Cookies

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Otherwise, we'll assume you're OK to continue.

Department of Geography

Staff Profile

Publication details for Professor Colin McFarlane

McFarlane, C. Crossing Borders: development, learning and the North-South divide. Third World Quarterly. 2006;27:1413-1437.

Author(s) from Durham

Abstract

While the validity of categories like ‘First’ and ‘Third’ World or ‘North’ and ‘South’ has been increasingly questioned, there have been few attempts to consider how learning between North and South might be conceived. Drawing on a range of perspectives from development and postcolonial scholarship, this paper argues for the creative possibility of learning between different contexts. This involves a conceptualisation of learning that is at once ethical and indirect: ethical because it transcends a liberal integration of subaltern knowledge, and indirect because it transcends a rationalist tendency to limit learning to direct knowledge transfer between places perceived as ‘similar’. This challenge requires a consistent interrogation of the epistemic and institutional basis and implications of the North – South divide, and an insistence on developing progressive conceptions of learning.

References

Amin, S (1967) Unequal Development: An Essay on the Social Formation of Peripheral Capitalism (New York: Monthly Review Press).
Amin, S (1984) Gandhi as Mahatma, in R Guha (ed), Subaltern Studies III, pp 1 – 61 (Delhi: Oxford University Press).
Appadurai, A (2000) Grassroots globalization and the research imagination, Public Culture, 12 (1), pp 1–9.
Bal, M (2002) Travelling Concepts in the Humanities: A Rough Guide
(Toronto: University of Toronto
Press).
Baran, P (1957) The Political Economy of Growth (New York: Monthly Review Press).
Berger, MT (1994) The end of the ‘Third World’?, Third World Quarterly, 15 (2), pp 257 – 275.
Berger, MT (2004) After the Third World? History, destiny and the fate of Third Worldism, Third World Quarterly, 25 (1), pp 9 – 39.
Bhowmik, ST (2005) Street vendors in Asia: a review, Economic and Political Weekly, 28 May – 4 June, pp 2256 – 2264.
Blunt, A & McEwan, C (eds) (2002) Postcolonial Geographies (London:
Continuum).
Briggs, J & Sharp, J (2004) Indigenous knowledge and development: a postcolonial caution, Third World Quarterly, 25 (4), pp 661 – 676.
Brohman, J (1996) Popular Development: Rethinking the Theory and Practice of Development (London:
Blackwell).
Brown, LA (2002) Diffusion: geographical aspects, International Encyclopaedia of the Social & Behavioural Sciences, at http://www.sciencedirect.com.
Chakrabarty, D (2000) Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University Press).
Chakrabarty, D (2002) Habitations of Modernity: Essays in the Wake of Subaltern Studies (Chicago, IL:
University of Chicago Press).
Chatterjee, P (2004) The Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics in Most of the World
(Delhi: Permanent Black).
Chambers, R (1997) Whose Reality Counts? Putting the First Last (London:
IT Publications).
Coyle, E (2001) Consensus and dissent in Washington: negotiating change in the World Bank and IMF, MPhil thesis, Centre of International Studies, University of Cambridge.
Covey, J, Gaventa, J, Miller, V & Passmore,W (1995) Multinational collaboration in community problem
solving: a theoretical perspective, paper presented at the Conference on Organisational Dimensions of Global Change, May. Sponsored by the Academy of Management and Case Western Reserve University.
Davis, M (2006) Planet of Slums (London: Verso).
Development in Practice (2002) Special issue: Development and the Learning Organisation, ed L Roper & J Pettit, 12 (3 – 4).
DFID (2000) Doing the Knowledge: How DFID Compares with Best Practice in Knowledge Management
(London: Department for International Development).
Dirlik, A (2004) Spectres of the Third World: global modernity and the end of the three worlds, Third World Quarterly, 21 (1), pp 131 – 148.
Dolowitz, D & Marsh, D (1996) Who learns what from whom: a review of the policy transfer literature, Political Studies, 44, pp 343 – 357.
Dowler, E (1998) Food poverty and food policy, in A de Haan & S Maxwell (eds), Poverty and Social Exclusion in North and South, special issue, IDS Bulletin, 29 (1), pp 58 – 65.
Edwards, M (1990) The irrelevance of development studies, Third World Quarterly, 11 (1), pp 116 – 135.
Edwards, M & Gaventa, J (eds) (2001) Global Citizen Action (London:
Earthscan).
Ellerman, D (2002) Should development agencies have Official Views?, Development in Practice, 12 (3 – 4), pp 285 – 297.
Ellerman, D, Denning, S & Hanna, S (2001) Active learning and development assistance, Journal of Knowledge Management, 5 (1), pp 171 – 179.
Evans, M (1998) Behind the rhetoric: the institutional basis of social exclusion and poverty, in A de Haan & S Maxwell (eds), Poverty and Social Exclusion in North and South, special issue, IDS Bulletin, 29 (1), pp 42 – 29.
Ferguson, J (1999) Expectations of Modernity: Myths and Meanings of Urban Life on the Zambian Copperbelt (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).
Ferguson, J (2006) Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World Order (Durham, NC: Duke University Press).
Ford Foundation (1999), ‘Crossing borders: Revitalizing Area Studies’, available at: http://www.fordfound.
org/publications/recent_articles/docs/crossingborders.pdf, accessed November, 2006.
Foucault, M (1980) Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972 – 1977, ed C Gordon
(London: Harvester Press).
Foucault, M (1976) Society Must be Defended, trans D Macey (London:
Penguin).
Frank, AG (1967) Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America:
Historical Studies of Chile and
Brazil (New York: Monthly Review Press).
Freire, P (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed (New York: Continuum).
Gaonkar, DP (2001) Alternative Modernities, Durham: Duke University Press.
Gaventa, J (1998) Poverty, participation and social exclusion in North and South, in A de Haan & S Maxwell (eds), Poverty and Social Exclusion in North and South, special issue, IDS Bulletin, 29 (1), pp 50 – 57.
Gaventa, J (1999) Crossing the great divide: building links and learning between NGOs and communitybased organizations in North and South, in D Lewis (ed), International Perspectives on Voluntary
Action: Reshaping the Third Sector, pp 21 – 38 (London: Earthscan).
Geschiere, P (1997) The Modernity of Witchcraft: Politics and the Occult in Postcolonial Africa (Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press).
Gherardi, S & Nicolini, D (2000) To transfer is to transform: the circulation of safety knowledge, Organization, 7 (2), pp 329 – 348.
Groundswell (2001a) India: Diary Report, at www.groundswell.org, accessed June 2004.
Groundswell (2001b) Exchanges: A Rough Guide, at www.groundswell.org, accessed June 2004.
Guha, R & Spivak, GC (eds) (1998) Selected Subaltern Studies (New York:
Oxford University Press).
Gupta, A (1998) Postcolonial Developments: Agriculture in the Making of Modern India (Durham, NC:
Duke University Press).
de Haan, A & Maxwell, S (1998) Editorial: poverty and social exclusion in North and South, in A de Haan & S Maxwell (eds), Poverty and Social Exclusion in North and South, special issue, IDS Bulletin, 29 (1), pp 1 – 9.
Hadiz, VR (2004) The rise of neo-Third Worldism? The Indonesian trajectory and the consolidation of illiberal democracy, Third World Quarterly, 21 (1), pp 55 – 71.
Hagerstrand, T (1968) Innovation Diffusion as a Spatial Process (Chicago,
IL: University of Chicago
Press).
Harootunian, H (2000) History’s Disquiet: Modernity, Cultural Practice, and the Question of Everyday Life (New York: Columbia University Press).
Holston, J (1999) Alternativie modernities: statecraft and religious imagination in the Valley of the Dawn, American Ethnologist, 26, pp 605 – 631.
Hansen, TB (2001) Wages of Violence: Naming and Identity in Postcolonial Bombay (Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press).
Hardt, M & Negri, A (1998) Empire (London: Harvard University Press).
Holland, J & Blackburn, J (eds) (1998) Whose Voice? Participatory Research and Policy Change (London:
Intermediate Technology Publications).
Hovland, I (2003) Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning: An International Development Perspective, Working Paper 224 (London: Overseas Development Institute), at http://www.odi.org.uk/ publications/working_papers/index.html, accessed July 2006.
Institute of International Studies (2006) Crossing borders: area studies and the new geographies, University of California, Berkeley: Institute of International Studies, available at:
http://globetrotter.berkeley.
edu/CrossingBorders, accessed November 2006.
Jones, PS (2000) Why is it alright to do development ‘over there’ but not ‘here’? Changing vocabularies and common strategies of inclusion across the ‘First’ and ‘Third’ Worlds, Area, 32 (2), pp 237 – 241.
Kamrava, M (1995) Political culture and a new definition of the Third World, Third World Quarterly,
16 (4), pp 691 – 701.
Keck, ME & Sikkink, K (1998) Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).
King, K (2001) ‘Knowledge Agencies’: Making the Globalisation of Development Knowledge Work for the World’s Poor?, Learning to Make Policy Working Paper 9, Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh, at www.eldis.org/fulltext/concept.rtf, accessed July 2006.
Korany, B (1994) End of history, or its continuation and accentuation? The global South and the ‘new transformation’ literature, Third World Quarterly, 15 (1), pp 7 – 15.
Latour, B (1986) The power of association, in J Law (ed), Power, Action and Belief: A New Sociology of Knowledge? (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul).
Latour, B (1999) Pandora’s Hope: Essays on the Reality of Science Studies (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Mawdsley, E, Townsend, JG, Porter, G & Oakley, P (2002) Knowledge, Power and Development Agendas:
NGOs North and South (Oxford: INTRAC).
Maxwell, S (1998) Comparisons, convergences and connections: development studies in North and South, in A de Haan & S Maxwell (eds), Poverty and Social Exclusion in North and South, special issue, IDS Bulletin, 29 (1), pp 20 – 31.
McEwan, C (2001), Postcolonialism, feminism and development: intersections and dilemmas, Progress in Development Studies, 1 (2), pp 93 – 111.
McEwan, C (2003) Material geographies and postcolonialism, Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography,
24 (3), pp 340 – 355.
McFarlane, C (2006a) Knowledge, learning and development: a post-rationalist approach, Progress in Development Studies, 6 (4), pp 287 – 305.
McFarlane, C (2006B) Transnational development networks: bringing development and postcolonial approaches into dialogue, Geographical Journal, 172 (1), pp 35 – 49.
McGee, TG (1995) Eurocentrism and geography: reflections on Asian urbanization, in J Crush (ed), Power of Development, pp 192 – 207
(London: Routledge).
Mohan, G (2002) Participatory development, in V Desai & R Potter (eds), The Companion to Development Studies, pp 49 – 53 (London: Arnold).
Mufti, AR (2005) Global comparativism, Critical Inquiry, 31, pp 427 – 489.
Olesen, T (2004) Globalising the Zapatistas: from Third World solidarity to global solidarity? Third World Quarterly, 21 (1), pp 255 – 267.
Ould-Mey, M (2003) Currency, devaluation and resource transfer from the South to the North, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 93 (2), pp 463 – 484.
Parnwell, MJG (1999) Between theory and reality: the area specialist and the study of development, in D Simon & A Narman (eds), Development as Theory and Practice: Current Perspectives on Development and Development Co-operation, pp 76 – 94 (Harlow: Pearson Education).
Pieterse, JN (2001) Development Theory: Deconstructions/Reconstructions
(London: Sage).
Rapley, J (2001) Convergence: myths and realities, Progress in Development Studies, 1 (4), pp 295 – 308.
Robinson, J (2002) Global and world cities: a view from off the map, International Journal of Urban and Regional Change, 26 (3), pp 513 – 554.
Robinson, J (2003a) Postcolonialising geography: tactics and pitfalls, Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 24 (3), pp 273 – 289.
Robinson, J (2003b) Political geography in postcolonial context, Political Geography, 22, pp 647 – 651.
Robinson, J (2005) Ordinary Cities: Between Modernity and Development
(London: Routledge).
Robinson, P (1998) Beyond workfare: active labour-market policies, in A de Haan & S Maxwell (eds), Poverty and Social Exclusion in North and South, special issue, IDS Bulletin, 29 (1), pp 86 – 93.
Rose, R (1991) What is lesson drawing?, Journal of Public Policy, 11, pp 3 – 30.
Rose, R (1993) Lesson-Drawing in Public Policy: A Guide to learning Across Time and Space (NJ: Chatham House).
Rostow, WW (1962) The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto
(Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press).
Said, E (1993) Culture and Imperialism (London: Chatto and Windus).
Said, E (1984) The World, the Text and the Critic (London: Faber and Faber).
Serres, M (1974) La Traduction, Hermes III (Paris: Les Editions de Minuit).
Slater, D (1997) Geopolitical imaginations across the North – South
divide: issues of difference,
development and power, Political Geography, 16 (8), pp 631 – 653.
Slater, D (2004) Geopolitics and the Postcolonial: Rethinking North – South Relations (Oxford: Blackwell).
Spivak, GC (1988) Can the subaltern speak? in C Nelson & L Grossberg (eds), Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, pp 271 – 313.
Spivak, GC (1993) Outside in the Teaching Machine, (London: Routledge).
Spivak GC (1999) A critique of postcolonial reason, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Spivak, GC (2003) Death of a Discipline (New York: Columbia University Press).
Sylvester, C (1999) Development studies and postcolonial studies:
disparate tales of the ‘Third World’,
Third World Quarterly, 20 (4), pp 703 – 721.
Thrift, N (2002) The future of geography, Geoforum, 33, pp 291 – 298.
Wilson, G (2002) Technology, knowledge and development, in V Desai & R Potter (eds), The Companion to Development Studies, pp 219 – 223 (London:
Arnold).
World Bank (1999) World Development Report 1998/9: Knowledge for Development (Oxford: World Bank/ Oxford University Press).