We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Otherwise, we'll assume you're OK to continue.

Durham University

Special Collections

DUL MS Cosin V.II.9 Quaestiones theologicae s. xiii med. - xiii/xiv

These incomplete draft descriptions of medieval manuscripts in Durham University Library are copyright, and may not be quoted without the permission of the University of Durham Library.

Owing to inconsistencies with the source software, accented characters appear in varying compound forms. This has not yet been rationalized.

AJP 24/3/94 after AID check of 22/11/93

A collection of several sets of Quaestiones disputatae, partly distinguished by their structure and the hands, ranging in date from s. xiii med. (A, B) to s. xiii/xiv (C, D).

The early attribution to Robert Kilwardby, f. 1, cannot refer to the Quaestiones in sections A-B: they do not correlate with the list in F. Stegmüller, "Les Questions du Commentaire des Sentences de Robert Kilwardby", R.T.A.M. 6 (1934), 55-79 and 215-228 (derived from Oxford Merton Coll. MS L.i.3 (Coxe 131) and Worcester Cathedral MS F.43), or in Robert Kilwardby, Quaestiones in librum primum Sententiarum, ed. J. Schneider, and Quaestiones in librum tertium Sententiarum, ed. G. Leibold, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften: Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für die Herausgabe ungedruckter Texte aus der mittelalterlichen Geisteswelt 13 and 12 (Munich, 1986 and 1985); cf. also W. A. Hinnebusch, The Early English Friars Preachers, (Rome, 1951), pp. 382-3, who dates Kilwardby's known work to about 1250, and says that he failed to comment on many points raised by Lombard in the first book and did not complete his commentary on the second and fourth books.

Kilwardby's questions are to be sought in sections C-E, following those `de verbo'.

[1] + 2 (medieval flyleaves) + 157 + [1]; foliated, 1-159; s. xiv/xv foliation in ink of ff. 3-157 as 1-158, omitting 111 and 113 and repeating 138. Membrane (0.11 mm.; some flaws and natural edges; hair and flesh clearly distinguished; quires with flesh-side outermost), c. 285 x 200 mm., outer edge cropped (see loss of prickings and part of marginal note f. 118v).

Collation: (A: ff. 3-46) 112, 28, 3-412, [one quire or more lacking after f.46]; (B: ff. 47-63) 512, 64 + one leaf (f. 63) after 4; (C: ff. 64-111) 7-1012; (D: ff. 112-123) 1112; (E: ff. 124-156) 12-1412, [one quire or more lacking after f. 159]. Catchwords in ink on quires 1-4, 7-8, and 12-14, or in soft brown on quire 9.

Prickings in outer margins only, frequently cropped away. Five sections intended to accompany each other, all ruled in brown lead, 2 columns:

(A) Written space 200 x 141-146 mm., 50 lines.

Written in small gothic minuscule, unevenly, by one hand, the same as (B).

(B) Written space 195-205 x 142-5 mm., 48-53 lines.

(C) Written space 202 x 143 mm., 48-50 lines.

Written in incipient anglicana or, ff. 66-93 penultimate word, cursive gothic minuscule, by three hands, changing at ff. 66, and 93 last word, where the marginal numbering ceases; for the first and third hands, cf. S. H. Thomson, Latin Bookshands of the Later Middle Ages, (Cambridge, 1969), pls. 94 (1282), and 95 (1291), also DDM Oxford, pls. 131 (1286/1290 x 1296), 137 (1291, the same book as Thomson pl. 95), which are apparently all of English origin.

(D) Written space 214 x 141-145 mm., 53 lines.

Written in incipient anglicana, by one (?) somewhat variable hand.

(E) Written space 200-202 x 137-140 mm., 50 lines, with a pair of horizontal lines above and below written space, the latter not infrequently at an angle and repeated straight.

Written in a small square gothic minuscule of university type, somewhat clumsily.

Decoration, not executed: spaces for initials to quaestiones: (A) 2- or (f. 3) 3-line; (B) 1-line or none; (C) 4-line (f. 65v) or (f. 64) 5-line; (D) none; (E) 2-line. No running-titles.


f. 1 `In hoc libro continentur ista | [one line erased and illegible] | questiones determinate de verbo multe et bone | questiones multe Fratris Roberti de kiliewardby |' with a further erased illegible line bracketed to the right of the foregoing lines, s.xiii ex.; Kilwardby is not styled archbishop of Canterbury, which he became in 1272.

f. 2r-v (added in two columns, s. xiv ex., in anglicana) [1] Vtrum verbum in diuinis dicatur essentialiter aut tantum personaliter Primo fo[lio] ... ... (88) Vtrum anima rationalis sit mortalis fo[lio] 155.

List of articles of (A)-(E), with a numbering in fives added by Rud.

The numbering of the items below follows that in this list, despite its omission of five articles (14, 54, 69, 69, 81).

(A) s. xiii med.

ff. 3-46v:

1. f. 3 Qveritur de uerbo in diuinis. et subposito quod uerbum ueraciter dicatur esse in diuinis. quero utrum ibi dicatur eesnetialiter an tantum personaliter ... uel cuiuscumque alterius a se intellecti;

2. f. 6 Questio est vtrum in diuinis dicatur uerbum proprie uel non ... ut plenius patet in responsione ad;

3. f. 9v Qvestio est vtrum in diuinis sit tantum vnum uerbum personaliter dictum an plura ... si ex impossibili sequatur impossibile;

4. f. 13 [Q]uestio de uerbo in se queritur de uerbo in comparacione ad carnem. et primo vtrum incarnacio sit possibilis ... fieri si deus uellet;

5. f. 17 Subposito quod incarnacio sit possibilis. queritur utrum sit necessaria ... eo tibi apponitur;

6. f. 21 Conceditur quare de incarnacione ex parte assumpti. et primo vtrum concedi debeat quod filius dei assumpsit humanam personam an non sed tantum naturam ... dignitatem confert. ut dictum est;

7. f. 24 Queritur vtrum Christus assumpsit in diuiduum ... argumentum ad partem oppositam;

8. f. 25v Habito quid assumpsit. queritur quale fuit id quod assumpsit precipue quo ad carnem. vtrum scilicet assumpsit carnem talem qualem habuit Adam ante peccatum an non ... quo ad easdem condiciones;

9. f. 27v Habito qualem carnem Christus assumpsit; restat querere qualis fuit uirgo de qua assumpsit ... sine peccato natus ut predictum est;

10. f. 31 Supposito quod beata uirgo non fuerit sanctificata in conceptione sed post. queritur vtrum fuerit sanctificata in utero ... nullatenus essent priuilegiate;

11. f. 35 Habito de sanctificacione beata marie in utero; queritur de efficacia gratie collate in sanctificacione. et quero vtrum illa gratia fuerit tante efficacie ut per eam omnem culpam actuale cauere potuerit ... ex proxima ratione precedente;

12. f. 39 De secunda sanctificacione beate uirginis queritur sanctificata est in concepcione filii dei; queritur quo ad efficaciam primo utrum in illa sanctificacione fuerit fomes peccati omnino extinctus an solum modo consopitus siue debilitatus ... pro genere humano satisfaccionem;

13. f. 43 Habito de efficacia secunde sanctificacionis que facta fuit in conceptu filii dei quo ad extinccionem fomitis; his queritur de efficacia quo ad effectum confirmacionis ... peccatum esse non potuit;

14. f. 45 Habito de temporali Christi generacione; queritur de cor[r]espondente sibi filiacione. vtrum scilicet sit anima a filiacione que respondet generacioni eterne ... [catchword:] nisi in vna persona.

Quaestiones: fourteen articles, the last breaking off imperfectly, on (?) topics of Peter Lombard, Sententiae bks 1 and 3, citing chiefly Anselm and Augustine, also Hugh of St Victor; nos 3, 8-14 numbered in the margins by the copyist.

(B) s. xiii med.

ff. 47-63v:

14. f. 47 Qvestio est de qualitate personarum in trinitate summa. et videtur quod in personis diuinis sit aliqua inequalitas sic ... de tuo cognosce tu et tui. etc;

15. f. 48 Qveritur de lege eterna an sit deus quod sic ... in veritate sue ydee ad quam reducitur ¶ De .s.tus. cogita;

16. f. 49 Consequenter queritur de unitate legis eterne ... promota consummatione lex;

17. f. 49v Consequenter vtrum eterna sit legit ab abuersariis legis ...per hoc patet responsio ad idem sap' 2;

18. f. 50 Consequenter queritur vbi uideat ipsius legem eternam. vtrum scilicet in se ... quales sunt potentie quantum ad omnia sicut docet Augustinus [De] trinitate 15.c;

19. f. 50v Qveritur per quid uideat impius legem eternam. vtrum scilicet illustrentur per lumen creatum uel increatum ... ad exercendum se in opus suum;

20. f. 50v Postquam quesitum est de lege eterna consequens est inquirare de legibus diuinatis ab ista et primo de lege naturali et primo quid sit in se et absolute ... lex uero naturalis dicit obiectum vtriusque;

21. f. 51v Qvesitum est de iustificacione impii et cum 4 exigantur ad iustificacionem. videlicet motus liberi arbitri ... terminus transmutacionis non transmutacio;

22. f. 52v Consequenter queritur de ordine nature in predicta 4 et videtur quod remissio culpe precedat per infusionem gratie ... informatus caritate et sic patet quod non precedit et sic patet ad omnia;

23. f. 54 Consequenter quesitum an dolor contriccionis sit maximus quod non videtur primo per diffinicionem ... de dolore spirituale et contriccione;

24. f. 55 Consequenter quesitum est de efficacia contriccionis utrum deleat culpam ... directe dimissioni culpe respondet;

25. f. 56 Qveritur de veritate [? for virtute] primo in generali secundo de uirtutibus in speciali scilicet theologicis et cardinalibus ... gratia sit deus;

26. f. 58 Habito quid sit uirtus et quod sit aliud adeo sequitur videre quid sit virtus vtrum substancia uel accidens ... virtus sed ipsius similitudo;

27. f. 61 Consequenter queritur in quo sit virtus ut in subiecto vtrum scilicet in essencia anime uel in potencia ... ab anima per potencias;

28. f. 61v Consequenter queritur de virtute utrum sit vnum uel vnum specie ... pronior est ad malum quam ad bonum;

29. f. 63 Dicto de virtute in generali et hec in se sequitur de virtute in comparacione et primo ad gratiam ... ipsa sit forma simplex.

Quaestiones: sixteen articles, on (?) topics of Peter Lombard, Sententiae bks 1-2, mostly much less fully elaborated than in (A). Nos 15-20 numbered 1-6 in soft brown, see below Corrections.

(C) s. xiii/xiv

ff. 64-111v:

30. f. 64 [E]uanuerunt in cogitacionibus suis et obscurata est etc. Ro.i.[21] glosa. tumore superbie obumbrante. cor.i. rationem eorum. ¶occasione huius quesitum est an superbia excecet quod non videtur sic ... deus auctor illius;

31. f. 66v Sequitur an venialia peccata excecent uel obscurunt intellectum quod sic ... capax est illuminacionis passione sumpte et intellectum obscuratur;

32. f. 67v Sequitur an necesse sit animam illuminari a ueritate increata ... concludi potest aliquid pertinens ad rem;

33. f. 70 Sequitur an solus deus doceat secundum quod dicitur Mt 23[:8] vnus est ma[gister] uester Christus ... uoluntate latronis;

34. f. 72v De uisione intellectuali queritur quid subiaceat huic visioni et primo an intellectus aptus sit ad cognoscendum ... potenciis inferioribus;

35. f. 75 Sequitur an uirtutes se ipsis videantur ab intellectu sicut videtur velle Augustinus super Genesim ... ideo patet quod non procedit obieccio;

36. f. 77v Sequitur de mente an semper nouerit se quod sicut videtur omne cognoscens ... manifestius apparet. Nota de hoc A[ugustinus] libro 14 de tri[nitate] c. 10. 12. 12. 13. 18. et libro 15 c.63. 64;

37. f. 79 Sequitur an deus uisibilis sit uisione intellectuali ... ut prehabitum est;

38. f. 80v Sequitur an sola naturalia sufficiant anime ut visione intellectuali videat deum in se siue per speciem quod non uidetur ... videt faciem suam;

39. (a) f. 83v Quia videtur A[ugustinus] uelle 6 musice c. 8 quod sensibile in mittendo (?) speciem suam non agat nisi in organum corporum et non in ipsam animam ... (b) f. 84v marginal note, s. xiv1 (hic deficit folium et plus) ... in excelsum crebri locum tanquam in celum corporis nostri vnde et radii emicant oculorum etc.;

40. f. 86 Sequitur vtrum species uel ymagines sensibilium transseant a sensu in spiritum siue in memoriam uel ibi fiant a spiritu ... in speculo animo. etc.;

41. f. 88 Ad manifestem suppositi cuiusdam scilicet quod spiritus fantasmatus siue ymaginatiua adquirat sibi rerum ymagines et non habet eas sibi inditas ... antequam interrogaretur uel doceret;

42. f. 88v An spiritus faciat in se et de se ymagines corporum ... et sic et formatum format organum;

43. f. 90v/a Item queritur vtrum ymagines in spiritu sicut substantie uel accidencia ... sensitiua non percipiat;

44. f. 91 Sequitur de uisione intellectuali an scilicet quo intellectus cognoscit sit species siue intencio uniuersalis (?) uel indiuidualis ... et generatio non esset id ipsum;

45. f. 92 Sequitur de eo quod est intellectiua anima. An cognoscitur per aliquid indiuiduale ... cognosci per speciem vniuersalis tantum;

46. f. 92v Item quod intellectus cognoscat id quod sub se (est) cognoscat scilicet particulare sensibile per intencionem indiuidualem ... particulare sensibile sicut supra habitum est;

47. f. 94 Sequitur an intellectus possibilis sit vnus re uel numero in omnibus hominibus ... adueniunt vnicuique indiuiduo ut patebit prima;

48. f. 98 De intellectu etiam possibili queritur an sit aptus intelligere intellectum agentem et formas abstractas per naturam ... de substancia dei sed de nichilo;

49. f. 102 Sequitur an id quo intellectus possibilis intelligit sic idem apud omnes ... secundum substanciam quod aer;

50. f. 108v Sequitur de intuitione actu intellecta quid sit re. an sit in substancia uel accidens uel nec substancia uel nec accidens ... fuit in potencia receptiua;

51. f. 110 Sequitur de intellectu possibiili qualiter cognoscit animam sensitiuam uel uegetatiuam ... specialis ratione pretacta.

Quaestiones: twenty-two articles, on (?) topics of Peter Lombard, Sententiae bks 1-2, frequently citing Augustine, also e.g. Alpharabius, De intellectu (ff. 95v, 103v). The text runs on, without indented initials or line-breaks, but with questions 2-4, 8-9 and 13 numbered in the margin; otherwise fresh articles being identifiable only from inconspicuous side-notes, some underlining, and the later contents-table, f. 2. The article numbered `13', f. 88, is in fact the twelfth; this may be because the start of article [11] was omitted as part of the deficit noted on f. 84v, but the purported omission is doubtful, for there is no clear break in the argument at the point indicated.

f. 111v final line of col. b left blank.

(D) s. xiii/xiv

ff. 112-123:

52. f. 112 Sequitur per quid possit cognosci et ostendi potencias anime differre ab inuicem non numero tantum ... in questione que est de hoc;

53. f. 114 De consciencia queritur an sit substancia mentis ... elicitum a potencia affectiua;

54. f. 115v Habito quod consciencia non sit substancia anime sed accidens sequitur an sit accidens innatum uel adquisitum aut infusum ... in potencia essentiali;

54. f. 117 Sequitur de obiecto consciencie proprio quid sit ... secundum quod tale;

55. f. 118 Sequitur questio de actu consciencie intellectus speculatiuus per extencionem ad opus fit paraclitus ... actus est proprius ut patet in proposicio;

56. f. 119 Sequitur questio an consciencia sit lex. si sit lex an sit lex intellectus ... sic non est lex. ¶ Super respondende ad 3m;

57. f. 119v Sequitur questio vtrum conscientia sit lex intellectus uel affectus ... ultima et propinqua;

58. f. 120v Sequitur questio vtrum consciencia sit in ratione superiore uel inferiore uel in utrum ... enim docet et dicando dirigit;

59. f. 122 Sequitur questio de habicudine consciencie ad uirtutes ... uirtutes secundo et deliberatiue;

60. f. 122v Quia pluries facta est mencio de lege intellectus uel mentis et de lege naturali et de lege consciencie ... tunc lex conscientie aut dicitur intransitiue aut transitiue. primo modo lex secunda predictarum.

Quaestiones: nine articles; and, item 60, a brief expository section.

f. 123v blank, unruled.

(E) s. xiii/xiv

ff. 124-156v:

61. f. 124 Questio est de sinderesi de qua dicitur Eze.i.[5] et ex medio eius similitudo quatuor animalium ibi glosa Jeronimus plerique ... possit dici potencia;

62. f. 124v Supposito quod sinderesis sit habitus alicuius potencie anime rationalis. sequitur questio utrum potencie

cognitiue uel motiue ... de aliis accionibus intellige;

63. f. 126v Consequenter queritur utrum sinderesis habitus partim adquiritur sicut conscientia an totaliter ... ex errore consciencie dictantis quandoque errat;

64. f. 127 Sequitur utrum sinderesis peccet cum errat et uidetur quod sic ... que continet sinderesim;

65. f. 128 Sequitur utrum sinderesis regulet conscienciam uel reguletur ab ea ... comparatur scintille a Ieronimo;

66. f. 128v Sequitur an sinderesis quo ad habitum uel actum in uita ista possit extingui ... sed ei non obedit liberum arbitrium;

67. f. 129v Sequitur utrum sinderesis in dampnatur [for dampnatis] priuetur omni usu rationis ... pro statu iam eleccionum et post;

68. f. 130v Set quia hic et supra suppositum est quod in dampnatis est aliqua noticia ueritatis ideo queritur an hoc sit verum ... quod sensualitas subdenda est rationi;

69. f. 131 Sequitur de sensualitate utrum sit aliquid anime sensitiue tantum uel sit etiam anime rationalis ... quod sit potencie anime sensitiue rationalis;

69. f. 132/a8 Supposito quod sensualitas sit potencia anime sensitiue queritur an sit potencia cognitiua uel appetitiua ... quod est appetitus rerum ad corpus pertinencium;

69. f. 132v Consequenter queritur utrum peccatum sit in sensualitate ... H[ugo de S. Victore] De sacramenta et aliis quibusdam uiris auctenticis;

70. f. 133 Supposito quod peccatum ueniale non tantum casualiter immo essentialiter possit esse in sensualitate, queritur an sic similiter peccatum mortale ... contra spiritum siue rationem repugnantia;

71. f. 133v Sequitur de vi irascibili et concupiscibili utrum sint eadem potencia differens per actus uel officia tantum an diuerse potencie ... contra rationalem siue cognitiuam et que est potencia differens ab ea;

72. f. 134v Sequitur de obiecto uis irascibilis et concupiscibilis quid sit re ... sed quandoque rationi rebelles fiant;

73. f. 135v Sequitur de actu vis concupiscibilis qui est concupiscere qualis esset illud concupiscere est actus anime sensitiue ... conuenit alteri per se set non primo;

74. f. 136 Sequitur an possibile sit carnem concupiscere contra spiritum ... in potencie quam potencie ut prehabitum est;

75. f. 136v Sequitur de concupiscencia an dicat habitum uel priuacionem uel aliquid partim habens de habitu partim de priuacione ... habet deficientem vnde prima ibi falsa est;

76. f. 137 Sequitur an iste uires scilicet concupiscibilis et irascibilis sint in anima rationali ... obiecta alia ut puto concludit uerum;

77. f. 137v Sequitur de libero arbitrio et primo an sit quod sit probacio vniuersum perfectum est Deuter. 32[:4] dei perfecta sunt opera ... quod gratia compatitur secum liberum arbitrium probat Augustinus De concordia et c. 23. 24. 25. 26;

78. f. 138v Sequitur an liberum arbitrium sit in brutis ... delectatur libere facit primo modo non;

79. f. 139v Sequitur de libero arbitrio an sit in deo ... que cause ydeales in deo fuerint ab eterno;

80. f. 140 Sequitur an liberum arbitrium eque sit in omnibus deo scilicet et creaturis et an eque in omnibus creaturis ... ad uolendum eque conuenit omni libero arbitrio;

81. f. 140v Sequitur quorum est liberum arbitrium siue in eius acciones libere potest ... faciendum uel non faciendum secundum iudicium rationis;

81. f. 141v Sequitur de libero arbitrio. quid sit re. scilicet an substantia potencia uel habitus et etiam quid sit diffinitione et ista questio alibi scripta est. set hic inseratur (3 lines left blank; change of ink)

82. f. 141v Sequitur de intellectu possibili qualiter cognoscit se ipsum utrum scilicet se ipso uel per speciem ... quam forma materialis et intencio sua ut iam patet;

83. f. 144 Sequitur an sit memoria intellectiue sicut et sensitiue ... quod memoria corporalium est anime sensitiue non intellectiue;

84. f. 147 Sequitur questio de anima sensitiua et uegetatiua brutali ... anime sensitiue a conueniente aliquo modo ut patet ex predictis;

85. f. 151 Sequitur an educcio anime sensitiue brutalis uel uegetatiue fuerit successiua an subita ... contra mutacionem que fit sub subito ideo obiectio illa non procedit;

86. f. 152v Sequitur an sensitiua hominis educatur uel creetur ... nec esse actuale potest amittere. ideo sic factus est ut semper sit;

87. f. 154 Sequitur an anima rationalis creetur uel educatur de potencia ad actum ... difficile est intelligere uel etiam fingere ideo hoc omittatur;

88. f. 156 Sequitur questio an anima rationalis sit mortalis ut scilicet corrumpatur corrupto corpore ... anima enim quo ad suum ending imperfectly.

Quaestiones: thirty articles, the last imperfect, with the opening only of another (item 81), at which point the subject matter changes. Avicenna, De vi informativa, cited f. 148/b; `augustinus ... in libro suo de anima' in the text is corrected marginally by a contemporary hand to `auicenna', f.145.

Spaces left in the text at a number of points suggest that the copyist had difficulty with the exemplar. Items 64-68 numbered in the margin by the main hand, 10-11 and 13-15.

Corrections and annotations:

Original side-notes in (A-D), including vestiges of an alphabetic indexing system in (C). Some supplies of missing matter in (C) show that an exemplar was available for checking by the original copyists and an early annotator.

Corrections and annotations by more than one contemporaneous hand, in ink and soft brown, largely in the early part of (A); markings include a profile of a human face, with tonsure, e.g. f. 84v, or distinctive hand-pointers, e.g. ff. 85, 88.

`Hic' added at the beginning of item 15 in soft brown in the margin, followed by `Questio' against item 16, 3-6 against items 17-20 and `non plus' at the end item 20, are perhaps directions to a subsequent copyist.


Written in England or France; (C-D) largely in an English script. (E) possibly by `H de messingham': the name is written in what appears to be the text hand f. 133 lower outer corner, too early to be the s. xv in. fellow of Merton College Oxford, Nicholas de Messingham s.xv in.

Secundo folio: pa nichil (f. 4).

`precij v s.', f. 1, s.xiii/xiv. `Johannis Mankael', f. 1, s. xiv, below the press-mark, `Distinctio vii Gradus III', of St Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury, refers to the donor of this and thirty-eight 38 other volumes, several of which survive; he is named as if he had been a part-author of this manuscript in the catalogue of s. xv ex., ed. M. R. James, The Ancient Libraries of Canterbury and Dover, (1903), p. 262 no 616, but its contents probably all pre-date him, for he became D.D. c. 1325-9 and d. 1334, see BRUO 1214-15; A. B. Emden, Donors of Books to St Augustine's, Canterbury, Oxford Bibliographical Soc. Occasional Publications 4, (1968), pp. 12-13. `Questiones diuerse super sententias', at head of lower cover, in ink, s.xv/xvi.

`JBaxter 1570', f. 3, several in Alumni Cantabrigienses, none for this period in Oxonienses, perhaps the rector of St Mary the Less (d. 1572). `Samuell Bushe', f. 159v upside-down, s.xvi/xvii.

`Geo.Davenport. 1664.'. f 1v; `Theologia Scholastica' in his hand, f. 2.

Binding: rust-marks from two fastenings on outer edge of f. 1. Sides, laid down on s. xix boards, of s. xv/xvi tooled leather: a lozenge stamp with the initials PI, and a large rose in a circle, which have been attributed by Graham Pollard to Peter Ingram of Canterbury, c. 1510. The lozenge occurs on two other manuscripts, Bodl. MSS Bodley 391, from St Augustine's Canterbury, and Arch.Seld.B.14 (Chaucer), the latter illustrated in B. Boyd, Chaucer and the Medieval Book, (San Marino U.S.A., 1973), pl. iii. Spine replaced, s. xix med., two clasps; spine-title `Theologia scholastica'.