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Durham University

Special Collections

DUL MS Cosin V.I.2

Breviarium sec. usum Ebor., cum notis, defect. s. xv med.

These incomplete draft descriptions of medieval manuscripts in Durham University Library are copyright, and may not be quoted without the permission of the University of Durham Library.

Owing to inconsistencies with the source software, accented characters appear in varying compound forms. This has not yet been rationalized.

28/2/90 AJP revision of AID + AJP

A large and handsome book, about half of which is now apparently missing, chiefly from items 1 and 15.

The noted pieces are in items 1-5, 9, 11, 13-15.

The book is made up of five distinguishable sections, (A - E). It is possible that item 11, the principal item of (C), was the first part of the book to be made: it is different from the rest in written space, hand and illuminated initials. The other sections are uniform in written space and number of lines, but the whole of (B) and the start of (E) are in different hands from the hand that was responsible for the original part of (A), for (D), for the completion of (E) and for the addition of item 12 at the end of (C). All the sections contain the work of a single distinctive flourisher, who also decorated the cadels.

A little later items 4 and 5 were added at the end of (A).

[1] + 106 + [1]. Membrane (0.15 mm.; a few natural edges and flaws), c. 475 x 345 mm. Lower outer corners of items 10 and 11, Kalendar and Common of time, soiled and worn from thumbing, especially, ff. 40-45. Some lower margins and corners cut off; some tears, repaired, and other damage.

Collation: (A: ff. 1-19) 1 two (ff. 1-2), 28, 38 + 1 leaf (f. 19) after 8; (B: ff. 20-25) 48 wants 1 (blank ?) before f. 20 and 3 after f. 20; (C: ff. 26-48) 58 wants 8 after f. 32, 68 wants 1 before f. 33, 78 wants 4-5 after f. 42, 84 wants 4 after f. 48; (D: ff. 49-60) 98 wants 1-2 before f. 49 (now bound as 2 quires with stubs before the second, f. 53), 106; (E: ff. 61-106) 118 wants 1 before f. 61, 128 wants 3-7 after f. 69, 138 wants 6 after f. 75, 14-168, 17 five (ff. 102-106). Catchwords, or traces of their decorative frames, on quires 2, 6, 11-13 and 15-16.

No evidence of pricking. Ruling in sharp greyish black. Two columns, or, item 10 (Kalendar), long lines.

(A-B, D-E) Written space 410-415 x 280-285 (127.28.130) mm.; 63 lines.

(C) Written space 400 x 280 (128.28.128) mm., 52 lines; or, f. 48, 394 x 282 (130.21.131) mm., 62 lines.

Written in liturgical textura, proficiently, by six hands: I, ff. 1-18v/1, 47/b12-60v and 70-106v, also correction on f. 34v/a-b; II, ff. 18v/a-19v; III, ff. 20-21v and 23-25v; IV, ff. 21v-22v; V. ff. 26-47/b11; VI, ff. 61-69v. Descenders of bottom line occasionally elaborated, by main flourishing hand, e.g. ff. 34v, 65, 81.

Cadels, largely by the same hand as the flourishing of type (ii, iii) initials, see distinctive feature, with human profiles in (C) and occasionally elsewhere (ff. 49v, 50v, 89v seq.), executed in part at least after flourishing of type (xx) initials, see ff. 43v-44. Those of ff. 80-83v, 86- 87, 93r-v and 97-98v, apart from sketchy profiles, not fully decorated; likewise in items 4 and 9, both added.

Notation square, with letter-form clefs, on 4-line red staves, by three hands: I, ff. 1v-19v, 45r-v (Te deum) and 49-70; II, ff. 22r-v and 26-44; III, ff. 71-106v. Executed in part at least after decoration of the cadels and type (xx) initials, see e.g. f. 56. Alternative for Magnificat added in H-form notation, f. 49.

Decoration: text-capitals and cadels washed with yellow. Paraphs in items 1-3, 10, 12-14, blue.

(i) to and in item 6 and to verses in items 3, 11, 13-15, for 'A' of every seventh day in item 10, 'Sancte' in item 11 litany, and to rubric giving days in item 15, 1-line, blue and, items 3, 10, 11, 13-15, alternately red;

(ii) to item 6 and to lections, collects and chapters of items 1-4, 8, 12, 13 and 15, for 'KL' starting each month of item 10, and to psalms except as (iv, vi-vii) below in item 11, 2-line, in blue, with infilling and flourishing in red; or, item 4 and correction ff. 14 and 55, plain red;

(iii) to hymns and principal antiphons and responsories of items 1-4, 11, 13 and 15, and to Uenite in item 14, 3-line (i.e. 1 text-line + stave), as (ii);

(iv) in item 11 (see below), 4-line, in blue and red, with infilling in red and flourishing in red and ink

(v) to item 3 and in item 15 (see below), 5-line or 2-line + staves, in blue and red, with infilling in red and, except f. 64v, ink, and flourishing in red and, f. 64v, ink;

(vi) in item 11 (see below), 6-line, illuminated, in orange and blue or pink patterned with yellow, and combed and shaded with white with notches, on grounds of, and filled with, gold with notches, decorated with reflexed foliage in blue shaded to white, pink shaded to white, orange shaded to deep pink, and green shaded to black, some with a flower with prominent pistil in orange patterned with yellow, extended with champ sprays in ink with small green leaves gold burrs or, f. 34, blobs, and, except f. 38, foliage as within initial, the height of the written space and, f. 32, across lower margin, or, f. 36, upper margin;

(vii) to item 11 Beatus, 8-line, illuminated, as (vi), but with bar of gold and deep pink in left and lower margins, supporting sprays and foliage, and with top and right margins filled with sprays as (vi) with foliage and also both burrs and blobs in gold.

Flourishing, also cadels and elaborated text descenders, in a single hand, with a distinctive feature of 'oo' across marginal tendrils terminating in a clover-leaf.

No running-titles.

Contents:

(A)

1. ff. 1-11 (beginning imperfectly) cisi hominis bibamus. Tu autem domine mis. Leccio Tercia. Credendum est quod in uerbis christi sacramenta ... ... ait dominus deus.

Temporal, ... Octava Corporis Christi, lectio ii - Dominica v Novembris. Brev. Ebor. i,550 c. line 41 - 618. Many lections are longer and fuller (e.g. ff. 2r-v, 3, 7, 11), and there are six, rather than three lections, 'de septem pueris' (f. 9r-v); the lectiones feriales in historia (Brev. Ebor. i,582) are omitted (f. 5).

2. ff. 11-15v Hic incipiunt exposiciones euangeliorum ... In illo tempore ... Homo quidam erat diues et induebatur purpura ... ... Or. Exita [sic] domine.

Expositiones evangeliorum, Octava Pentecostes - Adventus Domini. Brev. Ebor. i,618-652.

3. ff. 15v-18v Et notandum est quod si ab octauas pasche ... ... veniamque flagitabat. iij ultime lecciones de exposicione euangelij ut supra in die.

Festum dedicationis ecclesie, and through octave. Brev. Ebor. i,652-673/4, followed by a cross-reference for final three lections.

Arts 4-5 were added on space and an extra leaf at the end of quire 3, s. xv med.

4. ff. 18v-19v Laus tibi domine rex omnipotens ... ... Uenerande estis. Ps. Benedictus ... oratio ut supra.

Common of virgins, without lections. Brev. Ebor. ii,69-76. This supplies in part the omission in art. 13 below, which was perhaps due to the fact that there were no feasts in this class in the York Use, all groups of virgins being martyrs as well. If the addition was made here for more than the sake of theoretical completeness, it was perhaps done to provide for SS Perpetua and Felicity, who occur in the Kalendar below (f. 23v) but not in all York Kalendars, and who, although martyrs, were treated as virgins in the Sarum Use; they are not, however, mentioned at the appropriate point in the Sanctorale, art. 15 below (f. 77).

5. f. 19v Memoria de cruce ad uesperas. Per signum crucis ... ... exultate iusti. Pro pace Da pacem. V. Fiat pax.

Antiphons of memoriae (noted). Brev. Ebor. i,940/4 - 944/21. At this point without the prayers; these are in the original text, with the antiphons (no music), art. 8 below.

6. f. 20 Benedicciones dicende sunt per totum annum ... Benediccione perpetua: benedicat nos pater eternus ... ... ueniam pia uirgo.

Benedictiones. Brev. Ebor. i pp. 16-18 (between cols 726 and 727).

(B)

7. ff. 20-21v Ordo officiorum dominicalium inter octauas Epiphanie et lxxiijam ... Ferialiter Dominica ja. xix kl Febr. ... ... Dominica ixa vo kl Augusti. Et cetere dominice ... litteram dominicalem C.

Rubrica de dominicis, defective. BUIEE i,705-711/22, 719/32- 726; text lost between ff. 20 and 21 amounting to no more than one folio.

4 lines left blank f. 21v, before following item.

8. ff. 21v-22 Ad matutinas suffragia de cruce. Ant. Per signum crucis ... ... Deus auctor pacis ... Benedicamus domino.

Memoriae. Brev. Ebor. i,940-944. Item 5 above (added) repeats the antiphons, but with music.

9. (added, s. xv med.) f. 22r-v Primus tonus. Domine dominus noster ... Euouae ... Neuma. Neuma. Benedictus ... Magnificat ... ijus tonus. ... ... viija tonus ... Magnificat ... In exitu israel ... populo barbaro. Tempore paschali ... Benedicamus domino alleluya. alleluya ... Benedicamus domino.

Tonale.

10. ff. 23-25v iij A KL Ianuarius. Circumcisio domini ... Sancti Siluestris <...>

Kalendar, with principal feasts in red, graded for memoria, ix lc. in black or red, duplex festum, duplex festum de minoribus, and duplex festum principale. Brev. Ebor. i pp. 3-14 (between cols 726 and 727). Deposition of Edward is on 7 Jan. Omissions: Chad (2 March), Theodulus (2 May), abp of York as a description of John of Beverley (7 May), Maccabees (1 Aug.), Audeon (24 Aug.), Vedast Bavo & Piaton (1 Oct.), octave of Andrew (7 Dec). Included: Perpetua & Felicity (7 March), Rusticus & Eleutherius (9 Oct.).

Later additions: Chad (2 March), Zita (27 April), Osmund (4 Dec.).

Visitation added, 2 April, 'statutum est celebrari vt festum principale per mandatum synodalem isto die', in error for 2 July (?): later erased.

None of the differences is reflected in the surviving portion of the Sanctoral itself, art. 15 below.

Numbers of obits were added in various hands, see below.

(C)

11. ff. 26-47 Ad matutinas in omnibus dominicis ... Nocte surgentes ... ... Omnium sanctorum intercessionibus ... dominum nostrum. Amen.

Commune de tempore, defective. Brev. Ebor. i,727-780/16, 799/6-898/25, 915/4-939; two gaps, between ff. 32 and 33, and ff. 42 and 43. The O.T. canticles and Quicunque vult are with the other canticles, ff. 44-46. Ps lxxxix is not displaced, f. 37. Seasonal versicles are provided for Sunday matins, ff. 27v, 28, 29; seasonal chapters for matins on Sunday, f. 29, and Monday, f. 31v. Monday matins ends with Preces minores (Brev. Ebor. i,893-895), Preces maiores and a long rubric (f. 32). The rubrics are generally fuller, e.g. ff. 26r-v, 27v, 29. Almost half the text on f. 34v was erased and rewritten before the decoration was executed, presumably to rectify the omission of Ps lxxi, or perhaps of Ps lxxii.

Initials: type (iv) to Ps cxviii, f. 41; type (vi) to Pss xxvi, xxxviii, lxviii, lxxx, xcv and cix, ff. 30 (cut out), 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40; type (vii) to Ps. i.



12. ff. 47-48v In commemoracione omnium sanctorum ... Capitulum. Sancti per fidem ... ... indiget auxilio. Nam (ending imperfectly).

Commemorations of All Saints, William of York, and B.V.M. Brev. Ebor. i,702-706, 690-697, 673-685/19.

(D)

13. ff. 49-58v (beginning imperfectly) cut columbe. Euouae. Capitulum. Unicuique ... ... homini negociatori ... Rm et or. ut supra.

Common of saints, ...Evangelist - Virgin, Matron. Brev. Ebor. ii,11/15 - 69, 76-82, with some longer lections (ff. 49v, 51r), without lections i-vi Plurimorum martyrum (f. 52r-v), Unius virginis non martyris (f. 57r-v), Unius matrone (f. 58v), or lections vii-ix Plurimorum confessorum (f. 56v). The lections Unius confessoris omit Matt. 5:13 and its homily, and have Mark 13:33 before Matt. 5:14, followed by Luke 11:13 with a homily attributed to Bede beginning 'De seipso dominus loquitur' (f. 55r-v); Luke 11:13 is subsequently only cued, not given in full (f. 56v, cf. Brev. Ebor. ii,53-54). The omission of any provision Plurimarum virginum was supplied in art. 4 above.

14. ff. 58v-60v Venite exultemus ... in secula seculorum. Amen.

Venitare. Ten complete texts with music.

Lower two-thirds of f. 60v/b blank.

(E)

15. ff. 61-106v (beginning imperfectly) de membris domini ... ... Uenit Ihesus in partes

Sanctoral, ...Andrew - Peter ad vincula..., defective. Brev. Ebor. ii,88/39 - 145/24, 164/38-197, 205-435/9. Five leaves missing between ff. 69 and 70, containing close of Agnes - beginning of Conversion of Paul, and one between ff. 75 and 76, containing Valentine - beginning of Cathedra of Peter. For St William the alternative lections vi-ix (Brev. Ebor. ii,304-305) are omitted, but three lections are provided for the second, third and fifth days within the Octave, ff. 90v- 91v. Different lections are provided within the Octaves of Andrew, f. 62r-v, and John the Baptist, f. 99. For Chad three rather than nine lections were provided originally, later (s. xv/xvi) divided into nine by marginal numbers, ff. 76v-77. The first lection is given in full for Mark, f. 84v, and John ante Portam Latinam, f. 86v. It seems, from changes of ink and the squashed up appearance of some lections, that they were inserted into inadequate spaces which had been left blank for them, e.g. Ambrose lection viii and the first part of lection ix, f. 83; George lection iii, f. 84.

Initials of type (v) to Conception Concepcio, Purification Specialis, and Annunciation Spiritus, of B.V.M., and to John Baptist vigil Ex utero.

Corrections & Annotation:

Early corrections in textura, over erasures, e.g. ff. 13/b, 32, 34v (a whole psalm squeezed in, by hand I), 105, some following cursive marginal notes; and by later hands, s. xv- xvi, indicative of attentive use. f. 92v/b

Written in England, perhaps before 1456 since Osmund was not originally in the Kalendar (item 10), but the style of illumination in item 11 is not much earlier.

Secundo folio gone.

'Whoso owne me that dothe loke | Iame the chowrche of rudbyys bowke | Who so dothe say the contrary | I reporte me to awll the parysshyngby', s. xvi in., f. 23, referring to the church of Hutton Rudby (N. Yorks.); pentrials in the same hand, 'manvs merytary debys( ?)', 'vale ne tutubes mandata que franggas', f. 20.

'Thomas Sayer Ropayer hollun Roger armestrag', s. xvi in., f. 21.

Additions to the Kalendar, item 10, include 'Induxcio ven. magistri et dompni Cuthberti Conyers doctoris et rectoris ecclesie parochialis de Rudby' 1513 (27 Aug.); 'Bellum quod vocatur flodun' 1513 (12 Sept.). Among obits several refer to the parish of Hutton Rudby: Cuthbert Conyers Doctor of Decrees archdeacon of Carlisle and rector of [Hutton] Rudby and Weym 1517 (7 Apr., and cf. in another hand, 10 Apr. 'Obitus Domini Cuthberti Conyers De'), Master Cowper formerly rector of Rudby 1517 (23 Aug.), Thomas Lovell Doctor of both laws and rector of Rudby 1524 (3 July), Thomas Laton of Saxhowe armiger 1524/5 (12 Jan.), Joan Wissehede of Hotton 1528 (14 Oct.), Thomas Huntter of Hotton iuxta Rudby 1529 (9 May), Thomas Lyndley of Skotteskelfe armiger 1530 (8 May), William Pacoke 'parochus ecclesiarum parochialium de Rudby' 1545 (25 June), and cf. Cuthbert Place clerk formerly rector rest lost (4 Aug.). Other obits are: Simon Gudwen 1518 (22 Nov.), William Robynson 1520(?, 11 Mar.), Margaret Heryson 1522 (5 Aug.), Alice Tonstall 1524 (13 June), Margery Laton 1525 (31 July), Alison Modersall 1528 (21 Sept.), Ralph Smyth 1529 (in red, 26 Sept.), Cecilia Hunt 1530 (10 Sept.), Dominus Thomas Armestrange 1537 (26 Aug.), Robert Smythe 1538 (29 Mar.), Perceval Reyd 1553 (2 May), William Elden 1553/4 (5 Mar.).

In the Kalendar, item 10, feasts of Thomas of Canterbury scratched out, 7 July and 29 Dec.; also 'pape'. Music and some texts for William abp crossed through, ff. 89-90, also his commemoration, ff. 47v-48; likewise translation of Thomas, f. 101. 'pape' in rubric, crossed through, also in text, with 'episcope' substituted in margin, f. 77.

'Joh. Scarth', s. xvii, f. 20, perhaps an owner.

Cosin's Library inscription, by Thomas Rud, s. xviii in., f. 1.

Binding: standard, s. xix med.; 2 clasps, 1 missing.

Brev. Ebor.: Breviarium ad usum insignis ecclesie Eboracensis i-ii, ed. [S. W.] Lawley, (Surtees Soc. 71 & 75; 1880 & 1883).