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Durham University

Durham Law School

Staff profile

Publication details for Dr Anca Chirita

Chirita, Anca D. (2018), The Rise of Big Data and the Loss of Privacy, in Bakhoum, M., Conde Gallego, B., Mackenordt, M.-O. & Surblytė-Namavičienė, G. eds, MPI Studies on Intellectual Property and Competition Law, 28 Personal Data in Competition, Consumer Protection and IP Law: Towards a Holistic Approach?. Munich, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 153-189.

Author(s) from Durham


This chapter offers a classification of personal data based on the study of privacy policies of Google, Microsoft Windows, Facebook, Instagram, Linked-In, and Whisper. It argues that online price discrimination contributes to higher corporate profits and economic inequality. Competition policy intervention is therefore needed to curb this inequality that generates a false impression that a few digital giants are competing on the merit of their ‘highly innovative’ data-driven products and performance. The chapter argues that knowing a consumer’s usage, frequency, preferences, and choices disempowers online consumers.