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Department of Geography

Staff Profile

Publication details for Professor Mike Crang

Gregson, N., Crang, M., Ahamed, F., Akter, N., Ferdous, R., Ahmed, F. & Hudson, R. Territorial agglomeration and industrial symbiosis: Sitakunda-Bhatiary, Bangladesh as a secondary processing complex. Economic Geography. 2012;88:37-58.

Author(s) from Durham


This paper both joins with recent arguments in economic geography that make connections between work on industrial symbiosis and agglomerative tendencies and recasts this work. Drawing on the case of Sitakunda-Bhatiary, Bangladesh, it shows that symbiosis is intricately bound up in the global circulation of wastes and their recovery through secondary processing. It draws attention to the importance of key places as conduits in materials transformation and secondary processing; it emphasises their importance as sites of symbiotic activity; and it shows how such places exemplify economies of recycling, re-use and remanufacturing, but in conditions of minimal environmental regulation. It therefore shows that contemporary symbiosis is not necessarily clean and green, and that it can be very messy; that it can be generative of agglomerations, and not just dependent upon prior agglomerations; that such agglomerations may be cross-sectoral and not just inter-plant; and that symbiosis needs to be thought not just through geographical proximity, but through the spatialities of globalisation.