Publication details for Dr Mike ChurchMairs, K-A, Church, M J, Dugmore, A J & Sveinbjarnardóttir, G (2006). Degrees of success: evaluating the environmental impacts of long term settlement in south Iceland. In Dynamics of northern societies proceedings of the SILA/NABO Conference on Arctic and North Atlantic Archaeology, Copenhagen, May 10th-14th, 2004. Arneborg, J & Grønnow, B Copenhagen: Aarhus University Press. 365-373.
- Publication type: Chapter in book
- ISSN/ISBN: 8776020525
- Keywords: Settlement and abandonment, woodland clearance, soil erosion, Iceland, Norse
- Further publication details on publisher web site
- Durham Research Online (DRO) - may include full text
Author(s) from Durham
This paper focuses on the occupation and landscape history of Dalur and Mörk, two areas of long-term settlement in the Eyjafjallahreppur district of southern Iceland. The aim is to illustrate the importance of evaluating not only farm occupation and abandonment, but also to assess the complexities of the environmental interactions of long-term settlements. Environmental records are assessed using data from 50 sediment profiles, constrained by tephrochronology, located in the farm infields (tún) and outfields (hagi). This record indicates that despite similar outward appearances today, the environs of Dalur and Mörk have experienced different histories of environmental change over the last 1000 years. At least 14 subsidiary settlements were at one time or another established within Dalur, or were dependent on the Church farm there. Ten of these settlements were subsequently abandoned and sediment accumulation rates, a proxy indicator of erosion, remained low, indicating restricted local human impact. We conclude that this illustrates the importance of access and rights to additional resources out with the principal farm. In addition, much of the immediate environs of the main farm site was probably un-wooded at the time of settlement, so the total degree of vegetative change was limited. In contrast, palaeoenvironmental data indicates that the environs of Mörk were extensively wooded at the time of Landnám, but this woodland was rapidly cleared and this was followed by several centuries of landscape instability. In a cultural contrast, the landholdings of Mörk experienced less subdivision with a total of only five dependent farms established across the land belonging to three main farms (all of which had chapels). From the early 10th to 14th centuries there was significantly enhanced erosion within the Mörk landholdings, but this stabilised and the principal farms endured and to form sites of long-term settlement. The ownership of additional resource rights, including woodland further up-valley, may have made the crucial contribution to long term endurance.
Dr Simon Gilmour, MA(Hons) PhD FSA FSA Scot MIfA
Director of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
Telephone: +44 (0) 131 247 4115
My research area focuses on the archaeology of the first millennia BC and AD across the Atlantic Seaways. I have co-directed excavations and landscape surveys in the Western Isles and Argyll, with colleagues in various universities and worked abroad in Syria, Romania and France on excavations. I am currently an Honorary Fellow of the University of Edinburgh where I have taught various courses in Archaeology.
After completing my PhD I worked at the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS) as the Aerial Survey Liaison Officer in the National Monuments Record for Scotland (NMRS) from 2001 to 2005. During this period I was also Secretary of the Scottish Aerial Archaeology Group, and a member of the Aerial Archaeology Research Group (AARG).
From 2001 to 2004 I was elected to the Board of Archaeology Scotland (then the Council for Scottish Archaeology) as Honorary Secretary, and served as elected Vice President from 2004 to 2010. I am currently the elected Vice Chair of the Built Environment Forum Scotland (BEFS) and convener of their Historic Environment Working Group (HEWG) and Historic Environment Bill taskforce.
I am currently Director of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, the oldest antiquarian Society in Scotland, and second oldest in the UK, founded in 1780. Further information on the Society is available through the website www.socantscot.org. As Director I manage the Society with a small staff team, servicing over 3000 Fellows across the world.
SELECTED CURRENT PROJECTS:
'Uig Landscape Survey Project', Lewis, Western Isles (UK). Co-directed four seasons of landscape survey and excavation of four archaeological sites across the Uig Peninsula, Lewis from 1995 to 1998. Post-excavation nearing completion. Principal funding bodies: Historic Scotland (UK), University of Edinburgh (UK), Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland (UK), Uig Estate and the Gearing family (UK).
'Glashan Dun', Argyll (UK). Co-directed a season of excavation and survey at this Iron Age roundhouse adjacent to the Glashan crannog. Post-excavation nearing completion. Principle funding bodies: Historic Scotland (UK), University of Nottingham (UK).
- Archaeology of Iron Age Atlantic Europe
- Aerial Survey
Management, Protection and Presentation of the Historic Environment
Gilmour, S (2005) 'Complex Atlantic Roundhouses - chronology and complexity', in Turner, VE, Nicholson, RA, Dockrill, SJ, Bond, JM (eds.) Tall Stories? - 2 millennia of brochs Shetland Amenity Trust, Lerwick, 78-96
Cowley, DC and Gilmour, S (2005) 'Some observations on the nature of aerial survey' in Brophy, K and Cowley, DC (eds.) From the air: understanding aerial archaeology, Stroud: Tempus, 50-63
Gilmour, S (2005) Review of 'The Iron Age in Northern Britain: Celts and Romans, Natives and Invaders' by D W Harding, Routledge, in Scottish Archaeological Newsletter 47, Council for Scottish Archaeology, 14
Gilmour, S (2005) Review of 'Facing the Ocean: the Atlantic and its peoples 8000BC-AD1500' by Barry Cunliffe, Oxford University Press, 2001 in Scottish Archaeological Journal 25.2, Edinburgh University Press, 188-9
Cowley, D C and Gilmour, S (2005) 'Discovery from the air: a pit-defined cursus monument in Fife' Scottish Archaeological Journal 25.2 (2003), Edinburgh University Press, 171-8
Fraser, S, Gilmour, S and Dawson, T (2003) 'Shorewatch: Monitoring Scotland's Coastal Archaeology' in Dawson, T (ed.) Conference Proceedings on Coastal Archaeology and Erosion in Scotland Historic ScotlandTechnical Conservation, Research and Education Division, 197-202
Gilmour, S (2002) 'Mid-first millennium BC settlement in the Western Isles?', in Ballin-Smith, B and Banks, I (eds.) In the Shadow of the Brochs a Festschrift to Dr. Euan MacKie, Tempus, 55-66
Gilmour, S and Henderson, J (2003) 'Archaeology at Loch Glashan in Argyll' Scottish Archaeological Newsletter 43,Council for Scottish Archaeology, 10-11
Redhouse, D I, Anderson, M, Cockerell, T, Gilmour, S, Housley, R, Malone, Cand Stoddart, S (2002) 'Power in Context: the Lismore landscape project' Antiquity 76, 945-6
Gilmour, S and Church, M (2002) 'On the edge of the World?: excavations at Uig, west Lewis' Scottish Archaeological Newsletter No38,Council for Scottish Archaeology
Gilmour, S (2002) 'Hot Bananas!' Review of the Rhind lectures by Barry Cunliffe, Scottish Archaeological Newsletter No39, Council for Scottish Archaeology, 3
Gilmour, S (2000) 'First Millennia Settlement Development in the Atlantic West', in Henderson, J (ed.) The Prehistory and Early History of Western Europe British Archaeological Reports, International Series 861, Oxford, 155-170
Gilmour, S (1998) 'Recent Excavations in Lewis' Historic Argyll No.3, LAHS, 14
Gilmour, S and Cook, M (1998) 'Excavations at Dun Vulan: a reinterpretation of the reappraised Iron Age' Antiquity 72, 327-37
Gilmour, S and Henderson, J (1998) 'Excavation of a Cairn at Cleigh, Kilmore in 1996' Historic Argyll No.3, LAHS, 13
Gilmour, S and Henderson, J (1997) 'Cleigh, Kilmore Parish, by Oban' Historic Argyll No.2, LAHS
Burgess, C, Gilmour, S and Henderson, J (1997) 'Recording Archaeological Excavations using GIS' Archaeological Computing Newsletter 46 Autumn 1996, Oxford, 2-9
Harding, D W and Gilmour, S (2000) The Iron Age settlement at Beirgh, Riof, Isle of Lewis: Excavations, 1985-95 - Volume 1: The structures and stratigraphy Calanais Research Series No.1, Edinburgh University Department of Archaeology
Gilmour, S and Henderson, J (200) 'Survey and excavation at Loch Glashan Dun', Final Interim Report for Historic Scotland
Gilmour, S and Henderson, J (2005) 'Survey and excavation at Loch Glashan Dun Preservation Report', Final Preservation Report for Forest Enterprise and Forestry Commission Scotland
Burgess, C, Church, M, and Gilmour, S (1998) Uig Landscape Survey unpublished Interim Report in the Department of Archaeology, University of Edinburgh
Bonsall, C and Gilmour, S (1994) Archaeological Evaluation and Watching Brief at the former Auction Mart site, Lochavullin, Oban: Report to William Low plc. unpublished report lodged in the NMRS
Gilmour, S (2001) Shorewatch: Recording Scotland's Coastal Archaeology, Pilot Phase 3, Final Report unpublished report for the Council for Scottish Archaeology and Historic Scotland
Over 20 reports in Discovery and Excavation in Scotland published by the CSA (Archaeology Scotland)