Dr Robert William Banks, BSc PhD DSc
(email at email@example.com)
Within the broad area of neuroscience my work centres on the mammalian muscle spindle, a mechanoreceptor that occurs in voluntary muscles and responds to length and changing length of the muscles, providing information to the central nervous system for use in controlling muscle activity. Knowledge of its structure and function is important at various levels ranging from the molecular biology of ion channels to the nature of control systems, and in various fields from basic physiology to clinical applications such as nerve repair and rehabilitation. I am currently collaborating with Dr. M. Hulliger of Calgary on the consequences of a pyridoxine-induced large-fibre sensory neuropathy on the sensory innervation of muscle and motor control; and with Dr. Guy Bewick of Aberdeen on the role of synaptic-like vesicles in the sensory endings of mechanoreceptors.
- Structure and function of sensory receptors in muscle
- Bewick, Guy & Banks, Bob (2010). “Sensible to feeling as to sight” some recent progress on mechanosensory transduction in mammals. Physiology News 80: 33-37.
Book chapters: online
- Banks, R. (2014). Skeletal Muscle. In Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. Caplan, M. Elsevier.
Edited works: conference proceedings
- Watson, S., Zanato, C., Dall'Angello, S, Banks, R. W., Greig, I., Zanda, M. & Bewick, G. S. (2013). Development of fluorescent and biotinylated agonists for a novel glutamate receptor in mechanosensory terminals. International Union of Physiological Sciences, Birmingham, UK.
- Banks, R. W. , Cahusac, P. M. Watson, S. & Bewick, G. S. (2012). An ex vivo preparation of mouse pinna for recording afferent responses from guard hair follicles of hairy skin.
- Durbaba, R. Rudd, D. Hulliger, M. & Banks, R. W. (2012). Assessment of myelin thickness and axon circularity in a dorsal root of the mouse.
- Watson, S. Zanato, C. Dall'Angello, S. Banks, R. W. , Greig, I. Zanda, M. & Bewick, G. S. (2012). Pharmacological profile of non-canonical mGluR regulating mechanosensory nerve terminal firing.
- Simon, A. Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2010). A role for glutamate in regulating mechanosensory sensitivity: Further evidence from rat muscle spindle primary afferent terminals.
- Watson, S. Aryiku, C. Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2010). Comparison of gadolinium and FM1-43 as blockers of stretch-evoked firing of rat muscle spindle afferents. Durham, UK.
- Shenton, F. C. , Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2010). In lanceolate endings of rat hair follicles the small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel SK3 is found mainly in glial cells. Durham, UK.
- Paton, J. F. Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2010). Modulation of afferent excitability and reflex responses by phospholipase D-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptors in the peripheral terminals of rat arterial baroreceptors.
- Bewick, G. & Banks, R. (2010). The role of synaptic-like vesicles in control of mechanosensation in peripheral nerve terminals. Durham, UK.
- de Nooij, J. C. Simon, A. Doobar, S. Steel, K. P. Banks, R. W. , Bewick, G. S. & Jessell, T. M. (2010). Whirlin function in proprioceptive mechanotransduction. Durham, UK.
- Singh, P. Simon, A. Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2009). Glutamatergic modulation of vesicle turnover in primary mechanosensory endings.
- Shenton, F. C., Bewick, G. S. & Banks, R. W. (2009). Immunocytochemical evidence for the presence of ENaC subunits in the sensory endings of rat muscle spindles. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
- Shenton, F. C. , Wollner, H. , Bewick, G. S. & Banks, R. W. (2009). Immunogold labelling for glutamate in lanceolate endings of rat hairs.
- Simon, A., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2009). KCa channels regulate stretch-evoked afferent firing from muscle spindles.
- Banks, R. W., Simon, A., Rowe, I. C. & Bewick, G. S (2009). P/Q type Ca2+ channels and KCa channels regulate afferent discharge frequency in spindle mechanosensory terminals. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
- Simon, A., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2009). P/Q type calcium and K(Ca) channel blockers increase afferent discharge from mechanosensory terminals. British Neuroscience Association.
- Simon, A., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2009). Stretch-activated rat muscle spindle afferent discharge is inhibited by ENaC and TRP channel modulators. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
- M Hulliger & R W Banks (2004). The relation between motor deficit and proprioceptive loss after large-fibre deafferentation by pyridoxine. 34th Annual Meeting, San Diego, Society for Neuroscience.
Edited works: contributions
- Banks R.W. (2005). The muscle spindle. In Peripheral Neuropathy. PJ Dyck & PK Thomas Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. 131-150.
- Banks R.W. & Barker, D (2004). The muscle spindle. In Myology. A Engel & C Franzini-Armstrong New York: McGraw-Hill. 3rd. edition: 489-509.
Journal papers: academic
- Bewick, Guy S. & Banks, Robert W. (2015). Mechanotransduction in the muscle spindle. Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 467(1): 175-190.
- Song, Z., Banks, Robert W. & Bewick, Guy S. (2015). Modelling the mechanoreceptor’s dynamic behaviour. Journal of Anatomy 227(2): 243-254.
- Banks, Robert W. (2015). The innervation of the muscle spindle: a personal history. Journal of Anatomy 227(2): 115-135.
- de Nooij, Joriene C., Simon, Christian M., Simon, Anna, Doobar, Staceyann, Steel, Karen P., Banks, Robert W., Mentis, George Z., Bewick, Guy S. & Jessell, Thomas M. (2015). The PDZ-domain protein whirlin facilitates mechanosensory signaling in mammalian proprioceptors. The Journal of Neuroscience 35(7): 3073-3084.
- Shenton, F., Bewick, G.S. & Banks, R.W. (2014). A study of the expression of small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK1-3) in sensory endings of muscle spindles and lanceolate endings of hair follicles in the rat. PLoS ONE 9(9): e107073.
- Lionikas, Arimantas, Smith, Coiln J., Smith, Tracey L., Bünger, Lutz, Banks, Robert W. & Bewick, Guy S. (2013). Analyses of muscle spindles in the soleus of six inbred mouse strains. Journal of Anatomy 223(3): 289-296.
- Banks, Robert W. , Cahusac, Peter M. B., Graca, Anna Kain, Nakul, Shenton, Fiona , Singh, Paramjeet Nj°a, Arild, Simon, Anna Watson, Sonia, Slater, Clarke R. & Bewick, Guy S. (2013). Glutamatergic modulation of synaptic-like vesicle recycling in mechanosensory lanceolate nerve terminals of mammalian hair follicles. Journal of Physiology 591(10): 2523-2540.
- Simon, Anna., Shenton, Fiona., Hunter, Irene., Banks, Robert W. & Bewick, Guy S. (2010). Amiloride-sensitive channels are a major contributor to mechanotransduction in mammalian muscle spindles. Journal of Physiology 588(1): 171-185.
- Banks, R. W., Hulliger, M., Saed, H. H. & Stacey, M. J. (2009). A comparative analysis of the encapsulated end-organs of mammalian skeletal muscles and of their sensory nerve endings. Journal of Anatomy 214(6): 859-887.
- Hulliger, Manuel & Banks, Robert W. (2009). A method for the study of the effects of combining multiple pseudorandom fusimotor stimulation on the responses of muscle-spindle primary-ending afferents. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 178(1): 103-115.
- Simon, A., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2008). Attenuation of stretch-activated discharge of rat muscle spindle afferents by ENaC channel inhibitors. Proceedings of the Physiological Society 10: 31.
- Banks, R. W. (2008). Comment on “Two enigmas in proprioception: Abundance and location of muscle spindles” by T. Kokkorogiannis. Brain Research Bulletin 75: 504-506.
- Banks, R. W. (2006). An allometric analysis of the number of muscle spindles in mammalian skeletal muscles. Journal of Anatomy 208(6): 753-768.
- Hulliger, M. & Banks, R. W. (2006). The relation between motor deficit and proprioceptiveloss after large-fibre sensory neuropathy. Gait & Posture 21: S61.
- Bewick, Guy S., Reid, Brian, Richardson, Christine & Banks, Robert W. (2005). Autogenic modulation of mechanoreceptor excitability by glutamate release from synaptic-like vesicles: evidence from the rat muscle spindle primary sensory ending. Journal of Physiology 562(2): 381-394.
- G S Bewick, R Duncan, W Eddie, C Maguire & R W Banks (2004). Glutamate-enhanced muscle spindle excitability – inhibition by PLD-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. Journal of Physiology 557P: C91.
- Banks, R.W., Bewick, G.S., Reid, B. & Richardson, C. (2002). Evidence for activity-dependent modulation of sensory-terminal excitability in spindles by glutamate release from synaptic-like vesicles. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 508: 13-18.
- R W Banks & M Hulliger (2000). Cross-correlation analysis of the effects of combining multiple pseudo-random fusimotor inputs on the responses of muscle-spindle primary afferents in peroneus tertius of the anaesthetized cat. Journal of Physiology 527P: 135.
- Banks, R.W., Richardson, Christine & Bewick, G.S. (2000). Immunocytochemical demonstration of glutamate in the sensory terminals of rat muscle spindles. Journal of Physiology 528: 62.
- Bewick, Guy S., Reid, Brian & Banks, Robert W. (2000). Investigating the role of small clear vesicles in vertebrate mechanosensory endings using rat muscle spindles. Journal of Physiology 528: 62-63P.