Dr Robert William Banks, BSc PhD DSc
(email at firstname.lastname@example.org)
Within the broad area of neuroscience my work centres on the mammalian muscle spindle, a mechanoreceptor that occurs in voluntary muscles and responds to length and changing length of the muscles, providing information to the central nervous system for use in controlling muscle activity. Knowledge of its structure and function is important at various levels ranging from the molecular biology of ion channels to the nature of control systems, and in various fields from basic physiology to clinical applications such as nerve repair and rehabilitation. I am currently collaborating with Dr. M. Hulliger of Calgary on the consequences of a pyridoxine-induced large-fibre sensory neuropathy on the sensory innervation of muscle and motor control; and with Dr. Guy Bewick of Aberdeen on the role of synaptic-like vesicles in the sensory endings of mechanoreceptors.
- Structure and function of sensory receptors in muscle
Edited works: conference proceedings
- Shenton, F. C., Bewick, G. S. & Banks, R. W. (2009). Immunocytochemical evidence for the presence of ENaC subunits in the sensory endings of rat muscle spindles. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
- Banks, R. W., Simon, A., Rowe, I. C. & Bewick, G. S (2009). P/Q type Ca2+ channels and KCa channels regulate afferent discharge frequency in spindle mechanosensory terminals. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
- Simon, A., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2009). Stretch-activated rat muscle spindle afferent discharge is inhibited by ENaC and TRP channel modulators. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
- M Hulliger & R W Banks (2004). The relation between motor deficit and proprioceptive loss after large-fibre deafferentation by pyridoxine. 34th Annual Meeting, San Diego, Society for Neuroscience.
Edited works: contributions
- Banks R.W. (2005). The muscle spindle. In Peripheral Neuropathy. PJ Dyck & PK Thomas Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. 131-150.
- Banks R.W. & Barker, D (2004). The muscle spindle. In Myology. A Engel & C Franzini-Armstrong New York: McGraw-Hill. 3rd. edition: 489-509.
Journal papers: academic
- Lionikas, Arimantas, Smith, Coiln J., Smith, Tracey L., Bünger, Lutz, Banks, Robert W. & Bewick, Guy S. (2013). Analyses of muscle spindles in the soleus of six inbred mouse strains. Journal of Anatomy 223: 289-296.
- Banks, Robert W. , Cahusac, Peter M. B., Graca, Anna Kain, Nakul, Shenton, Fiona , Singh, Paramjeet Nj°a, Arild, Simon, Anna Watson, Sonia, Slater, Clarke R. & Bewick, Guy S. (2013). Glutamatergic modulation of synaptic-like vesicle recycling in mechanosensory lanceolate nerve terminals of mammalian hair follicles. Journal of Physiology 591(10): 2523-2540.
- Simon, Anna., Shenton, Fiona., Hunter, Irene., Banks, Robert W. & Bewick, Guy S. (2010). Amiloride-sensitive channels are a major contributor to mechanotransduction in mammalian muscle spindles. Journal of Physiology 588(1): 171-185.
- Banks, R. W., Hulliger, M., Saed, H. H. & Stacey, M. J. (2009). A comparative analysis of the encapsulated end-organs of mammalian skeletal muscles and of their sensory nerve endings. Journal of Anatomy 214(6): 859-887.
- Hulliger, Manuel & Banks, Robert W. (2009). A method for the study of the effects of combining multiple pseudorandom fusimotor stimulation on the responses of muscle-spindle primary-ending afferents. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 178(1): 103-115.
- Simon, A., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2008). Attenuation of stretch-activated discharge of rat muscle spindle afferents by ENaC channel inhibitors. Proceedings of the Physiological Society 10: 31P.
- Banks, R. W. (2008). Comment on “Two enigmas in proprioception: Abundance and location of muscle spindles” by T. Kokkorogiannis. Brain Research Bulletin 75: 504-506.
- Banks, R. W. (2006). An allometric analysis of the number of muscle spindles in mammalian skeletal muscles. Journal of Anatomy 208(6): 753-768.
- Hulliger, M. & Banks, R. W. (2006). The relation between motor deficit and proprioceptiveloss after large-fibre sensory neuropathy. Gait & Posture 21: S61.
- Bewick, Guy S., Reid, Brian, Richardson, Christine & Banks, Robert W. (2005). Autogenic modulation of mechanoreceptor excitability by glutamate release from synaptic-like vesicles: evidence from the rat muscle spindle primary sensory ending. Journal of Physiology 562(2): 381-394.
- G S Bewick, R Duncan, W Eddie, C Maguire & R W Banks (2004). Glutamate-enhanced muscle spindle excitability – inhibition by PLD-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. Journal of Physiology 557P: C91.
- Banks, R.W., Bewick, G.S., Reid, B. & Richardson, C. (2002). Evidence for activity-dependent modulation of sensory-terminal excitability in spindles by glutamate release from synaptic-like vesicles. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 508: 13-18.
- R W Banks & M Hulliger (2000). Cross-correlation analysis of the effects of combining multiple pseudo-random fusimotor inputs on the responses of muscle-spindle primary afferents in peroneus tertius of the anaesthetized cat. Journal of Physiology 527P: 135P.
- Banks, R.W., Richardson, Christine & Bewick, G.S. (2000). Immunocytochemical demonstration of glutamate in the sensory terminals of rat muscle spindles. J. Physiol 528: 62P.
- Bewick, Guy S., Reid, Brian & Banks, Robert W. (2000). Investigating the role of small clear vesicles in vertebrate mechanosensory endings using rat muscle spindles. J. Physiol 528: 62-63P.