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Durham University

Durham Law School

Staff profile

Publication details for Dr Eleni Frantziou

Frantziou, E. (2020). The Horizontal Effect of the Charter: Towards an Understanding of Horizontality as a Structural Constitutional Principle? Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies

Author(s) from Durham


This article analyses the main debates over the application of the Charter to disputes between private parties and assesses the ways in which the case law over the last ten years has responded to them. The article goes on to propose an alternative schema, whereby horizontality can be understood as a structural principle of EU fundamental rights adjudication on its own terms, rather than as an extension of the direct effect doctrine. It is argued that a self-standing principle of horizontality with equally valuable – yet operationally distinct – direct, indirect, and state-mediated manifestations, could respond more coherently to the conceptual, procedural, and remedial challenges displayed in the case law.