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Durham University

School of Education

Staff Profile

Publication details for Prof Jim Ridgway

J. Ridgway, S. McCusker & D. Pead (2004). Literature Review of E-assessment. Bristol: Futurelab.

Author(s) from Durham


The purpose of this report is:
• to assert the centrality of assessment
in education systems
• to identify ‘drivers’ of assessment,
and their likely impact on assessment,
and thence on education systems
• to describe current, radical plans
for increased use of high-stakes
e-assessment in the UK
• to describe and exemplify current
uses of ICT in assessment
• to explore the potential of new
technologies for enhancing current
assessment (and pedagogic) practices
• to identify opportunities and to
suggest ways forward
• to ‘drip feed’ criteria for good
assessment throughout (set out
explicitly in an appendix).
This report has been designed to: present
key findings on research in assessment;
describe current UK government plans,
and likely future developments; provide
links to interesting examples of
e-assessment; offer speculations on
possible future developments; and to
stimulate a debate on the role of
e-assessment in assessment, teaching,
and learning.


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Cockcroft, WH (1982). Mathematics
Counts. London: HMSO
Cohen, Y, Ben-Simon, A and Hovav, M
(2003). The effect of specific language
features on the complexity of systems for
automated essay scoring. Paper presented
to the 29th Annual Conference of the
International Association for Educational
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of the ACM vol 39 (1), pp80-91
De Bono, E (2000). Six Thinking Hats.
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Learning in Higher Education Paradigm
Shift in Higher Education, National
University of Singapore, 4-6 September 2002
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literacies for connected learning in global
classrooms, in: H Taylor and P Hogenbirk
(Eds) Information and Communication
Technologies: the School of the Future.
London: Kluwer Academic Publishers
EPPI Centre (2002). A Systematic Review
of the Impact of Summative Assessment
and Tests on Students’ Motivation for
Frederikson, JR and Collins, A (1989).
A system approach to educational testing.
Educational Researcher, 18(9), 27-32
Freeman, MA and McKenzie, J (2002).
Implementing and evaluating SPARK, a
confidential web-based template for self
and peer assessment of student
teamwork: benefits of evaluating across
different subjects. British Journal of
Educational Technology, 33 (5), pp553-572.
Cited at
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Kimbell, R (2003). Performance
assessment: assessing the inaccessible.
Paper presented at Futurelab’s Beyond the
Exam conference, 19-20 November 2003,
Kirriemuir, J and McFarlane, A (2003).
Literature Review in Games and Learning
(2004). Bristol: Futurelab. Retrieved
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Klein SP, Hamilton, LS, McCaffrey, DF
and Stecher, BM (2000). What do test
scores in Texas tell us? RAND Issues Paper.
Koretz and Barron (1998). The Validity
of Gains in Scores on the Kentucky
Instructional Results Information System
Linn, RL (2000). Assessments and
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and Unwin
Messick, S (1995). Validity of psychological
assessment. American Psychologist vol 50,
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Mitchell, T, Aldridge, N, Williamson, W
and Broomhead, P (2003). Computer
based testing of medical knowledge.
Proceedings of the 7th International
Computer Assisted Assessment
Conference, Loughborough, pp249-267
Pellegrino, JW, Chudowski, N, Glaser, R
(Eds) (2001). Knowing What Students
Know. Washington DC: National Academy
of Sciences
QCA (2004). The Basic and Key Skills (BKS)
E-assessment Experience Report.
Richardson, M, Baird, J, Ridgway, J, Ripley,
M, Shorrocks-Taylor, D and Swan, M (2002).
Challenging minds? Students’ perceptions
of computer-based World Class Tests of
problem solving. Computers and Human
Behaviour, 18 (6), 633-649
Ridgway, J and Passey, D (1993). An
international view of mathematics
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Niss, M (Ed) Investigations into
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Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp57-72
Ridgway, J (1998). The Modelling of
Systems and Macro-Systemic Change -
Lessons for Evaluation from Epidemiology
and Ecology. National Institute for Science
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Ridgway, J and Smith, H (2004). Against
plagiarism: strategies for defending the
validity of assessment systems. EARLI
Assessment SIG, Bergen, Norway
Ridgway, J, Swan, M and Burkhardt, H
(2001). Assessing mathematical thinking
via FLAG, in: D Holton and M Niss (Eds)
Teaching and Learning Mathematics at
University Level - An ICMI Study.
Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers,
pp 423-430. Field-Tested Learning
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Ridgway J and McCusker, S (2003).
Using computers to assess new
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Ripley, M (2004). E-assessment question
2004 – QCA keynote speech e-assessment:
an overview. Presentation given by Martin
Ripley at Delivering E-assessment - a Fair
Deal for Learners, a summit held by QCA
on 20 April 2004
Roan, M (2003). Computerised
assessment: changes in marking UK
examinations – are we ready yet? Paper
presented to the 29th Annual Conference
of the International Association for
Educational Assessment.
Robitaille, DF, Schmidt, WH, Raizen, S,
McKnight, C, Britton, E and Nicol, C
(1993). Curriculum frameworks for
mathematics and science. TIMSS
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Educational Press
Rt Hon Charles Clarke MP, Secretary of
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Fair Deal for Learners, a summit held by
QCA on 20 April 2004
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Sukkarieh, JZ, Pulman, SG and Raikes, N
(2003). Auto-marking: using computational
linguistics to score short, free text
responses. Paper presented to the 29th
Annual Conference of the International
Association for Educational Assessment.
Tattersall, K (2003). Ringing the changes:
educational and assessment policies, 1900
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AQA: Manchester, pp7-27
Teacher Training Agency (2003). Qualifying
to Teach: Professional Standards for
Qualified Teacher Status and
Requirements for Initial Teacher Training
Tomlinson, M (2002). Inquiry into A Level
Standards. London: DfES
Tomlinson, M (2004). 14-19 Curriculum
and Qualifications Reform: Interim Report
Of The Working Group On 14-19 Reform.
London: DfES.
Topping, KJ (1998). Peer assessment
between students in college and university.
Review of Educational Research. 68 (3),


Report number 10.