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Durham University

Special Collections

DUL MS Cosin V.III.10 Medica, Astronomica, Grammatica, etc. (much in English) s. xv med./ex. and s. xiv/xv

These incomplete draft descriptions of medieval manuscripts in Durham University Library are copyright, and may not be quoted without the permission of the University of Durham Library.

Owing to inconsistencies with the source software, accented characters appear in varying compound forms. This has not yet been rationalized.

1/9/91 AJP revision of AID; checked AJP 30/10/91; checked AID & revised AJP 8/94

An assemblage of six sections. The first half of the volume is the more recent: sections A and B, s. xv med.; section C, s. xv2. It was probably put together by s. xv ex., when a single hand made notes in sections A, B and D. Since the Wigley names of s. xvi/xvii in the older, s. xiv/xv, final section (F), suggestive of a compulsive doodler, do not occur outside that second half of the volume, a grammar-school master's collection, it may have been added in s. xvii. The content of section E, s. xv in., is more akin to section F than to sections A-D.

ff. 1-2 must have been wrongly inserted during the rebinding of s. xix med.

[1] + 2 (paper, s. xvii) + 118 + [1]: foliated i-ii, 1-115 repeating 53, 57 and 60. ff. 1-2 membrane, misbound here, from Cosin MS. V.III.14; ff. 3-56 (A-E) paper (quarto); ff. 57-115 (F) membrane.

Watermarks: (A) ff. 6/13, 8/11 two variants of Balance in circle, cf. Briquet nos 2445-49, 2466-67 (datings 1441-73), Piccard V.v.258-317 (1441-93), but between, not on, chainlines;

(B) none discernible;

(C) ff. 25, 29 front, and f. 27 back, of Chien, cf. Briquet no. 3626 (dating 1487-95); ff. 31, 33 upper, and ff. 34, 36 lower, half of Boeuf, cf. Briquet no. 2782 (dating 1446-48 but not here with `vergeures cannellées'), Piccard (1447-77);

(D) ff. 42 lower, and ff. 50, 52 upper, half of Deux Clefs, cf. Briquet no. 3886 (Italy 1468); ff. 44, 45 upper, and ff. 48, 49 lower, half of Ciseaux, cf. Briquet nos 3655-89 (datings 1352-1496);

(E) f. 55 unidentified.

Membrane of varying quality, approx. 0.163 mm. thick. Sizes vary; paper trimmed:

(A) approx. 212 x 145 mm.;

(B) 195 x 138 mm.;

(C-D) very irregular, up to 210 x 155 mm.;

(E) 220 x 140 mm. (f. 56 guarded to 146 mm.);

(F) varying within 220 x 165 mm. (irregular edges), f. 60* 170 x 115 mm., f. 115 lacking lower third (natural edge); original tears repaired by thread ff. 79 and 89; original holes, ff. 76, 103 and 112.

(A-E) staining, corners cut off, f. 3 guarded and repaired, lower half of f. 8 (blank ?) cut off, upper half of f. 53* torn off;

(F) staining and other signs of heavy use; more than half of f. 57* torn away; modern repair to f. 80.

Collation difficult through lack of signatures and catchwords, and because of losses, guarding, stabbed re-sewing and tight binding:

f. 3 possibly once bound with (D), see below evidence of pricking and common scribe;

(A: ff. 4-15) twelve, with ff. 6/11 probably conjoint, see watermarks and sewing, so possibly all a regular quire of twelve;

(B: ff. 16-23) quire of eight presumably;

(C: ff. 24-40) seventeen, with ff. 31/36 probably conjoint, see watermarks;

(D: ff. 41-53) thirteen, with ff. 44/49 probably conjoint, see watermarks;

(E: ff. 53*-56) four;

(F: ff. 57-115) sixty-one leaves, apparently, from membrane matching and sewing: 14, 26 (1 and 6, ff. 60 and 64, singletons), 36 + 1 leaf (f. 70) after 5, 4 five (ff. 72- 76), 5-64, 76 wants 5 [blank ?] after f. 88, 8-94, 106, 112, 126 (the central bifolium, ff. 108/109, is intruded), 138 wants 5-8 after f. 115.

Pricking on f. 3 at head and foot as ff. 44-49, see (D) below.


No evidence of pricking. Written space 163-178 x 125 mm.; framed in ink, with sub-divisions for diagrams, ff. 9-13v; outer vertical in pencil, f. 14r. 26-32 long lines.


No evidence of pricking. Written space 162 x 112 mm.; framed by drypoint. Two columns; 57-59 lines.

(C) No evidence of pricking. Written space 155-170 x 115-130 mm.; no frame or ruling. 27-31 long lines.


Prickings in lower outer margins, ff. 44-46 (for lines of item 27); a line of prickings horizontally across the head and foot of ff. 44-49, and also f. 3, with no apparent function, unless for an intended but not implemented use in folio format; it is possible but not demonstrable that f. 3 was once bound with ff. 44-49. Written space 176-183 x 130 mm., or, ff. 45v-46v, 135 x 108 mm.; ff. 45v-46v ruled in ink, otherwise no frame or ruling, except inner vertical in ink on f. 43r and line ruling in ink for lower half of f. 44r. 28-35 long lines, or, ff. 45v-46v, 25 and 30 long lines.


No evidence of pricking. Written space approx. 175 x 105 mm.; framed in ink. 41-43 or, ff. 55v-56v, 32-34 long lines.


No evidence of pricking. Written space 182-192 x 130-145 mm.; no frame or ruling. 25-42 long lines or with space to the right of verse passages used for a second column.

Written, apart from later additions, in:

f. 3r-v textura in red for Latin zodiacal names, otherwise by the first hand of (D) below;


ff. 4r-v first word of last line, a mixture of anglicana and secretary, i.e. with single-compartment a, competently, by one hand; ff. 4v last line - 15, anglicana, proficiently, by one hand;


Italianate hybrida, proficiently, by one hand;


Current anglicana, with simple v and w, competently, by one hand;


ff. 41-44/11, 47-53v and 3r-v, a current mixture of anglicana and secretary, e.g. with secretary g, competently, by one hand; ff. 44/12-39 and 45v-46v/19, textura, unsteadily, by three hands;


A mixture of anglicana and secretary, i.e. with single- compartment a, proficiently, by two hands, changing for item 33;


Anglicana, in places with single-compartment a, competently, possibly by one hand over a considerable period of time, with many changes of ink and size.

Drawings in ink: f. 3v (naked man), see item 2; ff. 9-13v (diagrams of urinals), see item 4; ff. 16-17 and 19v-20 (astronomical diagrams), see item 8; f. 40v (naked man), see item 22; f. 71 (plough), see item 37; f. 91v, crude sketch of quadruped on a leash, added s. xvi (?); f. 107v, animal head terminal to ornamental band, drawn in folded quire, see ends of snout on f. 106v.

Decoration: some text-capitals lined with red, f. 3v, section (B), and, in (F), ff. 57-69, 72-76, 81-84/10, 85- 86v, 92-93/22, 94-95v/21, 98v-99v/9, 100v, 101v-102, 103v, 106v. Paraphs, in red, in (B). Braces in red in (F): ff. 59- 60, 62-63, 66v, 67v. Initials, 2-line, red, in (B), and, in (F), ff. 81-83, 85-89, 94-95 (with human faces), 98-104.


ff. 1-2 described under Cosin MS. V.III.14.

f. 3 appears to be a detached leaf of section (D), see the lines of horizontal pricks across the top and foot, and the main hand of that section.

1. f. 3 (a) To make pouder of holonde for the colyke ..., For şe backe ..., For bleryd yeyn & blodschott ...

(b) names of herbs in English, added, in other hands.

(a) Medical recipes (3) in English.

2. f. 3v Drawing in ink of the front of a naked man, with zodiacal names in red on parts of his body and red lines to places of bleeding to ills specified in English (For frensy sawsefleme & malicolie & emeraudis & eny spice of şe falyng euyll ...)

Cf. item 22(a).


3. ff. 4-8 Vryn in an hote accesse black lytell in quantyte. fatte & styngyng sygn[ifieth ?] deth ... ... Not wyth stondyng who so euer wyll labour dylygently thys tretyse he schall hawe suffycyently practyke to do hym self nede and hys frend also wyth grace and excecice [sic]. Quia omne artificium e<st?> Explicit nouus tractatus de Iudicio Vrinarum quod Bele

Urinoscopy, in English, beginning as Oxford, Bodleian Library MSS Digby 95 f. 103, and Hatton 29 f. 61, which also contains item 4 below; Cambridge, Magdalene Coll. MS Pepys 1307 f. 61, and London, Wellcome Institute MS 564 f. 193v, which also contains items 4-5 below. In Digby, where it has the sub-heading Vrine mortis tam hominum quam mulierum, it is apparently part of a larger treatise (The Dome of Urines); in Hatton it is designated as cap. ii. There are ten signs in Digby but eight here, the first in both cases being the second of ten in Cosin V.V.13 f. 32v-33; Cosin V.III.10 goes on to three regions and fifteen contents etc., the latter but not the former also in V.V.13, ff. 33v-40v (where there follows a lacuna; V.V.13 f. 41 does not correspond with the rest in V.III.10). The compiler writes of drawing the treatise into English from Latin, ff. 7v-8.

Most of f. 4v line 2 is cancelled as duplicated and there is other evidence of miscopying, incomprehension or corruption, e.g. `Traynes' for `Graynes' (V.V.13).

4. ff. 9-13v Karapos | The dropsy a wynd vndere the syde ... | Color aque as Camell skyn [within the first urinal] | Yf the cercle be grene ... [across the page under the first two urinals] | Medecyn | A vente the in the leggys ... [under the first urinal] ... ... Glaucus ... wyth a lyttel hony and vse yt.

Urinals (20: two ink diagrams side by side occupying the upper half of each page), with colour-names in Latin, symptoms and remedies in English. As Oxford, Bodleian Library MSS Ashmole 1447 pp. 166-85, Digby 75 f. 108rv (without the medicines), and Hatton 29 ff. 68v-72 (16 urinals), which also contains item 3 above; Cambridge, Gonville & Caius College MSS 336/725 ff. 137v-39, and 451 ff. 58v-67 (also two to the page); BL MS Sloane 635 ff. 88- 92v; London, Wellcome Institute MS 564 ff. 128v-30v, which also contains items 3 above and 5 below. The same set in Cosin V.IV.7 ff. 50-59v, but with legends in a different order. Cf. P. M. Jones, Medieval Medical Miniatures (London 1989), pl. IV.

5. ff. 14-15 Galian sayth in foure maneres thow schalt know the body ... ... rysyng to the hert and gendyrys a postom.

Urinoscopy, in the form of discretions (15). Incipit as London, Wellcome Institute MS 564 f. 195v, which also contains items 3-4 above. For the jotting in space on f. 15, see below Annotations.

6. f. 15v (added, s. xv ex.) Iste equus non est ecus sed ex vtraque parte cecus | non est honor neque decus equitare tale pecus.

For the jotting between items 6 and 7, see below Annotations.

7. f. 15v (added, s. xvi in.) For swellynge in the legis suddenly come Take ye vrren or pysse of man a Quarte and sethe yt ... Probatum est.

Medical recipe, in English. For the jotting upside-down at the foot of f. 15v, see below sub Annotations.


8. ff. 16-20 Tractatus de spera quatuor capitulis distinguimus. Primo quid sit spera ... Spera est transitus circumferentie dimidij circuli ... ... aut tota mundi machina dissoluitur.

Joannes de Sacrobosco, Tractatus de Sphera; as ed. P. Melanchthon (1578), ending G2r, but here without the four final Latin verses there, and with fewer diagrams (eleven, ff. 16-17, 19v-20, in ink).

9. ff. 20v-21

(a) Potentia est immediatum principium operationis: circa formale obiectum. Obiectum est id quod primo & principaliter se representat ... ... Quarto vocatur liberum arbitrium. quia vult aliquid in ordine <aliqui>d (?) oppo<sito ?> <consimilia crossed out> vel electionem. Explicit Breue Compendium Potentiarum Anime.

(b) Tractatus hic. In quo Actor sanctus [?] agit de anime potencijs. Per sui diuisione diuiditur in partes duas. In quarum prima obiecit quid sit potentia ... ... vide si vi<s> prolixius per tho[mam Aquinas, Summa theologica] .j. par<te>

(a) A differently arranged version of this text, with table, in Rome, Bibl. Angelica MS 835 (Q.B.10) ff. 35-38 (Italy s. xv), has the definitions of Retentiva and Expulsiva reversed, and goes on to the humours before the senses.

(b) Closely written in margins, like a formal commentary, in the hand (?) of (a). Refers to `doctore sancto' (Albertus Magnus ?), Isidore, Avicenna, Algazelus, and Aquinas. Letters lost at the edges.

Although their terminology is largely the same, neither (a) nor (b) agree closely with the text of Albertus Magnus, De anima, ed. C. Stroick, Opera Omnia VII,i (Münster 1968).

10. ff. 21v-23 Ad euidentiam et expositionem huius veritatis istius opinionis premittimus aliqua. Primum omne quod est preter Intellectum est vnum numero siue singularitate ... ... quia tamen falsum est et nihil plus addo.

On philosophical and logical matters, citing Boethius and `Porph[yr]i' more than once. The copyist left a space for a word or two on f. 22v/b, presumably uncertain or lacking in the exemplar.

11. f. 23v (added, s. xv2, in a small English (?) secretary hand)

(a) Mouere intellectum est cum intellectu noticiam sui producere terminare autem est posse intelligi.

(b) Nota quod pro formacione secunde intencionis quod ad ipsum 6 condiciones requiruntur ... quod prius habebebat [sic] pro termino et e converso

Space of 25 mm. left between (a) and (b).


12. ff. 24-28v (a) For a styche vnder the syde [repeated in a second hand, s. xv2, the leaf being already defective ?]| Take thyne awne vryne a potell sethe it with Comyn ... (b) For the pestelense asouerayne drynke proved yef it be taken betymes| Take Fetherfoy. matfelon. mugworte ... (c) For the pestelence anoşer proved medsyn to helpe hym but gyf his oure be sette| Take Fetherfoy mylfoyle & tansey ... ... For Fleame in the voyse and stomake| Take Isope. savge. Rosemary ... & vse şat bothe even & morow.

Medical recipes (over 50) in English, unnumbered. Not, pace Hargreaves, with the same starting order as the group in Cosin V.IV.1 f. 23. Parts of the headings at the top of ff. 24-25 torn away.

13. f. 29 There ben <to del.> xxxij dayes of perell in the yere| Ferst in Januare ther ben <v del.> vij dayes. of perell ... Decembre hath iij şe vth. vjte. &. xvth.

On unfavourable days.

14. f. 29 For to take Conyes| Take & make afyre in the felde ... in the bely & ther as [incomplete ?]

How to catch rabbits.

15. ff. 29-30v and 37-40 (a) To make alectuarij For the breste| Take horehounde Isoppe Rote of Enelacampana ... (b) f. 29v For the fayre & the grete Feuer| Take Rue. selendyne. wormewode ... (c) For the palsye of the tonge & speche sodenly lost in sekenesse| Take & stylle water of wode bynde & pympernell & spynache ... ... (l, f. 37) For anguysh of grene wondis| Take wormewode & bete it to povdre ... ... (as) For the dropsy bothe hot and Colde| Take yonge spryngis of the Elther & scrape away the ouermost grene rynde ... bothe even & morow & be hole

Medical recipes and charms (c. 45), in English, with an alternative to (a) added immediately below it by the main hand, and (c) repeated ff. 34v margin and 38. The first on f. 38v, For the pockes, is of three decasyllabic rhyming couplets, beginning Saynte nycasye had a pocke small| And moche grevaunce had he with all| ..., not in IMEV.

Items 16-21 occupy a quire of six, largely in the main hand of section C, but in darker ink and apparently inserted between ff. 30 and 37.

16. ff. 31-33v (a) To make nervale şat is a precious oynement| Take wylde savge Camamyll betony Mynte heyhove ... (b) A Salve for bochis and bylis and olde soris and newe and for kanker and fester| Take a li of medewex and a li of barous grese molten and pured ...| (c) To make popylion| Take iiij li of popyler levis and iij li of herbe water ... ... (q) For the colyk| Take Clyuerse of the juse apynte ... euen & morne ix dayes & be hole probatum

Medical recipes (17), in English.

17. f. 33v (all crossed out) For to make <long peper del.>| Take the sede of plantan & sethem in fayre water and povder of peper & do as I tawghte you


18. f. 33v Crokfere limal(?) of Mars 2 li mer sublend (?) j li grynde them with stronge veneger ... & j parte of this is on 20 of lime

Alchemical (?) recipe.

19. (added, s. xv/xvi)

f. 34 (a) For şe agoo a provyde medicen| Item take vj sponfulle of good Reade vineger and a vj hasyle leves ...;

(b) Memorandum take a ponnyworth of rwbarbe a pennnyworth Sedum ... [incomplete ?]; (c) Memorandum rosmary ysop vyoletis ...

Recipes (3).

20. ff. 34v-35 (a) for to make whyte led & ceruse| Take anew erthen potte & put there to agood quantyte of good stronge veneger ... (b) for brenyng of wylde fyre & pyntyllis & festers & al hot sores| Make a red water on thys wyse Take askis of grene asshe ... (c) For a broston man| Take nepte smal. comfery. daysy ... & bynde it faste to the sore şat it come not ovte probatum est (f. 35) for to make plaster plumby ... dyapalma ... draclum ...

Recipes (6), in the main hand of section (C).

Item 15(c) is repeated by another hand, s. xv2, up the outer margin of f. 34v.

21. ff. 35-36v Here be gynyth the medsyns for horse| (a) Ferst for an horse şat is bolned in the body a medsyn| Take crommys of broune brede & mynse onyons small ... ... (s) for to make asterre in an horse fronte| Wassh hym with warme water then take an hot yron ... with the sayde broth of the molle

Recipes (19) for treating horses, in English.

Two incomplete recipes added on f. 36v, in the hand (?) of item 19(b-c).

ff. 37-40 continue from f. 30v, see item 15 above.

22. f. 40v (added in space, s. xvi in.?) (a) Crude drawing in ink of the front of a naked man, and of the zodiacal signs, named in Latin, against parts of his body, cf. item 2; (b) fainter sketches of two heads and a woman full- length.

23. f. 40v (added in space, s. xv/xvi) for ache| take nettefote oyle & the gal of a oke ...

Medical recipe.


f. 3 appears to be a detached leaf from this section, see above.

24. f. 41rv [beginning missing] arme be not droyn out. Also lest şat şe wyckyd blo<d> in şo ryt arme passe not in to şe left arme ... Also kepe şe fro alle hote spicis in hote wedere.

Instructions for bleeding and other remedies against the plague, in English; probably the end of an abbreviated version of the treatise by John of Bordeaux, as suggested by D. W. Singer in her BL manuscript collections, not in her Catalogue of plague texts; cf. nos 16.xvi-xvii there, in Latin, ending similarly.

25. ff. 41v-43 The mastris şat vsyn blod letyng| and şer with getyn here leuyng| ... ... So mot be sey now we| Amen amen Fo [sic] cheryte

On blood-letting, in English, in 90 lines of bracketed rhyming couplets, with sidenotes Capud and Corpus; IMEV 3848, here with the six-line introduction. Among the eleven complete copies for which IMEV Suppl. gives the number of lines in its list of 27 copies only two, London, Wellcome Institute MS 406 ff. 1v-3v, and olim Ashburnham App. 121 (untraced), have 90 lines; the former is not very close verbally to this text.

26. ff. 43-44 (a) For the wyldefere| Take leke heddis & stamp hem well ... (b) For the pyntyll yf hyt be skolt of a woman| Take lynnyn cloth & bren hyt ... (c) For a vncome of eny mannus member şat turnyt to <?>le| Take lynsede & stamp hit & put şerto a lytyll melke ... ... (k) For prekyng of wynd| (f. 44) Also şis anoşer maner ... ix deyys first & last

Medical recipes (11), in English. Matter is evidently missing between ff. 43v and 44r.

27. f. 44 (added in space, in textura) (a) For şe scabe| Take helena campana and de [sic] rote of fole fote ... (b) for ablac sore.| Take whete floure & honi ... (c) For şe axis| Take a potell of clene water & 3 of carawai sede ... ... (g) for a fere that ryste like a ringe werme ... & anowynte hit well. amen.

Medical recipes (7), in English.

28. ff. 44v-46 names and quantities of herbs, added on blank pages by hands responsible for some of the additions on ff. 34, 36v and the margins of ff. 45v-47v.

29. ff. 45v-46v (a) For to wete yf aman schall be stanchid of şe menisune| Take him to ete apeni wight of kerse sede ... (b) For benig [sic] & scalding| Make a salue o [sic] virgin wax ... (c) For a uebbe in amanus ye| Take 3 foyle şat hath de wyth spottis ... ... (q) For the Backe| Take smalache. alisandris. malowys ... as hoot as şou masy suffer

Medical recipes (17), in English, the first fifteen written in textura.

30. ff. 47-49v (a) For a vayne or senew cutt| Take white wyne or whyte wyne drestys ... (b) For to make a sore to brekyn or to rotyn| Take whete bren or the flowre of the whete ... (c) For an olede mormayle or an olde fester| Take rede worte levys ij or iij ... ... (ah) The water of betayn ys good for ache & for eyyn & hely[th] hem well

Medical recipes (34), in English.

31. ff. 50-53v (a) [beginning missing] şe seke man şat ys costyff Anoder Take vyolet in şe sted of rose ... (b) If a hound had bedyn a man.| Take towne kyrsyn & pulioll ... (c) For şe hert| Take weybrede matfelon & sede hem to geder with whyte wyne ... ... (ar) to make entrete callyd apostolicum| Take wermode smalache şe more senytory ... & sede hyt tyll [end missing]

Medical recipes (44), in English.


32. ff. 53*-55r [beginning missing; upper half of f. 53* torn away] vana Quero qui pronomina ... Qualiter pronomina prime par[tis] vt s[upra] ponuntur in loco nominum ... ... Euge cuius significacionis. Dolentis Quare quia significat dolorem vnde versus| Euge bis dictum vult significare dolorem| si semel esse datur tunc plausus significatur.

A grammatical summary, corresponding to Priscian, Institutiones, lib. viii onwards (?). It deals with verb, adverb, participle, conjunction, preposition and interjection, quoting Alexander, Doctrinale, 434-5, 1366-8.

33. f. 55r Illumina oculos meos [Ps. 12:4] Illumina cuius persone secunde Contra probo quod est prima persona quia est persona quarum nulla est prior ... ... non tamen est prima persona quantum ad intellectum quia non significat rem de se loquentem.

A short scholastic argument, cf. item 35.

34. ff. 55r-56 Respondendum est quod omne uerbum substantiuum & omne uerbum uocatiuum regunt nominatiuum ... ... Respondendum est quod quando rellatiuum refertur ad nomen ... ... Regula est quod ista litera O aliquando significat indignacionem ... ... Respondendum est quod omnis comparatiuus terminans in or ... ...

Short statements on grammatical points, with confirmatory Latin verses.

35. f. 56 Velox homo currit queritur que pars velox ... ...

non alie inherentem conuocando rei qualitatem.

A short scholastic argument, cf. item 33.

36. (a) f. 56rv Abscondo dat itum geminans di non geminans sum;| Moyses ebreas kadmy prudensia grecas| ... ... Sepes trina canes & equos homines super addas| Suos & cornos aquilas & cete marina.

(b) ff. 55v-56v (in spaces to the right of Latin verses, but with no obvious relation to them) f. 55v (i) hec urla a purfel| hoc cluuiculum a spayre| hic almarius a be hyfe; (ii) hec imbrex a telstan vel lamyr| pessundari to be kast <vndyr del.> dun; f. 56 (iii) totanicus duchman hec ibarnia hyrland; (iv) hic apparitor id est ciscitor (?) somundare| hic gariophilus a clowe; f. 56v (v) hic seroticarius glufar| hic sutor a sutare| hic sissor atal3ure.

(a) Sets of Latin verses, the last pair with roman numbers above most of the words; they include Walther, Prov., no. 9750, 5066, 3428 (Eberhard Bethunensis, Graecismus, ed. J. Wrobel, Corpus Grammaticorum, I (Vratislava 1887), 186, 106), 13883 (ibid. 155, 74), 33617a.

(b) Vulgaria: Latin words and English equivalents. (v) added in different ink and possibly another hand.


This last section, three-quarters of the surviving volume, is evidently a grammar-master's collection, both practical and theoretical, akin to the short and slightly more recent section E. As with the collections of recipes in sections A, C and D, it is not feasible to distinguish and list separately every independent piece or to identify all extracts of longer works. Incipits and explicits of the longer pieces are quoted, and enough examples of shorter pieces to enable some to be recognised by specialists and to encourage first-hand investigation of the contents. Marginal nota signs and bracketing distinguish many shorter pieces. Some pages are palimpsest, over similar matter, probably in the same hand; others are partly re-inked.

37. ff. 57-80v Parentes sinculam mei mactauerunt| ... Pulmones & appota cati detulerunt ...

Latin verses, varying in number, copied at different times. The first verse consists of four hexameters with one rhyme; following verses include f. 57/5-10 Alexander, Doctrinale 830, f. 57/11 Walther, Versanfänge, no. 19401; f. 57v/6 Ibid., no. 719; f. 58/1-10 Ibid., no. 15542; 11-12 Doctrinale 980- 1; f. 61/24 Istec Hugo canit Priscianus talia stranit; f. 62 Prelia gallorum venient iam belligerorum| ... ... Victor finalis sit benedictus Amen (32 lines in rhyming couplets, bracketed as quatrains, not the same as the verses on the same subject in Cambridge, St John's Coll. MS F.26 ff. 28v- 29, or those in Oxford, Bodleian Libary MS Rawl.D.328 f. 72); f. 65v/29 mention of Papias, Hugucio and Petrus [Helias]; f. 68/3 Alexander, Doctrinale 1030-1; f. 69v/1-2 Walther, Versanfänge, no. 17853; f. 71/2-25 (to the right of drawing, see below) a farced version of the hymn for St John the Baptist, Salue festa dies. oritur| Quem lux atque quies. sequitur ... ... Aufer ab emeritis. Maculas, in 12 rhyming couplets, (not in Chevalier or Suppl.). Instead of verses f. 61v/7-end contains a prose passage beginning Hugucio habet ...

Most of the left-hand side of f. 71 is occupied by a drawing, s. xv, running up the page, apparently in the same ink as the accompanying labels and texts, of a plough (Aratrum) with parts named in Latin (buris, stiua, trabis, aura duplex, dentale, intercemium (?), culter, vomer, pes, rote, iugum, malliolus; stimulus, stimula, scorpio (held by the servant); pobea (? a separable tool like a hoe or spade)), and a ploughman (Rusticus) and servants (famula and famulus); subsequently scribbled over, s. xvi. The line Ad caudam stiue semper tu rustice viue is written down the inner margin. Other pictures of English medieval ploughs with part-names are in Bodleian MS.Top.Lincs.d.1, f. 53r, s. xiii ex. (H. M. Colvin, Antiquity 27 (1953), 165-7), Cambridge, Gonville & Caius Coll. MS 136/76 pp. 12-13, s. xiii ex., and B.L. MSS Royal 8 C.IV f. 41, s. xiii/xiv, and Sloane 1210 f. 136, s. xiv/xv.

Spaces to the right of the verses contain Latin prose questions, rules, exercizes and explanations; also, f. 72v/1-14, Os I went to yo kyrk wepond I met a nowld wyfe crepond ... mak 3ow me thys laten o reyt, (verses in English, 14 rough lines rhyming aaabaabbbccddd, written as prose, the spelling suggestive of the north-west Midlands, IMEV 378.5), followed, lines 15-29, by a Latin version, Sicut iui ad ecclesiam egilans ... componite mihi istam latinitatem recte & cetera.

Many Latin words with English equivalents occur on ff. 57v- 58, 60r-v, 61v, 62v, 64-65, 66, 67v-69v, 70v-71v, 72v-73, 74-75v, 76v-77, 78, 79r-v and 81, mostly in the right-hand texts, but also as inter-linear glosses to the left-hand texts; `Diruuo is to dreyue secundum Wyllelmum', at the head of f. 75 in contemporary hand and ink, with the initial stroked in red like the texts below it.

38. ff. 81-83 Nota quod si propria nomina locorum & quatuor nomina apellatiua naturam eorum habentia ... ... Que sunt etheroclita defectu in quibus aliquid vt precis ci cem aprece & pluraliter hec preces versus| Nomina sunt septem que casibus in tribus extant [ ? unfinished: remainder of page blank]

Part of a grammatical treatise. One paragraph, f. 82v, has the same incipit (Quot sunt forme casuales Sex que Monaptata. Diptota. Triptota ...) recorded by Bursill-Hall, 149.112.8: BL MS Harley 1002 f. 82v, but there it goes on, after four lines, with a set of verses not found here.

39. ff. 83v-84v Quot modis fit comparacio tribus quibus literatura & sensu Literatura & non sensu sensu & non literatura ... ... Album natura facit est res candida cura | Estque dealbatus paries albidine tinctus.

Incipit as for `Regulae utiles secundum usum Magistri Johannis Harford', BL MS Add. 17724 ff. 20-22, but that has only four lines before `Quot modis deficit comparacio', not here, where there are several paragraphs beginning `Quot modis ...' on different topics, accompanied and followed by sets of verses. Here, as in item 37, text is written in spaces to the right of verses.

40. ff. 85-86v Assit principio sancta maria meo| Quot casus reguntur a nomine. quatuor qui Genotiuus Datiuus Acusatiuus & Ablatiuus ... ... vt quantum vini habes tu & cetera.

On cases, similar in form to item 42. It differs from the `Regule bone et utiles secundum modernos' in Cambridge, Gonville & Caius College MS 203/109 ff. 168-75, a volume of similar grammatical contents, handwriting and date.

41. f. 87r-v [G]ratis voluntarie sponte vltro. wyth gode wyll. hic her ... ... at yo last. affatim abunde. aboundonly.

Vulgaria: a series of Latin words and English equivalents.

42. f. 87v Quero quot casus reguntur a participiis Dico quod quatuor ... ... retinet quandoque falarnum.

On cases after participles and conjunctions, similar in form to item 40.

43. f. 88 In singulari numero hic & hec & hoc ... | Millia mancipia dominos fallemus ditantur|

One introductory line and five lines of verse `Non flectes mille ...'.

44. ff. 88-91v Diabolus est mendax et pater eius [John 8:44] sic exponitur ... ... eciam ne id est numquid vtrumque id est multociens.

Grammatical explanations of phrases from the Vulgate Latin Bible, in alphabetical order D-Z of head-words, and so presumably lacking A-C; English equivalents of some words included. The text begins to the right of the verses in item 43.

45. f. 91v Sospitati dedit egros olei perfusio ... ... reditur cum filio.

Hymn or sequence of St Nicholas (Chevalier, no. 19244), written one word per line, with the first 12, out of 32, provided with explanations or derivations.

46. f. 92r-v Quot modis ponitur caro Dico quod caro proprie dicitur humana Vnde apud gallum maximianum Carnis ad officium carnea membra placent ... ... est singularis si plura est pluralis.

Various grammatical questions and answers, illustrated with verses. Here, as in items 37 and 39, text is written in spaces to the right of verses.

47. f. 93 Quant homme parlere videat que verba loquatur| Ceo couont auere ne stulcior Inueniatur| ... ... Thoge cannst alle rytton fac ne proiamus in igne|

A macaronic poem, French, Latin and English, 22 lines rhyming internally and finally in couplets, IMEV & Suppl. 2787 `On the evils of the times', not listing this copy. Three copies have more lines, and in a different order; cf. T. Wright, Political Songs, 251-2; I. S. T. Aspin, Anglo-Norman Political Songs, Anglo-Norman Text Society 11 (1953), 157-68.

48. ff. 93r-v (a) Quot modis ponitur pasca quatuor ... (b) Hoc stadium est spacium continens in se centum viginti & quinque passus ... (c) Quero quare nomina literarum sunt indeclinabilia ... (f. 93v) Quot modis fit demonstracio estencie ... [and others] ... gracia cuius subiecto potest loqui de se.

Grammatical questions and answers. (a-b) added in spaces to the right of item 47 and the three lines of verse at the start of 48(c).

49. ff. 94-95v Literarum alie sunt vocales alie sunt consonantes. Vocales sunt quinque ... ... Et stetit & dedit & sedit & fidit & tulit hec sex.

Corresponds to BL MS Add. 17724 ff. 36v-38v `Regule versificandi', and Cambridge, Gonville & Caius Coll. MS 377/597 pp.91-95, both s. xiv; the latter lacks the final paragraph here (Tres sunt pedes versificandi ...).

50. ff. 95v-97v De natiuitate domini alleuiare. fort alege. zabulon id est demon ... ... Inter promissum sic differt pollicitumque &c c c.

Expositiones verborum difficilium in hymnis secundum usum Sarum, in the order of the church year: Christmas*, Stephen*, John ev., Thomas of Canterbury*, Circumcision, Epiphany, Vincent*, Conversion of Paul, Purification*, Mathias*, Gregory, Annunciation*, Mark, Philip & James, Finding of the Holy Cross, Augustine,, Barnabas, John the Baptist*, Peter*, Margaret, Mary Magdalene*, James, James, Peter's Chains, Laurence, Assumption*, Bartholomew, Beheading of John the Baptist, Nativity of B.V.M., Exaltation of Holy Cross, Martin. Those marked * are also in Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Douce 103. The opening of the first expositio differs from that in B.L. MSS Add. 14023 f. 7 and Burney 331 f. 12. English equivalents of some words included.

On the Expositiones see H. Gneuss, Hymnar und Hymnen im englischen Mittelalter (Tübingen 1968), pp. 144-206; also T. Hunt, Teaching and Learning Latin in Thirteenth-Century England (Cambridge 1991), i,38-42. For a fuller list of hymns, see Breviarium ... Sarum, III,cvi-xi.

51. f. 97v Quem librum audis. librum Magni doctrinalis Que est materia huius libri sunt regule date (a Presciano) sub compendio sumpte ... Titulus talis est Scribere clericulis paro doctrinale nouellis| Pluraque doctorum sociare scripta meorum.

6 lines; the last two are the first of Alexander, Doctrinale, ed. REICHLING

52. ff. 98-104 Qvia regule de regiminibus casuum traduntur (vel trahuntur) ab autoribus propter construcciones tenendas. vt dicit Petrus Helias ... Primo ergo quero quid sit construccio. Dico secundum Petrum Heliam in principio Minoris ... ... quia eius accionem vel passionem terminat secundum mediante prepositionis adminiculo vt dicit Petrus Helias in minori. Explicit tractatus de regiminibus casuum secundum Petrum.

Not apparently based on the genuine commentary by Peter Helias on Priscian Minor (ed. TOLSON ), of which no manuscripts are known in English libraries; the answer to the first question, see above, probably refers therefore to the commentary beginning Absoluta, often ascribed to Helias (cf. next item), but now attributed to Petrus Hispanus.

53. ff. 104-107v Qvero vtrum verba impersonalia passiue vocis possunt regere acusatiuos casos [sic] Dico secundum Petrum Heliam in fine libri qui sic incipit absoluta Nullum inpersonale ... ... patet per Petrum in Maiori Futura infinitorum habent supina per circumlocucionem cum hoc verbo ire. vt amatum ire locutum ire & sic de similibus.

Largely on six constructions.

54. ff. 107v, 110r-v [Q]vero vtrum gerundia sunt nomina vel verba. Dico quod nomina propter triplicem rationem ... ... ita & gerundium potest (?) vt prius resoluitur.

Cf. Bursill-Hall 282.9.2: Udine, Bib. Comunale Cod. C.237.

55. f. 108r-v Prosodie normas pueris pro dogmate promam| ... In isto tractatu prosodie talis erit processus. Primo pona accentus difinicionum ... [7 divisions proposed] ... Primo ergo quero quid sit accentus Dico secundum Petrum Heliam quod accentus est modulacio ... ... hic certus ei sicut dictum erat|| [defective, in the fourth division, through loss of leaf or leaves]

Begins with 5 lines, Walther, Versanfänge, no. 14844 (Tractatus de prosodia). The copy in Cambridge UL MS Oo.VII.110 ff. 82-7 has another verse between ll. 4 and 5 here, and is left unfinished in the fifth division. From the start the prose commentary here is written in the spaces to the right of the verses and between them, as in items 37 and 39 above.

56. f. 109r-v [P]enitias cito peccator cum sit miserator| ... ... Et cure grauitas & consuetudo ruine| Explicit liber penitenciarij qui|| [slightly defective, through loss of following leaf]

The verses commonly found in grammatical manuscripts and often, but wrongly, attributed to John of Garland (Br.Bonaventure, pp.7-9, pace Paetow, Morale, p.138); Walther, Versanfänge, no. 13564. This copy has 109 lines, as against 106 in PL 207, 1153-6, lacking PL lines 16 and 24, reversing 18/19, 33/34, 85/86, and with 5 additional lines: after line 71 one (Quisquis amans), 74 two (In prauos casus) and then a change of pen, 94 one (Arguo consulo), and 96 one (Quo defunctus egit). Latin inter-linear glosses, up to line 48 only, by the same or a similar hand.

f. 110r-v has the continuation of item 54, f. 107r-v, see above.

57. f. 111 Ego diligo me est transitiua ... sed illud quod significat diuersa per modum diuersorum.

Grammatical note.

58. f. 111 Pontius a ponte iuxta pontem datur esse| ...

3 verse lines with prose notes on the name Pontius Pilatus.

59. f. 111 (added in space, s. xv in.) Mulieribus sepius que adultere uel accusate fuerunt ...

Short grammatical exercise (?).

60. f. 111v Vnus duo tres ... millesimo & quingentesimo.

Cardinal numbers spelled out to 1000 and ordinal to 1500, with the corresponding roman numerals above each.

61. f. 111v (a) Decem sunt precepta dei. Vnum deum collaudare| ... (b) Septem sunt opera misericordie ... (c) Septem sunt peccata mortalia ... (d) Quinque sunt sensus hominum ... (e) Septem sunt etates hominis ... (f) Quinque sunt digiti diaboli ...

(a) comprises 10 monorhyming lines.

62. ff. 112-115v [S]alus eterna. Hec salus tis est integritas corporis siue sanitas & caret plurali numero ... & proprie in verbis vnde iocari & iocundari|| [defective, through loss of following leaves]

Expositions, including a few English words, of difficult words in sequences, apparently of Sarum use, including Sarum Missal, Burntisland edn pp. 10 (Advent), 56 (Christmas), 60 (Christmas), 63 (Stephen), 66 (John ev.), 69 (Innocents), 71 (Thomas of Canterbury), 74 (sixth day of Christmas), 77 (Circumcision), 85 (Epiphany) with mention of `gens anglicana' (f. 113v/6), 704 (Purification), 360 (Easter day), 371 (Wed. after Easter), 368 (Tues. after Easter), Jubilantes, Regi regum, Gaude mater (Arbuthnot 275). Cambridge, UL MS Dd.III.87(4) differs somewhat in the opening words; Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Douce 103 differs in the first and last (Gaude mater) here. Cf. STC 16110 (1496) et seq. Top of f. 115 cut away, with loss of text.

Annotations and additions

Those of ff. 1-2 are described under Cosin V.III.14.

Jottings in English, s.xv/xvi, on ff. 9, 15 (For the gowte Take and gethyr şe xij handfvll of şe bodds of eldar), 15v (monday fore senyt antere bartamday [upside-down]), 24, 31, 36v (incomplete recipes), 40, 41, 45, 46v, 47r-v (English names of herbs). A number of these are by one hand, s. xv.

Pen-trials: cursive t, b, f. 54; textura a, b, f. 67; `Fuit homo missus adeo cui nomen erat iohannes bbbb', f. 66;


Written in England or, (B), perhaps in Italy, to judge by its script; spellings in English verses (f. 72v) in item 37, section (F), have north-west Midlands features.

Secundo folio in the body (f. 5).

The alliterative phrase, `Wyll a wod of sell besyd senoke (?)', f. 8v, partly repeated, `wyll a wood of sello', f. 46, in the same hand, perhaps giving names, one possibly Sevenoaks (Kent).

Inscriptions of s. xv/xvi, most by one hand, which also added recipes and names of herbs: `Johan dayn', f. 3; `Wylliam', f. 8v; `sent lenard yn setford', f. 13v, upside-down, cf. Seighford (Staffs.) with a medieval form Seteford, or possibly Thetford (Norf.); `Scansla' in a rhomboid, f. 15; `Thomas dyby Day', f. 23v; `Thys byl be delyueryd to holman', f. 32v (cf. `holmon', f. 45); `? Sore da v. dbe M Morice Jonys', f. 37v; `the lade of kyllbore saue şe land (?)', f. 42v, sideways, cf. Kilbourne (Derbs.); `margret hanne for the hendys', f. 44v; `mastere persosen at the seyn of the bere', f. 46.

Inscriptions in section (F), s. xvi/xvii, by one or two hands, italic and secretary; several contain the name Wigley, which appears to have been most common in Derbyshire, `Henry Wigley', f. 91v, and, upside-down, ff. 82, 97v (twice); `Thomas Wigleye oth (?) this Booke', upside-down, f. 87v. Also other marginal jottings include `Jhon Popan and purchoice (?)', `from Mistris Frauncis White ...', f. 57; `tomas wigley', ff. 65v (upside-down) and 109; `Henry Stafford', `Cosen Henry stafforde of blabberbeycke Gent doth accknowledge', f. 71, no Blabberbeck or Blubberwick identified; `George dany' or `dauy', upside-down, f. 97v.

`Geo. Davenport. 1663.', f. iv; his note of contents, f. iiv.

standard, s. xix med.; 1 clasp.