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Durham University

Department of Mathematical Sciences

Academic Staff

Publication details for Professor Emeritus Paul Mansfield

Mansfield, Paul (2012). Faraday's Lines of Force as Strings: from Gauss' Law to the Arrow of Time. Journal of High Energy Physics 2012(10): 149.

Author(s) from Durham


We reformulate classical electromagnetism as the statistical mechanics of lines of electric flux with dynamics described by the string action in four dimensions. The retarded solution to Maxwell’s equations emerges naturally as an average over a microcanonical ensemble of these lines of force at high temperature.