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Durham University

Department of Geography

Departmental Research Projects

Publication details

Bickerdike, H.L., Evans, D.J.A., Stokes, C.R. & Ó Cofaigh, C. The Glacial Geomorphology of the Loch Lomond (Younger Dryas) Stadial in Britain: a review. Journal of Quaternary Science. 2018;33:1-54.

Author(s) from Durham


This paper systematically reviews the glacial geomorphological evidence of the Loch Lomond Stadial (LLS; Younger Dryas) glaciation in Britain (12.9–11.7 ka). The geomorphology of sub-regions within Scotland, England and Wales is assessed, providing the most comprehensive synthesis of this evidence to date. The contrasting nature of the evidence at the local scale is reviewed and conceptual themes common to multiple sub-regions are examined. Advancements in glaciological theory, mapping technologies, numerical modelling and dating have been applied unevenly to localities across Britain, inhibiting a holistic understanding of the extent and dynamics of the LLS glaciation at a regional scale. The quantity and quality of evidence is highly uneven, leading to uncertainties regarding the extent of glaciation and inhibiting detailed analysis of ice dynamics and chronology. Robust dates are relatively scarce, making it difficult to confidently identify the limits of LLS glaciers and assess their synchroneity. Numerical models have allowed the glacier–climate relationships of the LLS to be assessed but have, thus far, been unable to incorporate local conditions which influenced glaciation. Recommendations for future research are made that will allow refined reconstructions of the LLS in Britain and contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of glacier–climate interactions during the Younger Dryas.

Department of Geography