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Durham University

School of Education

Staff Profile

Publication details for Prof Stephen Gorard

Gorard, S. & Gorard, J. (2016). Explaining the number of counterfactual cases needed to disturb a finding: a reply to Kuha and Sturgis. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 19(4): 497-499.

Author(s) from Durham


This brief paper is an extension of our original paper What to do instead of significance testing? Calculating the ‘number of counterfactual cases needed to disturb a finding’, following a response by Jouni Kuha and Patrick Stugis. It shows how their response assists in the development of our idea of the ‘number needed to disturb’ (NNTD) a finding, and allows us to explain that idea further. NNTD allows researchers to summarise the scale, ‘effect’ size and attrition of a study in one figure.