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Durham University

Special Collections

DUL MS Cosin V.IV.1 Medica (Latin, French and English) s. xiv/xv - xv ex.

These incomplete draft descriptions of medieval manuscripts in Durham University Library are copyright, and may not be quoted without the permission of the University of Durham Library.

Owing to inconsistencies with the source software, accented characters appear in varying compound forms. This has not yet been rationalized.

30/9/91 AJP revision of AID; 9/10/91 checked by AJP; 2/95 AJP after AID revision

Six quires (20-25) of a larger volume or collection. Quire numbers and marginal numeration of some items within quires (continuous between quires 3 and 4), in red, perhaps for a contents-list or indexing; this numeration includes pieces added in spaces and margins by the main hand with a different pen or in darker ink, e.g. in items 14 and 37 and also item 33d.

Some of the spaces remaining were used early for further recipes, etc., added in one, much more current, hand, see items 34, 36 and 38, and perhaps also 44b.

Items 32 and 39 also occur in Cambridge St John's College MS D.4.

2 (paper: f. i, s. xix; f. ii, s. xvii) + 42 (quarto paper or, ff. 1/13, 4/9, 35/36, 37/40, 41/42, membrane bifolia) + 2 paper (f. iii, s. xvii; f. iv, s. xix): foliated i-ii, 1- 42, iii-iv. Membrane tab on lower fore-edge of f. 12.

Watermarks: ff. 3 + 10, 11 Cloche, cf. Briquet 3971-83 (c. 1396-1431); f. 16 Cloche, cf. Briquet 4066, 4079, 4081 and 4083 (1385-1412); f. 19 Croissant ?, cf. Briquet 5341-3 (1372-89) and 5363-71 (1343-98); and ff. 22 + 33, Lettre R, Briquet 8953- 55 (c. 1397-1412). ff. ii-iii (endleaves) foolscap: cf. Heawood 1988-2087 (1650s - early 1700s).

200 x 142 mm. approx., fore-edge and top edge cropped (see folded-in corner of f. 41). Membrane bifolia dirty and stained; holes with loss of text in ff. 1, 42. Paper spongy, with badly frayed edges, corners dog-eared, torn (ff. 23, 28-29), dirty and stained (reagent ff. 5r-v, 42v, ink f. 34v); large loss of text at top of ff. 2v-3, lesser at feet of leaves, lower quarter of f. 33 torn off; f. 39 loose.

Collation: 114 wants 3 after f. 2, 210 + 1 leaf (f. 14) before 1, wants 3-5 after f. 16 (2 stubs surviving, now turned back after f. 18) and 7 after f. 17, 316 wants 13-14 after f. 32, 44? wants two or more between ff. 35 and 36, 56? wants 4-5 after f. 39 (which is loose from folded guard, s. xvii?), 62. Catchwords in the main hand on quires 4 and 5. Quires numbered in red textura, `20 quaternus' - '25 quaternus', at head of first recto, s. xv; the number repeated in black at top centre of most rectos, s. xv/xvi.

No evidence of pricking. Written space approx. 155-170 x 100-110 mm., often not filled or exceeded by items and additions of varying length; blind framed, mostly not visible. 33-48 long lines.

Written in a small anglicana, expertly, by one hand, with changes of pen and ink.

Decoration: Underlining and paraffs in red in most original items. Initials, 2-line, red, ff. 35-38.


Items 1-16 are on quire 1, `20 quaternus' f. 1. Marginal numbering in red of items: 6-7 (3, 4), 10 (5-7), 13 (8), 14 (9-43) and 15 (44), also possibly 1 (1 ?), and probably 5 (2).

1. f. 1 Icy comence le beyuer de antyoche pur toutez playes nouelles ... Pernez [sic] bugle pigle seingle ... & couerez la playe des foiles du cholet desqes il soit sayne.

Medical recipe, in French. A marginal red number (1 ?) may be lost with the outer upper corner.

2. f. 1 Emplastre pur homme creue dedenz pernez la pele fresshe de vn moton ... qe les oilz furent vnqes ouertz son beyuer soit le beyuer de antioche

Medical recipe, in French.

3. f. 1 For to make entrete at es calde solman. Take a pounde of pyk half a pounde of rosyne ... helande al maner of hurte or breding of canker or fester or of noli me tangere

Medical recipe, in English.

4. f. 1v Encontre la Januyse pernez douce lete de vache ... Encontres vermes dedenz ventre de homme ou de faunt & torciouns Pernez vne lyuer de comyne pure ... Payne des aungles laxatiue Pernez les graynes de spurges ... ... emfle asswagera

Medical recipes (6), in French.

5. ff. 2-4v [Quoniam] omnia inferiora tam elementa quam elementata a superioribus [c. 2 words gone] dicit Meseallat ... ... sed pro precibus hoc egi vt cum conualuerit pro me oret. Explicit liber Magistri Johannis de Burdegalia de preseruacione & cura morbi pestilencialis.

John of Burgundy, De pestilencia, with the astrological prologue. Thorndike & Kibre 1290; Singer & Anderson p. 41; ed. Sudhoff (1911), pp. 61n-63n, 63-69, not mentioning this copy, which has substantial variants (e.g. different recipes for lines 146-9 and 165-7, ff. 3, 3v; and, in place of line 178, a passage concerning the conjunction of the planets in 1345, i.e. as in the epilogue mentioned by Singer, p. 169). The prologue contains at line 41 (p. 63n) an additional sentence referring to `quamdam receptam a magistris colonie'. Text is lost with the top left-hand corners of ff. 2 and 3, and between them a leaf is lost with the text of Sudhoff ed. lines 15-103.

There is a dot in red in the defective upper outer corner of f. 2, perhaps preceding the number 2, now lost.

6. f. 5r-v Januarius Vinum album ieiunus bibe ... ... <Dece>mber ... quacumque carne vti voluis vtere & sanguinem minue

Regimen of health for each month, Thorndike & Kibre 684. For other copies of the Latin and of more than one English version (often attributed to Galen and Hippocrates) see Hanna, IMEP Huntington Lib., p. 38.

7. f. 5v For to make a bathe for akynge in lymes Take lauander & camamyle ... til e seke man be entret.

Infusion recipe, in English.

8. f. 5v Herbes pur baygne mellilotum fenoyl louache ... & versez en le baygne.

Infusion recipe, in French.

9. f. 5v Ad carnem regenerandum valet puluis thuris masticis mirre & aloes uel conficiatur cum anxungia & fac vnguentum.

Medical recipe.

10. ff. 6-7v Here bygynnes e manere to make salues tretes & siropes ... Firste for a wounde in e hede. Take betoyne & stampe it wipb alde gres ... ... lay a brere lefe er to.

Recipes for wounds (19), in English, a collection corresponding to that under the same heading in Cambridge Trinity Coll. MS O.9.39, ff. 1-5, but finishing here, with a change of ink, at the first line of f. 3v there. The same heading and opening is found in Oxford Bodleian Library MS Ashmole 1413, p. 33, where the first two recipes are as here, and in BL MS Sloane 7, ff. 45-46v, where the text here corresponds up to item 13 in that manuscript. L. Voigts records a number of other manuscripts with collections starting with the same recipe but diverging variously. Cf. Wellcome Library catalogue, I, 590, attributed to the Chirurgia of William de Congenis.

Marginal red number 5 by the heading on f. 6, 6 by the second recipe on f. 6v, and 7 by the last English recipe on f. 7v.

11. f. 7v Nota homme naufre sey doit garder de herbes de fourmage de leet ... oiseux qe ount le pee clos sil voet garryr.

Items to be avoided by the injured, in French.

12. f. 7v Pur ouerer playe qe est trope estreite. Pernez uis dache aloyne ... & la ferra nette.

Treatment for a wound, in French.

13. f. 7v Si sanguis fluat ex vulnere & vis quod cesset Fluxus ostendendus est vulnerato apium uersus ... hoc idem creditur si fluat de naribus ... & de puluere illo pone super locum.

Treatment for bleeding.

14. (a) ff. 8-13 For to do a man slepe if he be schorne. Take e galle of a swyne ... vnto a womman e galle of a gilte ... ... For man at es poysonnd ... caste oute e venyme & hele e mawe; (b) f. 13 Venenum secundum lilium medicine libro jo capitulo 13o est substantia aquosa subtilis ... ... tunc alteratur et digeritur. Hec de lilio.

(a) Medical recipes (over 100), in English, French and Latin, with a heading in the top margin of f. 8 in darker ink `vocatur dwale', and also on the same page in that same ink interlinear and marginal additions and two more English recipes below a Latin one in ink of an intermediate colour. Subsequent pages have a similar pattern of additions in darker ink in spaces left available, perhaps reflecting a variety of sources. (b), in the same hand and ink as (a), with `Signa mortis' in the margin, is a summary of the passage found on ff. 26v-28v in the 1542 Paris printing of Bernardus de Gordonio, Lilium medicinae; cf. item 37 below.

Red marginal numbers, 9-43, against single recipes or the first of groups, the last at `Signa mortis'.

15. f. 13v Carmen pro febribus. In nomine patris + & filij + ... Sicut vere in nomine Ihesu flectetur omne genu ... Circumdederunt me pro infirmis &c ... ... ab omni temptacione diabolica Amen.

Charms (4) against fever, different from BL MSS Sloane 405, ff. 48-49, and 622 f. 163; and Bodl. MS Rawl.C.814, ff. 84v-5.

16. f. 13v (added in lower margin, in a secretary hand, s. xv med., partly washed out) pro morsu apum vel vaspium. Diacord (?) dicit quod piper masticatum ...

Medical recipes (2), for treating insect-stings.

Items 17-30 are on quire 2, `21 quaternus' f. 14. Marginal numbering in red of items: 17 (1, 2), 20a (3), 20e (4), 21 (5), 22 (6), 23 (7-9), 25-26 (18, 19), 28a (21), 28c (22), 30b (23), and after 30c (24-35); (10-17) presumably on lost leaf or leaves before item 24, and (20) on lost leaf with the start of item 27.

17. f. 14 (a) Pro animalibus infirmis. Hec animalia domini & sancti Job ... vltra hostium vbi animalia debent intrare; (b) Carmen efficacissimum ad sanguinem restringendum. Longius fuit qui Christum lancea percussit ... emittentis sanguinem Addito In nomine ... Amen.

Charms (a) for sick animals, Singer & Anderson p. 156; (b) against bleeding.

18. f. 14 Oure lord to e herte was woundit: Sone it was in heuen y founden ... In e name of e v woundes Pater noster v ... ... stet sanguis nomine queso.

Charms (6), the first in English. The last is the common one by Christ's baptism in the River Jordan.

19. f. 14v Homo quidam perdidit iiij annis virtutem tactantiam in membris & bibit per modicum tempus succum vrtice & sanatus fuit.

20. f. 14v (a) Hoc medicamentum surdie est auribus aptum ... apponere surde. (b-f) Herpetis cura. Nota quod herpes est in medio corporis cingens ... ... ponderositas a parte materie.

(a) Recipe against deafness, in verse (8 lines), Walther, Initia, no. 8292; (b-f) brief medical notes.

21. ff. 15-16 Incipit modus & forma quibus homo poterit corpus suum salubriter custodire & regulare. Sen na erthly ynge profetis with outen hele of body as Galienus de ingenio sanitatis ix ... desyrand hertly dere sir e prolongacioun of 3oure lyfe ... & namely are whare I wryte in e margyne nota. @ First at morne when 3e ryse raxe 3ow wele ... ... or he falle in sekenesses. Explicit tractatus de modo & forma qualiter corpus suum ne infirmetur debeat dietare.

The Regimen Sanitatis of the Secreta Secretorum, in English, at the start closely based on the Latin but further on modified and expanded. Original marginalia cropped.

22. f. 16 (a) Succus ebuli datus cum melle ix diebus ... (b) For al euylles in e stomake. Take ache sede & dylle sede ... to drynke with wyne. (c) Pro pectore. Take saueray & stampe it ... it sal do e mekil gode.

Medical recipes (3).

23. f. 16v (a) Electuariumn pro appetitu. Take e ius of fenkel ... iij sponeful ... ... For man at spittes blode of bresures or of hurtyng. Take betoyne ... stale ale & he sal be hale.

Medical recipes (7), all but the sixth in English.

24. f. 17 (beginning lost) & huius. @ De masticacionibus & sternutacionibus. Masticacionum alia fortis alia leuis ... ... Optime autem extinguitur cum salina & calce viua. @ Explicit modus medendi.

Thorndike & Kibre 1865 give sixteen references under [de] Modo medendi.

25. f. 17r-v Vertues of rose maryne at er contened & compyled in is space & er gedirde out of bukes of gude philosofirs & of oer wyse clerkes tretande of e kynde of herbes. @ e firste vertue of is herbe. Take e floure of is herbe & bynde it in a clene lyn clathe ... ... & hafe yn aande at y wille ... tretande of kynde of herbes.

Virtues of rosemary (21), in English. The first two recipes agree with Oxford Bodleian Library MS Ashmole 1391(ii), f. 11v, and BL MS Sloane 405, f. 54; similarly in some general herbals, e.g. Cambridge Trinity Coll. MS O.I.13, ff. 12v-13.

26. f. 17v Quidam curauit omnem scabiem cum succo rampni ... fumus terre. Balneum contra scabiem. Fumus terre & scabiosa ... & sulphure puluerizato & simile. @ ad ignem confocto (end lost ?)

Remedies for scabies, breaking off in the second through loss of one leaf before f. 18, including red item number 20.

27. f. 18 (beginning lost) de pork fres & puis le coilliez ... tant come il voet bayner.

Medical recipe, in French; last two lines only.

28. f. 18 (a) Oynement encontre lumbris. Pernez gres putresce en vinegre fort .. soit le ventre enoynt; (b) Oynement for e goute. Take bare grece & molte it ... sa euer at it be; (c) For to make vnguentum viride. Take e rotes of celidoun ... to do away dede flesshe & to make new for to growe.

Medical recipes (3); (a) in French, (b,c) in English.

29. f. 18v (a) Ces sont les maluois iours del an ... les dysemales de la lune ... ele auera male fin; (b) Des bones houres par iours de la semayne ... le secound & le quarte; (c) Qualiter conferende sunt medicine secundum signa |Tempus dat vernum Aries taurus geminique ... piscis; (d) In dando medicinam considerandum est tempus anni ... cognoscere quilibet in se ipso; (e) Versus. Allia vina venus lumen faba fumus & ignis| ... cepa synapis| Ista nocent vt supra.

On (a) unfavourable days and (b) favourable times, in French; (c, d) on favourable times for giving medicines, (c) 4 lines of verse, not in Walther, with interlined indications of whether each sign of the Zodiac is hot or cold (`ca' or `fri') and dry or moist (`sic' or `hu'); (e) on what is bad for the eyes, 4 lines of verse, Walther, Proverbia, no. 810.

Two paper stubs after f. 18; traces of writing on the second are line-ends of f. 17v, now displaced by refolding in present binding.

30. ff. 19-20v (a) Petrus Ispanicus. Item accepi a quodam fidedigno Hoc experi ... curauit Ysaias Ezechiam ... & se lini & butiro Hoc ego; (b) For man at hase euyll vnder his sydes. Take hullwort i.[e.] pulyal ryal ... proued sekirly; (c) Contra superfluas collecciones circa cor & os stomachi & circa epar & latera. Recipe febrifugam & auenciam ... sanabitur probatum est. ... ... washe e fete

Medical recipes (over 50), about half in English and 1 in French. One, f. 19v with red marginal number 28, Medicynes for e canker (Take e heued of e storke ...), is as in BL MS Royal 17 A.viii, f. 35v.

Items 31-38 are on quire 3, `22 quaternus' f. 21. Marginal numbering in red of items 32d (1), 35a (3-7) and 37 (8-27, 29-40 ... 43-45); (2) possibly on a leaf lost before f. 23, and (41-42) on the two leaves lost after f. 32.

31. f. 21r-v (a) Vnguentum ad omne wlnus vbi non est caro mortua. Accipe liberum incensum & ceram virgineam ... in pixidibus; (b) Vnguentum viride sururgicum sic fit. Recipe celidon' Alleluye ... carnem mortuam corrodit; (c) Intractus ad wlnus. Take bugle pigle ... and vse it so ... ... Ad wlnus claudendum. Puluerem de cornu cerui impone.

Medical recipes (11); 1 in English and 3 in French.

32. f. 22r-v Play qe ne voet sauer| Estoit la mort char oster| ... Mel y mettez pur endoucer| Si le purrez pluis long tenir.

Extracts, in 41 rhyming couplets, written in two columns, from the Physique rimee, a collection of recipes of thirteenth-century origin, as described and printed by T. Hunt, Popular Medicine, pp. 144-215, 305-7, from Cambridge, Trinity Coll. MS O.I.20, and St John's Coll. MS D.4, and BL MS Sloane 3550, ff. 234v-5, no. 59-65.

33. f. 22v (a) Pur play saner. pernez pimpernole bugle & seingle ... dedenz & dehors; (b) Ad faciendum viridem intractum. Take herbe benet smalache ... al to gider; (c) A play saner pernez vne quartron de auence ... par ycels herbes garri serra; (d) (added) Drynke for bane broken. Take consonde confery osmonde ... bane be euen set to gider

Medical recipes, in English or, (a, c), French.

34. f. 22v (added in space, s. xv med./ex., as items 36 and 38) (a) Luminare maius pro surgicis | Lumen apoticariorum | Nicholayus prepositi | Ypocras Auecyne | Status mundi | (b) Elia cele fina (?) consoda maior apud nos vocatur for cloffe (?) | Solatrum mortale nihil valet.

(a) List of medical books; (b) two herbal notes.

35. (a) f. 23r-v For to slake werkyng of wounde. Take buttre oile & wyne ... & e werk sal slake. Anoer Take pe crommes of whete brede ... on e wounde al hate. For to drawe out werkyng of bolnyng or of festrs. Take a swete appel ... & laye it hate to e sare. ... ... e cancre sal dye; (b) f. 23 (added in main hand) staffizage es sede of e wylde nepe c. & s. iij ga; (c) f. 23v (added in main hand) Nercus hominis combustus vlcera cancrosa & insanabilia sanat constan [unfinished ?]; (d) f. 24 Illi qui in cibo non delectantur ... cum aqua calida bibant. Ad sitim restringendum medullam persicorum ... & ori stomachi appone.

(a) Medical recipes (29 ?), in English, copied at one time; the first occurs also in Oxford Bodleian Library MS Ashmole 1444, p. 193. (b) in the lower margin. (c) at the end of (a). (d) Medical recipes, both very brief.

36. f. 24r-v (added in space, s. xv med./ex., as items 34 and 38) (a) For colyke & ston & maxime pro mulieribus. Take ysope mogwoth & saueray ... ij tymes in a weke; (b) pro eodem. Take mogworth ysop saueray maieroun germander ... and abstene ij owyrs; (c) Tethewack. Thake hauermell & sethe it in gud wyn ... it shall swage the payn. ... ... it makes a man to pyss

Medical recipes (15), in English.

37. ff. 25-34v (a) Affodillus valet contra omnem tumorem ... vel seruisia bona; (b) For a bolnyng at es rede. Take barly mele & bene mele ... & lay on e sare; (c) For a bolnyng at es hardenand. Take lynsede & sethe it ... & lay er to. ... ...

Medical recipes and charms (c. 140), including c. 85 in English and 15 in French; some inserted in spaces and margins by the main hand in darker ink. L. Voigts compares the first recipe on f. 26 (Who so hase euyll at his hert & hase loste talent of mete: Take horhoun & piliol & a lytel salt ...) with London Wellcome Institute MS 404, f. 43. Versions of common charms include, as T. Smallwood informs us, for Uncorrupted Wounds f. 29v, Longius and Flum Jordan f. 31, St Job against festers (French) f. 32.

Two lines in the lower margin of f. 27v, Dicitur aurugo morbus regalis ab auro| Quo Regis facies glaucessit vt ancipitris pes. Following the recipe in French on f. 32v, Paralisis secundum lilium medicine libro secundo capitulo 26 est neruorum mollificacio ... & cibaria sint sicca Hec de lilio, comprising the opening definition and remedies of chapter 27 (ff. 125 and 126 lines 28-37) in the 1542 Paris printing of Bernardus de Gordonio, Lilium medicinae; cf. item 14 above.

Two leaves lost after f. 32.

38. f. 34v (added in space, s. xv med./ex., as items 34 and 36) (a) Fore brosor of bones & akyng (And for akyng of lymys) Take ij pottellis of old vryne ... & bresyd bones; (b) For mony ewillis in manys body. Thake in may sage mynt scabius ... & drynke er of & sant; (c) For sheplowsse & eny oer why<..> in manis heer. Thake e jus of wormod ... in thi eyre. ... ...

Medical recipes (4), in English.

Items 39-45 are on quires 4-6, `23 quaternus' f. 35, `24 quaternus' f. 37, `25 quaternus' f. 41. Marginal numbering in red, continuing from quire 3, of item 39 (47), and perhaps of item 40 [48] on leaf or leaves lost before f. 36; of item 41 (1), and also, as 1, the top line on f. 37 (part of item 40).

39. ff. 35r-v Incipit de digestiuis & alijs medic[in]is vtilis tractatus. Cum dieta & medicina humano corpore maxime conueniant ... ... inter extremos scilicet de scamoun cruda & cocta iijd & s. (left incomplete ?: final line not quite filled).

On medicines, as the first third of Antidotarius glosatus, Cambridge St John's College MS D.4, ff. 14va-18vb (s. xiv), with the end of the Cosin text at f. 15vb/24. Thorndike & Kibre 293 (Libellus de modo medendi), with erroneous reference to James, Ancient Libraries; also 1272 (`Quoniam dieta'), for this manuscript, but wrongly `ff. 30r-37r' and so said to be `John Damascenus, Aphorismi'.

Two or more leaves lost after f. 35.

40. ff. 36-37 (beginning lost) purgandum intra vasa humores ... ... & experimentum approbat id ante oculos pone contrarium vero contra. Expliciunt afforismi Johannis Damasceni.

Johannes Mesue, Aphorismi, as Articella (Pavia 1506), sig. h ff. 1r-4v/12 (near end), with the start of the Cosin text at f. h2v/6, i.e. lacking at the start the equivalent of less than one page in this copy. Thorndike & Kibre 823-4.

41. ff. 37-39 Here begynnes a tretice to kepe a man fra e pestilence. H[red lombard, ignoring guide-letter D]ere sire I pray 3ow als hertly as I may take gude hede on ese at folowes for e pestilence ... First I sal teche 3ow to kepe 3our frende & 3ow or 3e hafe it with medycines ... ... at ilke surgene es expert at e ful in swylke. Explicit.

John of Burgundy, De pestilencia, with astrological prologue and parts of the usual non-astrological prologue, in a shortened English version. Sole copy listed Singer & Anderson, pp. 44-45, quoting as explicit that of item 42.

42. f. 39 Here er gode drynkes & medicynes for e pestilence. (a) Take tansay avance mynte ... at morne & at euen; (b) Item stampe wormode & marygoldes a saucerful & drinke it; (c) Item take tansay marygoldes rewe ... fra slepe ... ... Explicit de epidemia.

Medical recipes (4) against plague, in English. Not noticed Singer & Anderson pp. 149-53.

f. 39v is blank except for a later note in green ink.

43. ff. 40-42 (beginning lost) contusa coquantur in libro succi solatri vsque ad medietatem ... ... vt liberius intromittatur. Nota quod stercus soricis tantum laxat quam scamonea.

On preparations for stomach complaints, also pharmaceutical symbols and quantities. Several are attributed to `Joh. d'[amascenus ?]. `Sufficit quantum disputauimus de antidotis & syrupis & electuarijs huic passioni conuenientibus Necesse est vt olea nominemus ...', f. 41v/7, appears to be the start of the final section.

Two leaves lost before f. 40.

44. f. 42 (a) Ad eos qui post solucionem pocionis paciuntur in ventre aut stomacho. Oleum et vinum equali pondere ... & superpone stomacho; (b) (added in space above a) for the ston. Thak rosmare & tyme ... drynke all hott; (c) (added in space below c) [..]scallis. Take vertgresse & gry[..] ... lett it by. ... ...

Medical recipes (6), in English, or, (a) and the last, in Latin. (a) is in the main hand; (b) possibly in the hand of items 34, 36 and 38; (c) in a hand like (b) but different ink, defective from two holes; the remaining three recipes are added in different hands and inks, s. xv ex.

45. f. 42v (a) For strakes at er bla & no3t broken. Take e iuse of wormode ... e blacknes; (b) Pur ... ...; (c) (added in space, s. xv/xvi) almost wholly obliterated.

(a,b) Medical recipes, in English or, (b) French; both in the main hand, with the three and a half lines of (b) mostly illegible from abrasion on this last page.

Additions, corrections and annotations

Most of the Latin sidenotes in the original hand have been cropped. A few sidenotes by hands of added recipes. Crosses against a number of recipes, in brown plummet.

`A book for all manner of soores', f. 13, s. xvi med./ex.,

other unintelligible markings in the same black ink and a pentrial in the outer margin of f. 36v. An unintelligible English note, s. xvi/xvii, on the blank lower third of f. 33, has been partly torn off. On the outer margin of f. 36v a recipe `To macke comun inke of wine tacke a quart ...', s. xvi/xvii. `John Cryzostum with gyld<int?> mouth', f. 37v outer margin; and, perhaps by the same hand, an alliterative line, `And yf thou wist what thing it wear', f. 40, s. xvi/xvii.



Written in England; the English forms of the original scribe are placed in the south of county Durham or the north of the North Riding of Yorkshire, LALME, I, 87.

Secundo folio missing.

`Memorandum quod post decessum Thome Balcok Capellani iste liber constat Willelmo Byccheburn de Dunelm per donacionem Ricardi Rakett Aui ex confessione dicti Thome Balcok', s. xv ex./xvi in., f. 42v; Richard Rakett is mentioned as a confrater of Durham Cathedral Priory in 1476-77 (Surtees Soc. 103, 646). MORE TO DO ON THIS

`Geo. Davenport. 1670.' on front pastedown, visible through window; his list of contents, f. ii verso.

Binding: left unbound for some time, to judge by dirt and damage on the outer pages of quires. Covered with brown calf, s. xvii ex., with a pair of blind fillets round edges of sides and vertically on each side c. 35 mm. in from spine, and with Hugh Hutchinson's tool no. 6 blind in right-angles and his dog-tooth edge-roll D; original smooth spine with thirteen pairs of horizontal fillets. `IV 1' in ink in the fourth compartment down, s. xvii/xviii. A new pastedown and conjoint free endleaf added at front and back, s. xix med.