We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Otherwise, we'll assume you're OK to continue.

Durham University

Department of Geography

Staff Profile

Publication details for Professor Ray Hudson

Hudson, Ray Industrial Conversion. In: International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment and Technology. John Wiley; 2017:1.

Author(s) from Durham


This entry discusses some of the main ways in which, via state policies and the actions of various civil society organizations, attempts have been made to address the problems that result as one set of industries decline in a place via restructuring those industries in situ, attracting inward investment in new activities, or developing a variety of endogenous local alternatives. The form and content of these responses has changed over time (e.g., from large to small firms, from manufacturing to services), though there is no simply linear sequence of policy responses that is universally applicable. Moreover, what has been successful in one place and time is by no means guaranteed to be so in other times and places. Given the character of capitalist economies, with the restless movement of capital in search of profits, industrial change and conversion is an ongoing process for many places.