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Durham University

Department of Mathematical Sciences

Academic Staff

Publication details for Peter Craig

Ockleford, Colin, Adriaanse, Paulien, Berny, Philippe, Brock, Theodorus, Duquesne, Sabine, Grilli, Sandro, Hernandez‐Jerez, Antonio F., Bennekou, Susanne Hougaard, Klein, Michael, Kuhl, Thomas, Laskowski, Ryszard, Machera, Kyriaki, Pelkonen, Olavi, Pieper, Silvia, Stemmer, Michael, Sundh, Ingvar, Teodorovic, Ivana, Tiktak, Aaldrik, Topping, Chris J., Wolterink, Gerrit, Craig, Peter, de Jong, Frank, Manachini, Barbara, Sousa, Paulo, Swarowsky, Klaus, Auteri, Domenica, Arena, Maria & Rob, Smith (2017). Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms. EFSA Journal 15(2): e04690.

Author(s) from Durham


Following a request from EFSA, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science behind the risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms. The current risk assessment scheme is reviewed, taking into account new regulatory frameworks and scientific developments. Proposals are made for specific protection goals for in-soil organisms being key drivers for relevant ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes such as nutrient cycling, soil structure, pest control and biodiversity. Considering the time-scales and biological processes related to the dispersal of the majority of in-soil organisms compared to terrestrial non-target arthropods living above soil, the Panel proposes that in-soil environmental risk assessments are made at in- and off-field scale considering field boundary levels. A new testing strategy which takes into account the relevant exposure routes for in-soil organisms and the potential direct and indirect effects is proposed. In order to address species recovery and long-term impacts of PPPs, the use of population models is also proposed.