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Durham University

Sea Level Research Unit (SLRU)

Members

Dr Jeremy Lloyd

Contact Dr Jeremy Lloyd (email at j.m.lloyd@durham.ac.uk)

Biography

My research interests lie in the area of Quaternary environmental reconstruction with particular focus on palaeoceanography and sea-level changes. My current areas of research include:

  • Interaction between palaeoceanography and ice sheet dynamics
  • Relative sea-level changes and coastal evolution
  • Reconstructing Asian Monsoon climate

Interaction between palaeoceanography and ice sheet dynamics

One of my main areas of research has focused on the link between ocean circulation and ice sheet dynamics. This research has concentrated on the west Greenland margin, but has recently expanded to include research from the northeast Greenland margin and the Antarctic Peninsula. Research in west Greenland has investigated the timing and nature of deglaciation in the Disko Bay area and also the link between ocean circulation and the dynamics of Jakobshavns Isbrae (one of the largest ice streams draining the Greenland Ice Sheet). I have extended this research into the link between the oceans and ice streams through recent research from Fosters Bugt in northeast Greenland and Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula. This research has involved collaboration with Dr Antoon Kuijpers (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland), Dr Matthias Moros (Baltic Sea Research Institute, Germany), Dr Andrzej Witkowski (University of Szczecin, Poland) and Profs Colm Ó Cofaigh and Antony Long (Durham).

Relative sea-level changes and coastal evolution

I have carried out research reconstructing relative sea-level change from a range of locations around the UK including NW Scotland, the Solway Firth, Cumbria and NE England. This new data can then be used to test and help refine quantitative glacio-hydro-isostatic models. I am also interested in the relative sea-level history from NW Iceland with the aim of providing accurate relative sea-level reconstructions from the Lateglacial through to the Late Holocene needed to test geophysical glacio-hydro-isostatic models and also provide information on deglaciation. I am also collaborating with archaeologists interested in the Viking settlements of NW Iceland and their links with the sea.

Reconstructing Asian Monsoon climate

One of my research interests has been in developing new proxies from the Pearl River Estuary to reconstruct the Southeast Asian Monsoon. In this research we have investigated a number of proxies including foraminifera, diatoms and bulk carbon stable isotopes to reconstruct the variation in freshwater flux to the Pearl River Estuary linked to monsoon precipitation. This research has recently been extended to include organic and inorganic geochemical analysis of a maar lake sequence. This research is being carried out in collaboration with Drs Cheng Zong and Wyss Yim (University of Hong Kong) and Dr Rachel Flecker (University of Bristol).

Selected Publications

Journal Article

  • Ó Cofaigh, C., Weilbach, K., Lloyd, J. M., Benetti, S., Callard,S.L., Purcell, R.C., Chiverrell, R.C., Dunlop, P., Saher, M., Livingstone, S.J., Van Landeghem, K.J.J., Moreton, S.G., Clark, C.D. & Fabel, D. Early deglaciation of the British-Irish Ice Sheet on the Atlantic shelf northwest of Ireland driven by glacioisostatic depression and high relative sea level. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2019;208:76-96.
  • Barlow, N.L.M., McClymont, E.L., Whitehouse, P.L., Stokes, C.R., Jamieson, S.S.R., Woodroffe, S.A., Bentley, M.J., Callard, S.L., Ó Cofaigh, C., Evans, D.J.A., Horrocks, J.R., Lloyd, J.M., Long, A.J., Margold, M., Roberts, D.H. & Sanchez-Montes, M.L. Lack of evidence for a substantial sea-level fluctuation within the Last Interglacial. Nature Geoscience. 2018;11:627-634.
  • Streuff, K., Ó Cofaigh, C., Noormets, R. & Lloyd, J.M. Submarine landform assemblages and sedimentary processes in front of Spitsbergen tidewater glaciers. Marine Geology. 2018;402:209-227.
  • Strzelecki, M.C., Long, A.J., Lloyd, J.M., Małecki, J., Zagórski, P., Pawłowski, Ł. & Jaskólski, M. The role of rapid glacial retreat and landscape transformation in controlling the post-Little Ice Age evolution of paraglacial coasts in central Spitsbergen (Billefjorden, Svalbard). Land Degradation and Development. 2018;29:1962-1978.
  • Sproson, Adam D., Selby, David, Gannoun, Abdelmouchine, Burton, Kevin W., Dellinger, Mathieu & Lloyd, Jeremy M. Tracing the impact of coastal water geochemistry on the Re-Os systematics of macroalgae: Insights from the basaltic terrain of Iceland. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 2018;123:2791-2806.
  • Ayala, G., Wainwright, J., Walker, J., Hodara, R., Lloyd, J.M., Leng, M. & Doherty, C. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the alluvial landscape of Neolithic Çatalhöyük, central southern Turkey: The implications for early agriculture and responses to environmental change. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2017;87:30-43.
  • Strzelecki, M.C., Long, A.J. & Lloyd, J.M. Post-Little Ice Age development of a High Arctic paraglacial beach complex. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes. 2017;28:4-17.
  • Brader, Martin D., Lloyd, Jeremy M., Barlow, Natasha L.M., Norðdahl, Hreggviður, Bentley, Michael J. & Newton, Anthony J. Postglacial relative sea-level changes in northwest Iceland: Evidence from isolation basins, coastal lowlands and raised shorelines. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2017;169:114-130.
  • Krawczyk, D. W., Witkowski, A., Moros, M., Lloyd, J. M., Høyer, J. L., Miettinen, A. & Kuijpers, A. Quantitative reconstruction of Holocene sea ice and sea surface temperature off West Greenland from the first regional diatom data set. Paleoceanography. 2017;32:18-40.
  • Streuff, Katharina, Ó Cofaigh, Colm, Hogan, Kelly, Jennings, Anne, Lloyd, Jeremy M., Noormets, Riko, Nielsen, Tove, Kuijpers, Antoon, Dowdeswell, Julian A. & Weinrebe, Wilhelm Seafloor geomorphology and glacimarine sedimentation associated with fast-flowing ice sheet outlet glaciers in Disko Bay, West Greenland. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2017;169:206-230.
  • Streuff, K., O'Cofaigh, C., Noormets, R. & Lloyd, J. Submarine Landforms and Glacimarine Sedimentary Processes in Lomfjorden, East Spitsbergen. Marine Geology. 2017;390:51-71.
  • Auriac, A., Whitehouse, P.L., Bentley, M.J., Patton, H., Lloyd, J.M. & Hubbard, A. Glacial isostatic adjustment associated with the Barents Sea ice sheet: a modelling inter-comparison. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2016;147:122-135.
  • Moros, M., Lloyd, J.M., Perner, K., Krawczyk, D., Blanz, T., Kuijpers, A., Jennings, A.E., Witkowski, A., Schneider, R. & Jansen, E. Surface and sub-surface multi-proxy reconstruction of middle to late Holocene palaeoceanographic changes in Disko Bugt, West Greenland. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2016;132:146-160.
  • Rooney, A.D., Selby, D., Lloyd, J.M., Roberts, D.H., Lückge, A., Sageman, B.B. & Prouty, N.G. Tracking millennial-scale Holocene glacial advance and retreat using osmium isotopes: Insights from the Greenland ice sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2016;138:49-61.
  • Hamilton, C., Lloyd, J.M., Barlow, N.L.M., Innes, J.B., Flecker, R. & Thomas, C. Late Glacial to Holocene relative sea level change in Assynt, northwest Scotland, UK. Quaternary Research. 2015;84:214-222.
  • Brader, M., Lloyd, J.M., Bentley, M. & Newton, A. Lateglacial to Holocene relative sea-level changes in the Stykkishólmur area, northern Snæfellsnes, Iceland. Journal of Quaternary Science. 2015;30:497-507.
  • Perner, K., Moros, M., Lloyd, J.M., Jansen, E. & Stein, R. Mid to late Holocene strengthening of the East Greenland Current linked to warm subsurface Atlantic water. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2015;129:296-207.
  • Andresen, Camilla S., Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine, Straneo, Fiammetta, Sutherland, David A., Schmith, Torben, Hvid Ribergaard, Mads, Kuijpers, Antoon & Lloyd, Jerry M. A 100-year long record of alkenone-derived SST changes by Southeast Greenland. Continental Shelf Research. 2013;71:45-51.
  • Strong, D., Flecker, R., Valdes, P.J., Wilkinson, I.P., Rees, J.G., Michaelides, K., Zong, Y., Lloyd, J.M., Yu, F. & Pancost, R.D. A new regional, mid-Holocene palaeoprecipitation signal of the Asian Summer Monsoon. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2013;78:65-76.
  • Ó Cofaigh, C., Dowdeswell, J.A., Jennings, A.E., Hogan, K.A., Kilfeather, K., Hiemstra, J.F., Noormets, R., Evans, J., McCarthy, D.J., Andrews, J.T., Lloyd, J.M. & Moros, M. An extensive and dynamic ice sheet on the West Greenland shelf during the last glacial cycle. Geology. 2013;41:219-222.
  • Seidenkrantz, M.-S., Ebbesen, H., Aagaard-Sorensen, S., Moros, M., Lloyd, J.M., Olsen, J., Knudsen, M. F. & Kuijpers, A. Early Holocene large-scale meltwater discharge from Greenland documented by foraminifera and sediment parameters. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 2013;391:71–81.
  • Perner, Kerstin, Moros, Matthias, Snowball, Ian, Lloyd, Jeremy M., Kuijpers, Antoon & Richter, Thomas Establishment of modern circulation pattern atc. 6000 cal a BP in Disko Bugt, central West Greenland: opening of the Vaigat Strait. Journal of Quaternary Science. 2013;28:480-489.
  • Lloyd, J.M., Zong, Y., Fish, P. & Innes, J.B. Holocene and Lateglacial relative sea-level change in north-west England: implications for glacial isostatic adjustment models. Journal of Quaternary Science. 2013;28:59-70.
  • Perner, K., Moros, M., Jennings, A., Lloyd, J.M. & Knudsen, K.L. Holocene palaeoceanographic evolution off West Greenland. The Holocene. 2013;23:374-387.
  • Long, A.J., Strzelecki, M., Lloyd, J.M. & Bryant, C. Dating High Arctic Holocene relative sea level changes using juvenile articulated marine shells in raised beaches. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2012;48:61-66.
  • Yu, F., Zong, Y., Lloyd, J.M., Leng, M.J., Switzer, A.D., Yim, W.W.-S. & Huang, G. Mid-Holocene variability of the East Asian monsoon based on bulk organic δ13C and C/N records from the Pearl River estuary, southern China. The Holocene. 2012;22:705-715.
  • Strong, D.J., Flecker, R.M., Valdes, P.J., Wilkinson, I.P., Rees, J.G., Zong, Y., Lloyd, J.M., Garrett, E. & Pancost, R.D. Organic matter distribution in the modern sediments of the Pearl River Estuary. Organic Geochemistry. 2012;49:68-82.
  • Woods, A., Lloyd, J.M., Zong, Y. & Brodie, C. Spatial mapping of Pearl River estuary surface sediment geochemistry: influence of data analysis on environmental interpretation. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 2012;115:218-233.
  • Lloyd, J.M., Moros, M., Perner, K., Telford, R., Kuijpers, A., Jansen, E. & McCarthy, D A 100 year record of ocean temperature control on the stability of Jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. Geology. 2011;39:867-870.
  • Watcham, E.P., Bentley, M.J., Hodgson, D.A., Roberts, S.J., Fretwell, P.T., Lloyd, J.M., Larter, R.D., Whitehouse, P.L., Leng, M.J., Monien, P. & Moreton, S.G. A new relative sea level curve for the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2011;30:3152-3170.
  • Perner, K., Moros, M., Lloyd, J.M., Kuijpers, A., Telford, R. & Harff, J. Centennial scale benthic foraminiferal record of late Holocene oceanographic variability in Disko Bugt, West Greenland. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2011;30:2815-2826.
  • Brodie, C.B., Leng, M.J., Casford, J.S.L., Kendrick, C.P., Lloyd, J.M., Zong, Y. & Bird, M.I. Evidence for bias in C and N concentrations and δ13C composition of terrestrial and aquatic organic materials due to pre-analysis acid preparation methods. Chemical Geology. 2011;282:67-83.
  • Brodie, C.B., Casford, J.S.L., Lloyd, J.M., Leng, M.J., Heaton, T.H.E., Kendrick, C.P. & Zong, Y. Evidence for bias in C/N, δ13C, δ15N values of bulk organic matter, and on environmental interpretation, from a lake sedimentary sequence by pre-analysis acid treatment methods. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2011;30:3076-3087.
  • Brodie, C.R., Heaton, T.H.E., Leng, M.J., Kendrick, C.P., Casford, J.S.L. & Lloyd, J.M. Evidence for bias in measured δ15N values of terrestrial and aquatic organic materials due to pre-analysis acid treatment methods. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 2011;25:1089-1099.
  • Kilfeather, A.A., O Cofaigh, C., Lloyd, J.M., Dowdeswell, J.A., Xu, S. & Moreton, S.G. Ice-stream retreat and ice-shelf history in Marguerite Trough, Antarctic Peninsula: Sedimentological and foraminiferal signatures. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 2011;123:997-1015.
  • Andresen, C., McCarthy, D., Dylmer, C., Seidenkrantz, M-S., Kuijpers, A. & Lloyd, J. Interaction between subsurface ocean waters and calving of Jakobshavn Isbræ during the Late Holocene. The Holocene. 2011;21:211-224.
  • Hogan, K.A., Dix, J.K., Lloyd, J.M., Long, A.J. & Cotterill, C.J. Seismic stratigraphy records the deglacial history of Jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. Journal of Quaternary Science. 2011;26:757-766.
  • Yu, F., Zong, Y., Lloyd, J.M., Huang, G., Leng, M.J., Kendrick, C., Lamb, A.L. & Yim, W.W.-S. Bulk organic δ13C and C/N as indicators for sediment sources in the Pearl River delta and estuary, southern China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 2010;87:618-630.
  • Zong, Y., Kemp, A.C., Yu, F., Lloyd, J.M., Huang, G. & Yim, W.W.-S. Diatoms from the Pearl River estuary, China and their suitability as a water salinity indicator for coastal environments. Marine Micropaleontology. 2010;75:38-49.
  • Krawczyk, D., Witkowski, A., Moros, M., Lloyd, J., Kuijpers, A. & Kierzek, A. Late-Holocene diatom-inferred reconstruction of temperature variations of the West Greenland Current from Disko Bugt, central West Greenland. The Holocene. 2010;20:659-666.
  • Zong, Y., Huang, G., Yu, F., Lloyd, J. & Yim, W.W.-S. Sedimentary evidence of Late Holocene human activity in the Pearl River delta, China. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 2010;35:1095-1102.
  • Zong, Y., Yu, F., Huang, G., Lloyd, J.M. & Yim, W.W.-S. The history of water salinity in the Pearl River estuary, China, during the Late Quaternary. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 2010;35:1221-1233.
  • Roberts, D.H., Yde, J., Long, A.J., Knudsen, N.T. & Lloyd, J.M. Ice marginal dynamics during surge activity, Kuannersuit Glacier, Disko Island, West Greenland. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2009;28:209-222.
  • Lloyd, J.M., Norddahl, H., Bentley, M.J., Newton, A., Tucker, O. & Zong, Y. Lateglacial to Holocene relative sea-level changes in the Bjarkarlundur area near Reykholar, North West Iceland. Journal of Quaternary Science. 2009;24:816-831.
  • McClymont, E.L., Rosell-Mele, A., Haug, G. & Lloyd, J.M. Expansion of subarctic water masses in the North Atlantic and Pacific oceans and implications for mid-Pleistocene ice sheet growth. Paleoceanography. 2008;23:PA4214.
  • Mackie, E. A. V., Lloyd, J.M., Leng, M.J., Bentley, M.J. & Arrowsmith, C. Assessment of δ13C, C/N ratios in bulk organic matter as palaeosalinity indicators in Holocene and Lateglacial isolation basin sediments, northwest Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science. 2007;22:579-591.
  • Lloyd, J.M., Kuijpers, A., Long, A., Moros, M. & Park, L.A. Foraminiferal reconstruction of mid- to late-Holocene ocean circulation and climate variability in Disko Bugt, West Greenland. The Holocene. 2007;17:1079-1091.
  • Smith, J. A., Bentley, M. J., Hodgson, D. A., Roberts, S. J., Leng, M. J., Lloyd, J. M., Barrett, M. J., Bryant, C. & Sugden, D. E. Oceanic and atmospheric forcing of early Holocene ice shelf retreat, George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctica Peninsula. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2007;26:500-516.
  • Lloyd, J.M. Late Holocene environmental change in Disko Bugt, West Greenland: interaction between climate, ocean circulation and Jakobshavn Isbrae. Boreas. 2006;35:35-49.
  • Lloyd, J.M. Modern distribution of benthic foraminifera from Disko Bugt, West Greenland. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 2006;36:315-331.
  • Zong, Y., Lloyd, J.M., Leng, M.J., Yim, W.W-S. & Huang, G. Reconstruction of Holocene monsoon history from the Pearl River Estuary, southern China, using diatoms and carbon isotope ratios. The Holocene. 2006;16:251-263.
  • McClymont, E.L., Rosell-Melé, A., Giraudeau, J., Pierre, C. & Lloyd, J.M. Alkenone and coccolith records of the Mid-Pleistocene in the south-east Atlantic: Implications for the UK37' index and south African climate. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2005;24:1559-1572.
  • Mackie, E. A. V., Leng, M., Lloyd, J. M. & Arrowsmith, C. Bulk organic δ13C and C/N ratios as palaeosalinity indicators within a Scottish isolation basin. Journal of Quaternary Science. 2005;20:303-312.
  • Lloyd, J.M., Park, L.A., Kuijpers, A. & Moros, M. Early Holocene palaeoceanography and deglacial chronology of Disko Bugt, West Greenland. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2005;24:1741-1755.
  • Horton, B. P., Innes, J. B., Shennan, I., Lloyd, J. M. & McArthur, J. J. Holocene coastal change in east Norfolk, UK: palaeoenvironmental data from Somerton and Winteron Holmes, near Horsey. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. 2004;115:209-220.
  • Lloyd, J.M. & Evans, J.R. Contemporary and fossil foraminifera from isolation basins in northwest Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science. 2002;17:431-443.
  • Kuijpers, A., Lloyd, J. M., Jensen, J. B., Endler, R., Moros, M., Park, L. A., Schulz, B., Jensen, K. G. & Laier, T. Late Quaternary circulation changes and sedimentation in Disko Bugt and adjacent fjords, central West Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 2001;189:41-47.
  • Lloyd, J. M. Combined Foraminiferal and Thecamoebian Environmental Reconstruction from an Isolation Basin in NW Scotland: Implications for Sea-Level Studies. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 2000;30:294-305.
  • Shennan, I., Horton, B.P., Innes, J.B., Lloyd, J.M., McArthur, J.J. & Rutherford, M.M. Holocene isostasy and relative sea-level changes on the east coast of England. Geological society, London, special publications. 2000;166:275-298.
  • Shennan, I., Lambeck, K., Horton, B. P., Innes, J. B., Lloyd, J. M., McArthur, J. J., Purcell, A. & Rutherford, M. M. Late Devensian and Holocene records of relative sea-level changes in northwest Scotland and their implications for glacio-hydro-isostatic modelling. Quaternary Science Reviews. 2000;19:1103-1136.
  • Shennan, I., Horton, B. P., Innes, J. B., Gehrels, W. R., Lloyd, J. M., McArthur, J. J. & Rutherford, M. M. Late Quarternary sea-level changes, crustal movements and coastal evolution in Northumberland, UK. Journal of Quaternary Science. 2000;15:215-238.
  • Horton, B., Edwards, R.J. & Lloyd, J.M. A foraminiferal-based transfer function: implications for sea-level studies. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 1999;29 117-129.
  • Lloyd, J. M., Shennan, I., Green, F., Kirby, J. & Rutherford, M. Holocene relative sea-level changes in the inner Solway Firth. Quaternary International. 1999;60:83 - 105.
  • I. Shennan, M. Tooley, F. Green, J.B. Innes, K. Kennington, J.M. Lloyd & M.M. Rutherford Sea level, climate change and coastal evolution in Morar, northwest Scotland. Geologie en Mijnbouw. 1999;77:274-262.
  • Horton B, Edwards, RJ & Lloyd, JM UK intertidal foraminiferal distributions: implications for sea-level studies. Marine Micropalaeontology. 1999;36205-223.
  • Long, A., Innes, J. B., Kirby, J., Lloyd, J. M., Rutherford, M. M., Shennan, I. & Tooley, M. J. Holocene sea-level change and coastal evolution in the Humber estuary, eastern England: an assessment of rapid coastal change. Holocene. 1998;8:229-247.
  • Lloyd, J.M., Kroon, D., Laban, C. & Boulton, G. Deglaciation history and palaeoceanography of the western Spitsbergen margin since the last glacial maximum. Geological society, London, special publications. 1996;111:289 - 301.
  • Shennan, I., Green, F., Innes, J. B., Lloyd, J. M., Rutherford, M. M. & Walker, K. Evaluation of rapid relative sea-level changes in north-west Scotland during the late Devensian: Evidence from Ardtoe and other isolation basins. Journal of Coastal Research. 1996;12:862-874.
  • Lloyd, J. M., Kroon, D., Boulton, G., Laban, C. & Fallick, A. Ice rafting history from the Spitsbergen ice cap over the last 200 ka. Marine Geology. 1996;131:103 - 121.
  • Shennan, I., Long, A.J., Rutherford, M.M., Green, F.M., Innes, J.B., Lloyd, J.M., Zong, Y. & Walker, K. Tidal marsh stratigraphy, sea-level change and large earthquakes, 1; a 5000 year record in Washington, U.S.A. Quaternary Science Reviews. 1996;15:1-37.

Chapter in book

  • Shennan, I., Lambeck, K., Flather, R., Wingfield, R., Horton, B.P., McArthur, J.J., Innes, J.B., Lloyd, J.M. & Rutherford, M.M. Modelling western North Sea palaeogeographies and tidal changes during the Holocene. In: Shennan, I. & Andrews, J.E. Holocene land ocean interactions and environmental change around the North Sea. London: The Geological Society; 2000:299-319.

Other (Digital/Visual Media)

  • Horton, B. P., Edwards, R. J. & Lloyd, J. M. Implications of a microfossil based transfer function in Holocene sea-level studies. 2000;Special No. 166:41 - 54.

Show all publications

Research Groups

Department of Geography

Research Projects

Department of Geography

  • Asian Monsoon Climate Variability
  • Greenland in a Warmer Climate: What Controls the Advance & Retreat of the NE Greenland Ice Stream? (NEGIS)
  • Interaction between the ocean, atmosphere and ice sheet dynamics along the Greenland margin

Supervises