? Did the Item origin add the information to the record? Can the item PID be resolved to an ORCID iD in the upstream metadata, and when the PID is resolved does it provide an an easy assurance pathway? In other words, is the PID used a trusted PID? Here are three example pathways: Trusted PID. A university that is an ORCID member organization collects permissions from a researcher and updates that individual’s ORCID record with an affiliation item. This item includes the university’s organization PID, an affiliation PID that resolves, affiliation role, affiliation dates and an authenticated ORCID iD.  Together, these item data meet the FAIR principles and provide a high amount of assurance in both human and machine-readable format. PID. A researcher adds affiliation information to their record through the user interface, selects the name of their organization from the provided list, and manually enters role and dates. This item will include a unique organization identifier, but no affiliation PID.  To achieve a high amount of assurance one would need to contact the affiliated organization and verify the details. No PID. A researcher adds affiliation information to their record through the user interface and manually enters the name of their organization. To achieve a high amount of assurance one would need to disambiguate the organization name provided (“Marlboro College” UK or “Marlboro College” USA?) and then contact the organization to verify the details. Having Fun Yet? We can map assertion origin with PID types into a 3 x 3 matrix and identify patterns to help manage assertion assurance. From this, we are developing “On behalf of” functionality which will help provide traceability to Assertion Origin. Look for more on assertions and assurance when we launch this functionality with the release of our new API 3.0. If you have any questions in the meantime, please let us know. Blog

ORCID Regional Strategies through Communities of Practice

With thanks to Nobuko Miyairi and Eric Olson for their contributions to this post Everything we do at ORCID is in service of our underlying belief that, by working together with all sectors of the global research community -- disparate as their priorities and cultures often are -- we can facilitate conversations that help increase the openness and reliability of research information.  We are engaging in these conversations using a “community of practice” conceptual approach. Communities of Practice “Community” and “community of practice” are frequently used terms, to the point that their definitions are unclear.  To best understand ORCID’s approach, we can look to the origins of the concept in the education field, where communities of practice must have three features in common: a domain, a community, and practice.  The domain is what a group is interested in learning more about or trying to resolve; the community is how this group will interact and share resources related to the domain.  With these two features in common, a “community of interest” is born. When the members are also practitioners and use their expertise in the community, and in service of the domain, there is a community of practice. There are several types of communities of practice in the research domain.  One that most researchers are familiar with is the scholarly association. Members of an association share a common interest in learning more about their discipline (the domain); they interact through in-person events and online groups (the community); and they use and share their expertise in the field to enable the development of new knowledge (the practice). ORCID as a Community of Practice ORCID’s mission - our domain - is to enable interoperability between research information systems. Our structure as a non-profit, and governance by a balance of sectors, ensures that we are responsive to shared interests of the broader research community, including publishers, funders, and universities - our community.  This unique orientation creates opportunities for ORCID to facilitate cross-community interaction that strengthens both the technology and communication of research information-sharing - our practice. As a community of practice, we face many of the same challenges that our members around the world encounter. ORCID drive collective involvement of stakeholders across sectors with the purpose of building practice from interest. To sustain the community, members need to experience the benefits of participating.  This can be a challenge, as the priorities of each community can be different, even within sectors and regions. There is no single global approach that can provide the specific tools and approaches needed for all members. Communities need to identify the workflows by segment and align to the needs within their context. ORCID Regional Strategies From a global perspective, the research community largely recognizes the interdependency of ORCID adoption by researchers and implementation of ORCID in research information systems to achieve the ultimate goal of information-sharing.  But organizations want to contribute to and gain value from information interoperability in different ways, so we have developed strategies to learn from - and respond to - those unique barriers and opportunities within regions and sectors. ORCID consortia are a key component of these strategies. ORCID consortia develop in existing communities of practice and at intersections of communities in one country or sector. We have recently discussed how ORCID consortia contribute to a national vision of improved open infrastructure (here and here). Building consortia into our regional strategies allows us to support a specific community of practice and to consider that community in a regional context.  This translates into improved communication and collaboration, more effective ORCID implementation, and opportunities to recognize and share the passion that our stakeholders bring to building research information infrastructure work. Look for more on our blog soon, about how our regional teams will be working with you to build communities of practice!   Blog

Mapping the PID Landscape

This post was co-authored with Christoper Brown and Neil Jacobs (Jisc), Josh Brown and Laure Haak (ORCID), and Clifford Tatum (SURF) The landscape of research information is largely closed to us. We rely on original research to solve many of the challenges facing humanity, to improve lives, and to advance human understanding, and we invest in it accordingly. However, when we survey the map of our research world it is filled with gaps. We pass along a few well-trodden roads (too often paying a substantial toll for the privilege) and we can only wonder about what lies just over the horizon. We can point to many contributing factors: business models that militate against the sharing of information; aggregation of research analytics for local strategic purposes; technological barriers to linking information between sources; cultural practices that reward and privilege a small slice of research activity; and systems that emphasise hard sciences and anglophone literature. Any and all of these can, and do, hide some of the richness of research endeavour. However, these systemic challenges are not the focus of this discussion. Instead, our focus is on the gaps in our understanding of the landscape: the empty parts of the research map. If we are to open research up, to enable and support more transparency and accountability, and to ensure that we are supporting research effectively, we must be able to survey the research landscape in its entirety. That means recognising more kinds of contributions to research, and acknowledging a broader, more diverse range of career paths. To do so, we need tools to help us to fill in the blanks. Luckily, a powerful set of these tools exists - open, community-governed identifier systems are already a well-established part of the scholarly world. Identifiers act as coordinates on the research map. They both tell us where something is located, and also act as signposts, guiding us to information sources and helping us to discover connections between people, ideas, organisations, funding, employment, publications, activities, and more. When a researcher shares an idea or makes a contribution, an identifier can be used to mark its existence. The information connected to that identifier can tell us about its creator(s), the nature of their contribution, the previous work that underpins it, and its impact on subsequent research and outcomes. Describing a landscape helps us understand the terrain better, but it does not necessarily mean the end of privacy or ‘ownership’ of a part of the land itself. Some information will be personal, competitive, or simply a work in progress. To manage access to that information in a way that can balance the needs of the whole community, while protecting the interests of individual researchers and the organisations that support them, it can be enough simply to provide a signpost. In this way, we can know that the information exists, where it is kept, and who to ask for access to it, if that is appropriate. These signposts have the potential to fill many of the gaps in our knowledge of the research landscape, to expose fruitful connections, and to help us to better understand the overall map. However, this potential is not currently being achieved. Although we increasingly embed identifiers in works and in our information systems, we don’t do so comprehensively or consistently. We need research organisations and researchers alike to understand the value of identifiers, and to commit to using them appropriately and effectively. We are not suggesting that everything, everywhere should have an identifier. We don’t want to spend precious time and energy building up a special identifier system for every kind of entity under the sun. We have a much more modest, but still ambitious, proposal: Let’s use the open identifier systems we already have effectively, consistently, and to mutual benefit Many of the open components we need to map the terra incognita are already in place, or under development. There are Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for research content, provided by organisations such as Crossref and DataCite. There are ORCID iDs, a globally established open identifier for researchers. The Organisation Identifier initiative has the potential to link up the disparate and partial systems that identify organisations today, helping us to connect individuals to the organisations that educate, employ, resource, and fund their research. As research increasingly moves online, we have the opportunity to use digital technologies to automate, remove friction, and eliminate the duplication of effort. Open persistent identifiers can help simplify processes and enable the reuse of information -- but only if we use them properly. We’ve mapped out below how this could look in one common workflow -- submitting a manuscript to a journal. The green items and activities on the left are already in place; the orange ones are not, yet, but many are under discussion or being actively developed. There are many other researcher workflows that would benefit from increased use of persistent identifiers, but to make this happen, everyone must play their part. We are on a mission to make this vision a reality - and we hope you’ll join us! Our PID Perfect campaign will be launching later this year. Look out for more information and feel free to contact us in the meantime if you’d like to get involved.   Blog