Professor Sarah Banks, MA, MSW, PhD
Sarrah Banks has a background in community development and worked in the voluntary sector and local authority social services before joining Durham University. Her degrees are in philosophy, social history and social work. Her research interests include professional ethics, community development and community-based participatory research.
Sarah is co-director of the Centre for Social Justice and Community Action at Durham University, which promotes and supports participatory action research for social justice. She co-convenes the Social Work Ethics Research Group of the European Social Work Research Association. She initiated and convened for many years the European Social Ethics Project - a group of academics from various countries who undertook research and curriculum development work on the theme of teaching practical ethics. She has been involved in developing and revising codes of ethics for several national and international bodies over the years, including The National Youth Agency, International Federation of Social Workers and the British Association of Social Workers. She coordinated production of ethical guidelines in the UK for community-based participatory research and internationally for participatory health research. She is a member of the Executive Committee of the International Collaboration for Participatory Health Research, a long-standing Board Member of Durham Community Action and a Trustee of the Society for the Furtherance of Critical Philosophy.
Sarah supervises PhD students who are exploring aspects of community development work, youth work, ethics and policy practice in social work. She welcomes applications from intending PhD students in the fields of professional ethics, practitioner values and motivations, and community development. She is also keen to encourage postgraduate research projects that take a participatory action research approach.
Recent books include: Ethics, Equity and Community Development (edited with Peter Westoby); Co-producing Research: A Community Development Approach (co-edited); Ethics in Participatory Research for Health and Social Well-being (edited with Mary Brydon-Miller); Participatory Research for Health and Social Well-Being (co-authored); the fourth edition of Ethics and Values in Social Work ( also translated into Japanse and Chinese); the edited collection Ethical Issues in Youth Work (2nd edition); Ethics in Professional Life: Virtues for Health and Social Care (co-authored with Ann Gallagher) and the edited collection: Practising Social Work Ethics around the World: Cases and Commentaries (co-edited with Kirsten Nøhr).
Recent research projects include work on civic participation and community development, household debt and community organising, faith and bioethics, co-inquiry action research, ethical challenges in community-based participatory research.
Read about the Connected Communities research project, Imagine https://www.dur.ac.uk/beacon/socialjustice/researchprojects/imagine
Action research with Thrive Teesside on high cost credit in poor households https://www.dur.ac.uk/beacon/socialjustice/researchprojects/debt_on_teesside
Work on ethics in community-based participatory research https://www.dur.ac.uk/beacon/socialjustice/ethics_consultation/
- Banks, Sarah (2016). ソーシャルワークの倫理と価値. 法律文化社 (Horitsu Bunksha).
- Banks, S. (2014). 社會工作倫理與價值 (Ethics and Values in Social Work). Hungyeh Publishing.
- Banks, S. (2014). Ethics. Bristol: Policy Press.
- Banks, Sarah, Rifkin, Frances, Davidson, Heather, Holmes, Claire & Moore, Niamh (2014). Performing Ethics: Using participatory theatre to explore ethical issues in community-based participatory research. Durham: Centre for Social Justice and Community Action, Durham University.
- Banks, S. (2012). Ethics and Values in Social Work. (fourth edition). Basingstoke & New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Banks, S. & Gallagher, A. (2009). Ethics in professional life: virtues for health and social care. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Butcher, H., Banks, S., Henderson, P. & Robertson, J. (2007). Critical Community Practice. Bristol: Policy Press.
- Banks, S. (2004). Ethics, Accountability and the Social Professions. Basingstoke New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Chapter in book
- Banks, Sarah , Armstrong, Andrea Bonner, Anne Hall, Yvonne Harman, Patrick Johnston, Luke Levi, Clare Smith, Kath & Taylor, Ruth (2019). Between research and community development: Negotiating a contested space for collaboration and creativity. In Co-Producing Research: A Community Development Approach. Banks, Sarah , Hart, Angie Pahl, Kate & Ward, Paul Bristol: Policy Press. 21-48.
- Banks, S. & Brydon-Miller, M. (2019). Ethics in participatory research. In Ethics in participatory research for health and social well-being: Cases and commentaries. Banks, S. & Brydon-Miller, M. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. 1-30.
- Banks, Sarah (2019). Ethics, equity and community development: Mapping the terrain. In Ethics, equity and community development. Banks, Sarah & Westoby, Peter Policy Press. 3-35.
- Banks, S. (2018). Cultivating researcher integrity: virtue-based approaches to research ethics. In Virtue ethics in the conduct and governance of social science research. Emmerich, N. Bingley: Emerald. 3: 21-44.
- Banks, S. (2018). Practising professional ethical wisdom: the role of 'ethics work' in the social welfare field. In Cultivating character and virtue in professional practice. Carr, D. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. 55-69.
- Meade, R., Shaw, M. & Banks, S. (2016). Politics, power and community development: an introductory essay. In Politics, power and community development. Meade, R., Shaw, M. & Banks, S. Bristol: Policy Press. 1-30.
- Banks, Sarah (2016). Professional Integrity: From Conformity to Commitment. In Rethinking Values and Ethics in Social Work. Hugman, R. & Carter, J. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 49-63.
- Banks, Sarah (2015). Action research for social justice: researching and organising on issues of household debt. In Innovations in Social Work Research: Using Methods Creatively. Hardwick, L., Smith, R. & Worsley, A. London: Jessica Kingsley. 18-39.
- Banks, Sarah (2015). Social Work Ethics. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. Wright, J. Elsevier. 22: 782-788.
- Banks, S. (2012). Global ethics for social work? A case-based approach. In Practising Social Work Ethics Around the World: Cases and Commentaries. Banks, S. & Nøhr, K. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. 1-31.
- Banks, S. (2011). 'Re-gilding the ghetto: community work and community development in 21st-century Britain.'. In Radical Social Work Today: Social Work at the Crossroads. Lavalette, M. Bristol: Policy Press. 165-185.
- Banks, S. (2010). From Professional Ethics to Ethics in Professional Life: Reflections on Learning and Teaching in Social Work. In Ethical Dilemmas in Social Work: International Perspectives. Zavirsek, D., Rommelspacher, B. & Staub-Bernasconi, S. Ljubljana: Faculty of Social Work, University of Ljubljana. 119-132.
- Banks, S., Hart, A., Pahl, K. & Ward, P. (2019). Co-producing research: a community development approach. Connected Communties. Policy Press.
- Banks, S. & Brydon-Miller, M. (2019). Ethics in participatory research for health and social well-being: Cases and commentaries. Routledge.
- Banks, Sarah & Westoby, Peter (2019). Ethics, equity and community development. Rethinking Community Development. Policy Press.
- Meade, R., Shaw, M. & Banks, S. (2016). Politics, power and community development. Rethinking Community Development. Bristol: Policy Press.
- Banks, S., Butcher, H., Orton, A. & Robertson, J. (2013). Managing Community Practice (Second Edition). Policy Press.
- Banks, S., Butcher, H., Orton, A. & Robertson, J. (2013). Managing Community Practice: Principles, Policies and Programmes. Bristol: Policy Press.
- Banks. S. & Armstrong, A. (2012). Ethics in community-based participatory research: Case studies, case examples and commentaries. National Coordinating Centre for Public Engagement, Bristol.
- Banks, S. & Nohr, K. (2012). Practising Social Work Ethics Around the World: Cases and Commentaries. London: Routledge.
- Banks, S. (2010). Ethical Issues in Youth Work. London: Routledge.
- Banks, S., Butcher, H., Henderson, P. & Robertson, J. (2003). Managing Community Practice: Principles, Policies and Programmes. Bristol: The Policy Press.
- Banks, S. & Nohr, K. (2003). Teaching Practical Ethics for the Social Professions. Copenhagen: FESET.
- Gallagher, Ann, Banks, Sarah, Jago, Robert, Zasada, Magdalena, Austin, Zubin & van der Gaag, Anna (2020). Exploring the Context of Fitness to Practise Concerns About Social Workers in England: Explanations Beyond Individuals. Ethics and Social Welfare 14(2): 187-203.
- Banks, Sarah, Zasada, Magdalena, Jago, Robert, Gallagher, Ann, Austin, Zubin & van der Gaag, Anna (2020). Social Workers under the Spotlight: An Analysis of Fitness to Practise Referrals to the Regulatory Body in England, 2014–2016. The British Journal of Social Work 50(2): 326-347.
- Weinberg, Merlinda & Banks, Sarah (2019). Practising Ethically in Unethical Times: Everyday Resistance in Social Work. Ethics and Social Welfare 13(4).
- Lucas, G., Zasada, M., Gallagher, A., Jago, R., Banks, S., Zubin, A. & van der Gaag, A. (2019). Understanding complaints about paramedics: a qualitative exploration in a UK context. Australasian Journal of Paramedicine 16: 1-7.
- Saario, Sirpa, Räsänen, Jenni-Mari, Raitakari, Suvi, Banks, Sarah & Juhila, Kirsi (2018). Doing ‘Ethics Work’ Together: Negotiating Service Users’ Independence in Community Mental Health Meetings. Ethics and Social Welfare 12(4): 370-386.
- Gallagher, A., Zasada, M., Jago, R., Austin, Z., Banks, S., Lucas, G. & van der Gaag, A. (2018). Fitness-to-practise concerns and preventative strategies. Journal of Paramedic Practice 10(4): 163-169.
- Austin, Zubin, van der Gaag, Anna, Gallagher, Ann, Jago, Robert, Banks, Sarah, Lucas, Grace & Zasada, Magda (2018). Understanding Complaints to Regulators About Paramedics in the UK and Social Workers in England: Findings from a Multi-Method Study. Journal of Medical Regulation 104(3): 19-28.
- van der Gaag, A., Jago, R., Austin, Z., Zasada, M., Banks, S., Lucas, G. & Gallagher, A. (2018). Why do paramedics have a high rate of self-referral?. Journal of Paramedic Practice 10(5): 205-210.
- Scully, Jackie Leach, Banks, Sarah, Song, Robert & Haq, Jackie (2017). Experiences of Faith Group Members Using New Reproductive and Genetic Technologies: A Qualitative Interview Study. Human Fertility 20(1): 22-29.
- Armstrong, Andrea & Banks, Sarah (2017). Organizing for change: North Tyneside Community Development Project and its legacy. Community Development Journal 52(2): 290-312.
- Banks, Sarah, Herrington, Tracey & Carter, Kathleen (2017). Pathways to co-impact: action research and community organising. Educational Action Research 25(4): 541-559.
- Banks, Sarah & Carpenter, Mick (2017). Researching the local politics and practices of radical Community Development Projects in 1970s Britain. Community Development Journal 52(2): 226-246.
- Banks, Sarah (2016). Everyday ethics in professional life: social work as ethics work. Ethics and Social Welfare 10(1): 35-52.
- Robinson, P.A., Macnaghten, P., Banks, S., Bickersteth, J., Kennedy, A., Richardson, Y., Shaw, S. & Sylvestre, I. (2014). Responsible scientists and a citizens’ panel: New storylines for creative engagement between science and the public. Geographical Journal 180(1): 83-88.
- Banks, Sarah, Armstrong, Andrea, Booth, Mark, Brown, Greg, Carter, Kathleen, Clarkson, Maurice, Corner, Lynne, Genus, Audley, Gilroy, Rose, Henfrey, Tom, Hudson, Kate, Jenner, Anna, Moss, Robert, Roddy, Dermot & Russell, Andrew (2014). Using co-inquiry to study co-inquiry: community-university perspectives on research collaboration. Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship 7(1): 37-47.
- Banks, Sarah, Armstrong, Andrea, Carter, Kathleen, Graham, Helen, Hayward, Peter, Henry, Alex, Holland, Tessa, Holmes, Claire, Lee, Amelia, McNulty, Ann, Moore, Niamh, Nayling, Nigel, Stokoe, Ann & Strachan, Aileen (2013). Everyday ethics in community-based participatory research. Contemporary Social Science: Journal of the Academy of Social Sciences 8(3): 263-277.
- Flaherty, J. & Banks, S. (2013). In whose interest? the dynamics of debt in poor households. Journal of Poverty and Social Justice 21(3): 219-232.
- Carter, K., Banks, S., Armstrong, A., Kindon, S. & Burkitt, I. (2013). Issues of Disclosure and Intrusion: Ethical Challenges for a Community Researcher. Ethics and Social Welfare 7(1): 92-100.
- Banks, S. (2013). Negotiating personal engagement and professional accountability: professional wisdom and ethics work. European Journal of Social Work 16(5): 587-604.
- Banks, S. (2011). 'Ethics in an age of austerity: Social work and the evolving New Public Management. Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice 20(2): 5-23.
- Banks, S. (2010). Integrity in professional life: issues of conduct, commitment and capacity. British Journal of Social Work 40(7): 2168-2184.
- Banks, S. (2010). Interprofessional Ethics: A Developing Field? Notes from the Ethics & Social Welfare Conference. Ethics and Social Welfare 4(3): 280-294.
- Banks, S. (2009). Ethics that Work? A Critical Review of Ethics and Values in Teaching and Practice—Papers from the Ethics & Social Welfare Conference, London. Ethics and Social Welfare 3(1): 54-76.
- Banks, S. (2009). From Professional Ethics to Ethics in Professional Life: Implications for Learning, Teaching and Study. Ethics and Social Welfare 3(1): 55-63.
- Banks, S. (2008). Critical commentary: social work ethics. British Journal of Social Work 38(6): 1238-1249.
- Banks, S. (2008). Ethics and Social Welfare: The State of Play. Ethics and Social Welfare 2(1): 1-9.
- Banks, S., Hugman, R., Healy, L., Bozalek, V. & Orme, J. (2008). Global Ethics for Social Work: Problems and Possibilities - Papers from the Ethics & Social Welfare Symposium, Durban, July 2008. Ethics and Social Welfare 2(3): 276-290.
- Banks, S. (2007). Between equity and empathy: social professions and the new accountability. Social Work and Society 5(3): 11-22.
- Banks, S. & Orton, A. (2007). The grit in the oyster: community development workers in a modernizing local authority. Community Development Journal 42(1): 97-113.
- Scully, J.L., Banks, S. & Shakespeare, T. (2006). Chance, choice and control: Lay debate on prenatal social sex selection. Social Science and Medicine 63(1): 21-31.
- Banks, S. & Vickers, T. (2006). Empowering communities through active learning: challenges and contradictions. Journal of Community Work and Development 8: 83-104.
- Scully, J., Shakespeare, T. & Banks, S. (2006). Gift not commodity? Lay people deliberating social sex selection. Sociology of Health and Illness 28(6): 749-767.
- Banks, S. & Bartlett, D. (2006). Innovation in Youth Work? Young People and Mental Well-being. Youth and Policy (90): 19-31.
- Banks, S., Scully, J.L. & Shakespeare, T. (2006). Ordinary ethics: lay people's deliberations on social sex selection. New Genetics and Society 25(3): 289-303.
- Banks, S. & Williams, R. (2005). Accounting for Ethical Difficulties in Social Welfare Work: Issues, Problems and Dilemmas. British Journal of Social Work 35(7): 1005-1022.
- Banks, S. (2005). The ethical practitioner in formation: issues of courage, competence and commitment. Social Work Education 24(7): 737-753.
- Banks.S. (2004). Ethical Challenges for Social Work. Intervencao Social (29): 11-24.
- Banks.S. (2004). Professional integrity, social work and the ethics of distrust. Social Work and Social Sciences Review 11(2): 20-35.
- Banks, S. (2003). From oaths to rulebooks: a critical examination of codes of ethics for the social professions. European Journal of Social Work 6(2): 133-144.
- Banks, S. , Burlison, P. & Shakespeare, T. (2002). Youth work and biomedicine: an exploratory study. Youth and Policy 74(Winter 2001/2): 18-39.
- Banks.S. (2001). Ethical dilemmas for the social professions: work in progress with social education students in Europe. European Journal of Social Education 1: 1-16.
- Banks, S. & Shenton, F. (2001). Regenerating neighbourhoods: a critical look at the role of community capacity building. Local Economy 16(4): 286-298.
- Banks, S. & Immam, U. (2000). Principles, Rules and Qualities: An Ethical Framework for Youth Work. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth 9(1): 65-82.
- Banks, S. (1999). The social professions and social policy: proactive or reactive. European Journal of Social Work 2(3): 327-339.
- Banks.S. (1998). Codes of Ethics and Ethical Conduct: A Veiw from the Caring Professions. Public Money and Management 18(1): 27-30.
- Banks.S. (1998). Professional Ethics in Social Work - What Future? British Journal of Social Work 28: 213-231.
- Banks, S. (2013). Payday lenders are out of time in their fight against credit cap. The Conversation
Other (Digital/Visual Media)
- (2014). "Ethics work in the social domain", talk given at the Humanistic University, Utrecht, February 2014.
- (2013). Forum Theatre: Participatory ethics through participatory theatre, film, December 2013.
- van der Gaag, A., Lucas, G., Zasada, M., Gallagher, A., Jago, R., Banks, S. & Zubin, A (2017). People like us? Understanding complaints about paramedics and social workers.
- Banks, S., Brown, G., Flaherty, J., Herrington, T. & Waters, M. (2013). Debt on Teesside: Pathways to Financial Inclusion, Final Report.
- Banks, S., Brown, G., Flaherty, J., Herrington, T. & Waters, M. (2013). Debt on Teesside: Pathways to Financial Inclusion, Research Briefing.
- Banks, S. (2013). Doing research together: How to make sure things are fair and no one is harmed (an EasyRead version of the ethics guide). National Coordinating Centre for Public Engagement, Bristol.
- Banks, S. (2013). What is doing research together? (an EasyRead introduction to CBPR). National Coordinating Centre for Public Engagement, Bristol.
- Banks, S. (2012). Community-based participatory research: A guide to ethical principles and practice. National Coordinating Centre for Public Engagement, Bristol.
- Banks, S. (2011). Community-based participatory research: ethical challenges. Durham Community Research Team.
- Professional ethics, community development, community-based participatory research.
- Community-based participatory research: ethics and outcomes
- Faithful judgements: the role of religion in lay bioethical evaluations of new reproductive and genetic technologies
- Imagine, The social, historical, cultural and democratic context of civic engagement: imagining different communities and making them happen
- Making ends meet: action on sustainable livelihoods
- Ordinary ethics: the moral evaluation of the new genetics by non-professionals
- Promoting the Social Inclusion of Young People: The Role of Faith Communities
- Understanding the prevalence of fitness to practise cases about paramedics and social workers in England
- Valuing Diversity, Exploring Faith and Culture: A project that worked with young people in the North East of England
Teaching includes BA module on Communities and Social Justice; MA module on Participatory Action Research; Doctoral training course on Participatory Action Research
- Gavin Turnbull
- Helen Gatenby
- Elizabeth Hackney
- Charles Ng
- Rebecca Dean
- Graham Bright
- Wendy Gill
- Yi Wang
- Mr Tian Cai
- Jen Wingate
- 2016: Understanding the prevalence of fitness to practice cases about paramedics and social workers in England (£3180.00 from Health & Care Professions Council)
- 2014: IAA-ETHICAL ISSUES IN COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH: EXTENDING AND EVIDENCING IMPACT (£7448.65 from ESRC)
- 2013: The social, historical, cultural and democratic context of civic engagement: Imagining different communities and making them happen (£300481.60 from ESRC)
- 2013: Ways of knowing: Exploring the different registers, values and subjectivities of collaborative research (£2318.23 from Arts and Humanities Research Council)
- 2012: RF200070: TACKLING ETHICAL ISSUES AND DILEMMAS IN CBPR: a practical research, £30,000, Arts & Humanities Research Council
- 2012: Tackling ethical issues and dilemmas in community-based participatory research
- 2011: Community-based Participatory Research: ethics and outcomes, (£28970, Arts and Humanities Research Council)
- 2011: Debt on Teesside: Pathways to financial inclusion (£108181.00 from Northern Rock Foundation)
- 2011: Faithful judgements: the role of religion, (£17189.84, Economic and Social Research Council)
- 2010: Co-inquiry Action Research Project
- 2009: Evaluation of Myplace
- 2008: Making ends meet: action research on sustainable livelihoods. Wolfson Research Institute.
- 2007: VALUING DIVERSITY, EXPLORING FAITH (£14907.00 from Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation)
- 2007: Valuing diversity, exploring faith and culture, funded by the Gulbenkian Foundation
- 2005: PROMOTING THE SOCIAL INCLUSION OF YOUNG PEOPLE (£153058.51 from Big Lottery Fund)
- 2005: Promoting the Social Inclusion of Young People: The Role of Faith Communities, research grant awarded in partnership with Churches Regional Commission in the North East, from Big Lottery Research Grants Programme, £217,870
- 2002: Ordinary ethics: the moral evaluation of the new genetics by non-professionals - funded by Wellcome Trust
- 2001: Evaluation of Durham County Council's Community Support Unit and Member Area Panels, 2001-2004
- 2001: Evaluation of Empowering Communities Scheme (region-wide SRB6 scheme), 2001-2004
- 2001: Study of capacity of youth work services to engage with Wellcome Trust’s Medicine in Society programme, Wellcome Trust
- 1998: Community Capacity Building Research (£10,000, Groundwork East Durham)
- 2015: Modelling alternative impact: lessons from a community theatre research project (£0.00 from N8 Research Partnership)
- 2012: Building Community University Partnership Resilience (£462.40 from Arts and Humanities Research Council)
- 2002: ORDINARY ETHICS: MORAL EVALUATION (£9833.00 from The Wellcome Trust)
- 2001: EVALUATION OF EMPOWERING COMMUNITIES (£52484.00 from Banks of the Wear)
- 2001: EVALUATION SERVICE OF MEMBER AREA PANELS (£40620.00 from Durham County Council)
- 2001: STUDY FOR THE PRESENT AND FUTURE CAPACITY (£19075.00 from The Wellcome Trust)
- 2001: TEACHING PROFESSIONAL ETHICS (£4178.00 from Centre for Learning, Teaching & Research)
- 2000: FELLOWSHIP - DR S.J. BANKS (£15916.00 from The Leverhulme Trust)
- 1999: Ethics Consultation (£4500, National Youth Agency)
- 1999: Investing in children evaluation, (£155000.00, Investing in Children)
- 1999: TEACHING ETHICS (£1000.00 from UK Cosa)
- 1998: COMMUNITY CAPACITY BUILDING RESEARCH (£10000.00 from )
- 1997: More To Life (£36000.00 from )
Available for media contact about:
- Social sciences: Professional ethics, particularly in social work, youth work and community work.
- Social sciences: Community and youth work: Community development work; community engagement/participation/empowerment