Cookies

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Otherwise, we'll assume you're OK to continue.

Durham University

Department of Geography

Departmental Research Projects

Publication details

Bridgland, D.R., Maddy, D. & Bates, M. River terrace sequences: templates for Quaternary geochronology and marine-terrestrial correlation. Journal of Quaternary Science. 2004;19:203-218.

Author(s) from Durham

Abstract

Fluvial sequences, particularly terrace staircases, represent archives of Quaternary palaeoclimatic fluctuation and can serve as stratigraphical frameworks for geochronology and for correlation with other depositional environments, in particular, the global marine oxygen isotope record. Fluvial lithostratigraphical frameworks also provide contexts for records, from fossils and artefacts, of faunal evolution and human occupation; conversely, both records can be means of relative dating of riverine sequences.
Three fluvial sequences are examined as case studies. First is the Severn-Avon system in the English Midlands, which has biostratgraphical evidence and an amino acid geochronology, together with marker inputs from three different glaciations. The Somme sequence of northern France, famous for its Palaeolithic artefact assemblages, again has biostratigraphy and an amino acid geochronology and has also been dated with reference to overlying loess/palaeosols sequences. The fluvial terraces of the River Arun, the final case study, lack dating evidence but are interspersed within the Sussex raised beach staircase. Although various lines of evidence suggest that the rivers discussed have formed terraces in response to climatic fluctuation, an intriguing difference is that interglacial sediments occur at the bases of terrace formations in the Severn-Avon, whereas in the Somme they occur at the tops of sequences, beneath loessic overburden.

References

Allen LG, Gibbard PL. 1993. Pleistocene evolution of the Solent
River
of southern England. Quaternary Science Reviews 12: 503–528.
Allen T. 1977. Interglacial sea-level change: evidence for brackish
water sedimentation at Purfleet, Essex. Quaternary Newsletter 22:
1–3.
Antoine P. 1990. Chronostratigraphie et environnement du Pale´olithique
du basin de al Somme. Publications du Centre d’Etudes et de
Recherches Pre´historiques 2: Lille; 231 pp.
Antoine P. 1994. The Somme Valley terrace system (Northern France):
a model of river response to Quaternary climatic variations since
8 00 000 B.P. Terra-Nova 6: 453–464.
Antoine P, Tuffreau A. 1993. Contexte stratigraphique, climatique et
pale´otopographique des occupations acheule´ennes de la moyenne
terrasse de la Somme. Bulletin de la Socie´te´ du Prehistoire de France
90: 243–250.
Antoine P, Lautridou JP, Laurent M. 2000. Long-term fluvial archives in
NW France: response of the Seine and Somme rivers to tectonic
movements, climatic variations and sea-level changes. Geomorphology
33: 183–207.
Auguste P. 1995. Re´vision pre´liminaire des grands mammife`res des
gisements du Pale´olithique infe´rieur et moyen de la valle´e de la
Somme. Bulletin de la Socie´te´ du Prehistoire de France 92: 143–154.
Balescu S. 1988. Apports de la thermoluminescence a` la stratigraphie
et a` la se´dimentologie des loess du Nord-Ouest de l’Europe. Doctoral
Thesis; University of Brussels; 2 Vols.
Ballantyne CK, Harris C. 1994. The Periglaciation of Great Britain.
Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Bar-Yosef O. 1998. Early colonizations and cultural continuities in the
Lower Palaeolithic of western Asia. In Early Human Behaviour in
Global Context, Petraglia MD, Korisettar R (eds). Routledge: London;
221–279.
Bates MR. 1990. Amino acid geochronology of Quaternary non-marine
molluscs in north western France. Unpublished PhD thesis, University
of London.
Bates MR. 1993. Quaternary aminostratigraphy in Northwestern
France. Quaternary Science Reviews 12: 793–809.
Bates MR. 2001. The meeting of the waters: raised beaches and river
gravels of the Sussex Coastal Plain/Hampshire Basin. In Palaeolithic
Archaeology of the Solent River, Wenban-Smith FF, Hosfield RT
(eds). Lithic Studies Society Occasional Paper 7, Lithic Studies
Society: London; 27–45.
Bates MR, Parfitt SA, Roberts MB. 1997. The chronology, palaeogeography
and archaeological significance of the marine Quaternary
record of the West Sussex Coastal Plain, Southern England, UK. Quaternary
Science Reviews 16: 1227–1252.
Bates MR, Bates CR, Gibbard PL, Macphail RI, Owen F, Parfitt SA,
Preece RC, Roberts MB, Robinson JE, Whittaker JE, Wilkinson KN.
2000. Late Middle Pleistocene deposits at Norton Farm on the West
Sussex coastal plain, southern England. Journal of Quaternary
Science 15: 61–89.
Biquand D. 1974. Position chronologique de la tre`s haute nappe
alluviale de Graˆce (valle´e de la Somme) par rapport a` la limite
pale´omagne
´tique Brunhes-Matuyama. Bulletin de l’Association Franc¸aise
pour l’Etude du Quaternaire 3–4: 157–159.
Bourdier F. 1969. Excursion dans le basin de Paris de l’Association
Internationale pour l’Etude du Quaternaire du 18 au 28 aouˆ t 1969:
etude compare´e des depots quaternaries des basins de la Seine et de
la Somme. Bulletin Information Geologie du Bassin de Paris 21:
169–220.
Bourdier F, Chaline J, Munaut AV, Puisse´gur J-J. 1974. II Le
Quaternaire
moyen. La tre`s haute nappe alluviale de la Somme. Bulletin de
l’Association
Franc¸aise pour l’Etude du Quaternaire 40–41(3–4): 137–
143.
Bowen DQ (ed.). 1999. A Revised Correlation of Quaternary Deposits
in the British Isles. Special Report No. 23, Geological Society
Publishing
House: Bath; 174 pp.
Bowen DQ, Hughes S, Sykes GA, Miller GH. 1989. Land-sea correlations
in the Pleistocene based on isoleucine epimerization in nonmarine
molluscs. Nature 340: 49–51.
Bowen DQ, Sykes GA, Maddy D, Bridgland DR, Lewis SG. 1995.
Aminostratigraphy
and amino acid geochronology of English lowland
valleys: the Lower Thames in context. In The Quaternary of the
Lower Reaches of the Thames, Bridgland DR, Allen P, Haggert BA
(eds). FieldGuide, Quaternary Research Association:Durham; 61–63.
Breuil H, Koslowski L. 1931. Etudes de stratigraphie pale´olithique dans
le nord de la France, la Belgique, et l’Angleterre. L’Anthropologie
41:
249–290.
Breuil H, Koslowski L. 1932. Etudes de stratigraphie pale´olithique dans
le nord de la France, la Belgique, et l’Angleterre. L’Anthropologie
42:
27–47, 291–314.
Bridgland DR. 1994. Quaternary of the Thames. Chapman & Hall:
London; 441 pp.
Bridgland DR. 1995. The Quaternary sequence of the eastern Thames
basin: problems of correlation. In The Quaternary of the Lower
Reaches of the Thames, Bridgland DR, Allen P, Haggart BA (eds).
Field Guide, Quaternary Research Association: Durham; 35–52.
Bridgland DR. 1996. Quaternary river terrace deposits as a framework
for the Lower Palaeolithic record. In The English Palaeolithic
Reviewed, Gamble C, Lawson A (eds). Trust for Wessex Archaeology:
Salisbury; 23–39.
Bridgland DR. 1998. The Pleistocene history and early human occupation
of the River Thames valley. In Stone Age Archaeology. Essays in
Honour of John Wymer, Ashton N, Healy F, Pettit P (eds). Oxbow
Monograph 102, Oxbow Books: Oxford; 29–37.
Bridgland DR. 2000. River terrace systems in north-west Europe: an
archive of environmental change, uplift and early human occupation.
Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 1293–1303.
Bridgland DR. 2001. The Pleistocene evolution and palaeolithic occupation
of the Solent River. In Palaeolithic Archaeology of the Solent
River, Wenban-Smith FF, Hosfield RT (eds). Lithic Studies Society
Occasional Paper 7, Lithic Studies Society: London; 15–25.
Bridgland DR. 2002. Quaternary fluvial deposition on periodically
emergent shelves, with special reference to the shelf around Britain.
Quaternary International 92: 25–34.
Bridgland DR, Allen P. 1996. A revised model for terrace formation and
its significance for the lower Middle Pleistocene Thames terrace
aggradations of north-east Essex, UK. In The Early Middle Pleistocene
in Europe, Turner C (ed.). Balkema: Rotterdam; 121–134.
Bridgland DR, Maddy D. 1995. River terraces as records of Quaternary
climate oscillation. Programme with Abstracts, INQUA XIV,
Berlin; 37.
Bridgland DR, Maddy D. 2002. Global correlation of long Quaternary
fluvial sequences: a review of baseline knowledge and possible
methods and criteria for establishing a database. Geologie en
Mijnbouw/Netherlands Journal of Geoscience 81: 265–281.
Bridgland DR, Keen DH, Maddy D. 1986. A reinvestigation of the
Bushley Green Terrace of the River Severn at the type site. Quaternary
Newsletter 50: 1–6.
Bridgland DR, Schreve DC. 2001. River terrace formation in synchrony
with long-term climatic fluctuation: examples from southern Britain.
In River Basin Sediments Systems: Archives of Environmental
Change, Maddy D, Macklin M, Woodward J (eds). Balkema:
Rotterdam; 229–248.
Bridgland DR, Maddy D, Keen DH. 1989. The Avon terraces:
Cropthorne, Ailstone and Eckington. In The West Midlands,
Keen DH (ed.). Field Guide, Quaternary Research Association:
Cambridge; 51–67.
Bridgland DR, D’Olier B, Gibbard PL, Roe HM. 1993. Correlation of
Thames Terrace deposits between the Lower Thames, eastern Essex
and the submerged offshore continuation of the Thames–Medway
valley. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 104: 51–57.
Bridgland DR, Preece RC, Roe HM, Tipping RM, Coope GR, Field MH,
Robinson JE, Schreve DC, Crowe K. 2001. Middle Pleistocene interglacial
deposits at Barling, Essex, UK: evidence for a longer chronology
for the Thames terrace sequence. Journal of Quaternary Science
16: 813–840.
Brown RC, Gilbertson DD, Green CP, Keen DH. 1975. Stratigraphy
and environmental significance of the Pleistocene deposits at Stone
Point, Hampshire. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 86:
349–365.
Burbank DW, Leland J, Fielding E, Anderson RS, Brozovic N, Reid MR,
Duncan C. 1996. Bedrock incision, rock uplift and threshold hillslopes
in the northwestern Himalayas. Nature 379: 505–510.
Campbell S, Bowen DQ. 1989. Quaternary of Wales. Geological
Conservation Review Series, Nature Conservancy Council:
Peterborough; 240 pp.
Clayton KM. 1977. River terraces. In British Quaternary Studies: Recent
Advances, Shotton FW (ed.). Clarendon Press: Oxford; 153–168.
Commont V. 1910. Excursion de la Socie´te` ge´ologique du Nord et de la
Faculte´ des Sciences de Lille a` Abbeville, le 11 juin 1910. Les
gisements
pale´olithique d’Abbeville, Stratigraphie, faune, industrie
humaine. Situation par rapport aux terrasses fluviatiles de la Somme.
Annales de la Socie´te´ Ge´ologique du Nord 39: 249–293.
Coope GR. 1962. A Pleistocene coleopterous fauna with arctic affinities
from Fladbury, Worcestershire. Quarterly Journal of the Geological
Society of London 118: 103–123.
Coope GR. 1968. An insect fauna from mid-Weichselian deposits at
Brandon, Warwickshire. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society of London B254: 425–456.
Coope GR, Shotton FW, Strachan I. 1961. A Late Pleistocene fauna and
flora from Upton Warren, Worcestershire. Philosophical Transactions
of the Royal Society of London B244: 379–421.
Darwin-Fox W. 1862. When and how was the Isle of Wight severed
from the mainland? The Geologist 5: 452–454.
de Rouffignac C, Bowen DQ, Coope GR, Keen DH, Lister AM, Maddy
D, Robinson JE, Sykes GA, Walker MJC. 1995. Late Middle Pleistocene
deposits at Upper Strensham, Worcestershire, England. Journal
of Quaternary Science 10: 15–31.
Dury GH (ed.). 1970. Rivers and River Terraces. MacMillan: London;
283 pp.
Edwards RA, Freshney EC. 1987. Geology of the Country around
Southampton. Memoir of the Geological Survey of Great Britain,
Sheet 315, HMSO London.
Engelmann A, Frechen M. 1998. Datations TL/IRSL. In Le Quaternaire
de la valle´e de la Somme et du littoral picard, Antoine P (ed.).
Livret-guide de l’excursion de l’Association Franc¸aise pour
l’Etude
du Quaternaire dans le basin de la Somme.
Everard CE. 1954. The Solent River: a geomorphological study.
Transactions
of the Institute of British Geographers 20: 41–58.
Fisk HN. 1944. Geological Investigations of the Alluvial Valley of the
Lower Mississippi River. Corps of Engineers, US Army: Vicksburg,
MS, USA.
Froese DG, Barendregt RW, Enkin RJ, Baker J. 2000. Paleomagnetism
of late Cenozoic terraces of the lower Klondike valley, Yukon:
evidence for multiple late Pliocene–early Pleistocene glaciations.
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 37: 863–877.
Fuller I, Macklin MG, Lewin J, Passmore DG, Wintle AG. 1998. River
response to high frequency climate oscillations in southern Europe
over the last 200 k.y. Geology 26: 275–278.
Gascoyne M, Currant AP, Lord TC. 1981. Ipswichian fauna of Victoria
Cave and the marine palaeoclimatic record. Nature 294: 652–654.
Gibbard PL. 1977. Pleistocene history of the Vale of St. Albans.
Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society of London B280: 445–
483.
Gibbard PL. 1979. Middle Pleistocene drainage in the Thames Valley.
Geological Magazine 116: 35–44.
Gibbard PL. 1994. Pleistocene History of the Lower Thames Valley.
Cambridge University Press: Cambridge; 229 pp.
Gibbard PL. 1995. Palaeogeographical evolution of the Lower Thames
Valley. In The Quaternary of the Lower Reaches of the Thames,
Bridgland DR, Allen P, Haggart BA (eds). Field Guide, Quaternary
Research Association: Durham; 5–34.
Green CP, McGregor DFW. 1980. Quaternary evolution of the River
Thames. In The Shaping of Southern England, Jones DKC (ed.). Institute
of British Geographers Special Publication 11, Academic Press:
London; 177–202.
Green CP, McGregor DFW. 1987. River terraces: a stratigraphical
record of environmental change. In International Geomorphology
1986 Part 1, Gardiner V (ed.). Wiley: Chichester; 977–987.
Green HS. 1984. Pontnewydd Cave. A Lower Palaeolithic Hominid
Site in Wales: the First Report. National Museum of Wales: Cardiff;
227 pp.
Griffiths HI. 2001. Ostracod evolution and extinction–its
biostratigraphic
value in the European Quaternary. Quaternary Science
Reviews 20: 1743–1751.
Haeserts P, Dupuis Ch. 1986. Contribution a` la stratigraphie des nappes
alluviales de la Somme et de l’Avre dans la region d’Amiens. Bulletin
de l’Association Franc¸aise pour l’Etude du Quaternaire 26: 171–
186.
Hattingh J, Rust IC. 1999. Drainage evolution and morphological
development of the Late Cenozoic Sundays River, South Africa. In
Varieties of Fluvial Form, Miller AJ, Gupta A (eds). Wiley: Chichester;
145–166.
Helgren DM. 1978. Acheulian settlement along the lower Vaal River,
South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 5: 39–60.
Helgren DM. 1979. River of Diamonds: an Alluvial History of the
Lower Vaal Basin. Department of Geography Research Paper 185,
University of Chicago: Chicago, IL.
Jain M, Tandon SK, Bhatt SC, Singhvi AK, Mishra S. 1999. Alluvial and
Aeolian Sequences along the River Luni, Barmer District: Physical
Stratigraphy and Feasibility of Luminescence Chronology Methods.
Memoir 42, Geological Society of India: Bangalore; 273–295.
Keen DH. 1990. Significance of the record provided by Pleistocene fluvial
deposits and their included molluscan faunas for palaeoenvironmental
reconstruction and stratigrphy: case study from the English
Midlands. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 80:
25–34.
Keen DH, Bridgland DR. 1986. An interglacial fauna from Avon No. 3
Terrace at Eckington,Worcestershire. Proceedings of the Geologists’
Association 97: 303–307.
King WBR, Oakley KP. 1936. The Pleistocene succession in the lower
parts of the Thames Valley. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 2:
52–76.
Laurent M. 1993. Datation par resonance de spin e´lectronique (ESR) de
quartz de formations quaternaries: comparasion avec le pale´omagne
´tisme. The`se Doctorate, Museum de Naturelle Histoire de Paris;
103 pp.
Laurent M, Falgueres C, Bahain JJ, Yokoyama Y. 1994. Ge´ochronologie
du syste`me de terrasses quaternaries fluviatiles du basin de ala
Somme. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences de Paris,
Se´ries IIa 318: 521–526.
Lautridou JP, Monnier JL, Morzadec-Kerfourn MT, Somml J, Tuffreau A.
1983. Les subdivisions du Pleistoce`ne de la France septentrionale:
stratigraphie et paleolithique. In Quaternary Glaciations in the
Northern Hemisphere, Billards A, Conchon O, Shotton FW (eds).
IGCP Project 73-1-24. Report No. 9, UNESCO International Geological
Correlation Programme: Paris; 148–170.
Lautridou J-P, Monnier JL, Morzadec MT, Somme´ J, Tuffreau A. 1986.
The Pleistocene of Northern France. Quaternary Science Reviews 5:
387–393.
Limondin-Lozouet N, Antoine P. 2001. Palaeoenvironmental changes
inferred from malacofaunas in the Lateglacial and early Holocene
fluvial sequence at Conty, northern France. Boreas 30: 148–164.
Maddy D. 1997. Uplift-driven valley incision and river terrace
formation in southern England. Journal of Quaternary Science 12:
539–545.
Maddy D. 2002. An evaluation of climate, crustal movement and base
level controls on the Middle-Late Pleistocene development of the
River Severn, UK. Geologie en Mijnbouw/Netherlands Journal of
Geoscience 81: 329–338.
Maddy D, Keen DH, Bridgland DR, Green CP. 1991. A revised model
for the Pleistocene development of the River Avon, Warwickshire.
Journal of the Geological Society of London 148: 473–484.
Maddy D, Green CP, Lewis SG, Bowen DQ. 1995. Pleistocene Geology
of the Lower Severn Valley. Quaternary Science Reviews 14:
209–222.
Maddy D, Lewis SG, Scaife RG, Bowen DQ, Coope GR, Green CP,
Keen DH, Rees-Jones J, Hardaker T, Parfitt S, Scott K. 1998. The
upper Pleistocene deposits at Cassington, near Oxford, UK. Journal
of Quaternary Science 13: 205–231.
Maddy D, Lewis SG, Keen DH. 1999. Pleistocene palaeomeanders of
the River Avon, Warwickshire. Proceedings of the Geologists’
Association
110: 163–172.
Maddy D, Bridgland DR, Green CP. 2000. Crustal instability and the
development of certain English rivers. Geomorphology 33: 167–181.
Maddy D, Bridgland D, Westaway R. 2001. Uplift-driven valley incision
and climate-controlled river terrace development in the Thames
valley, UK. Quaternary International 79: 23–36.
Mangerud J. 1991. The Last Interglacial/Glacial cycle in northern
Europe. In Quaternary Landscapes, Shane LCK, Cushing EJ (eds).
Bellhaven Press: London; 38–75.
Mania D. 1995. The earliest occupation of Europe: the Elbe–Saala
region (Germany). In The Earliest Occupation of Europe, Roebroeks
W, Van Kolfschoten T (eds). University of Leiden: Leiden; 85–101.
Markova AK, Mihailescu CD. 1994. Correlation of Pleistocene marine
and continental deposits from the northwestern Black Sea region.
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation Moscow 2(4): 87–95.
Mishra S. 1998. IGCP 349/413 Workshop on Palaeoclimatic Records
on Arid and Semi-arid Regions During the Late Quaternary: Field
Guide. Deccan College: Pune, India; 40 pp.
Mishra S, Rajaguru S. 1996. Comment on ‘Toba ash in the Indian
subcontinent
and its implications for the correlation of Late Pleistocene
alluvium’. Quaternary Research 41: 396–397.
Mitchell GF, Penny LF, Shotton FW, West RG. 1973. A Correlation of
Quaternary Deposits in the British Isles. Special Report No. 4,
Geological
Society of London; 99 pp.
Mol J. 1997. Fluvial response to Weichselian climate changes in the
Niederlausitz (Germany). Journal of Quaternary Science 12: 43–60.
Oches EA, McCoy WD. 1995. Aminostratigraphic evaluation of conflicting
age estimates for the ‘Young Loess’ of Hungary. Quaternary
Research 44: 160–170.
Oches EA, McCoy WD, Gnieser D. 2000. Aminostratigraphic correlation
of loess-paleosol sequences across Europe. In Perspectives in
Amino Acid and Protein Geochemistry, Goodfriend GA, Collins
MJ, Fogel ML, Macko SA, Wehmiller JF (eds). Oxford University
Press: New York; 331–348.
Passmore DG, Macklin MG. 2001. Holocene sediment budgets in an
upland gravel bed river: the South Tyne, northern England. In River
Basin Sediments Systems: Archives of Environmental Change,
Maddy D, Macklin M, Woodward J (eds). Balkema: Rotterdam;
423–444.
Pastre JF. 1987. Les formations Plio-Quaternaire du basin de l’Allier
(Massief Central, France). Bulletin d’Association Francais d’tude
Quaternaire 3/4: 257–269.
Patyk-Kara NG, Postolenko GA. In press. Structure and evolution of the
Kolyma river valley: from upper reaches to continental shelf. Proceedings
of the Geologists’ Association.
Pazzaglia FJ, Gardner T. 1994. Late Cenozoic flexural deformation of
the middle U.S. Atlantic passive margin. Journal of Geophysical
Research 99: 12143–12157.
Penck A, Bru¨ckner E. 1909. Die Alpen im Eiszeitalter, 3 vols.
Tauchnitz: Leipzig; 1199 pp.
Preece RC. 1995. Mollusca from interglacial sediments at three critical
sites in the Lower Thames. In The Quaternary of the Lower Reaches
of the Thames, Bridgland DR, Allen P, Haggart BA (eds). Field Guide,
Quaternary Research Association: Durham; 55–60.
Preece RC. 1999. Mollusca from the last interglacial fluvial deposits at
Trafalgar Square, London. Journal of Quaternary Science 14: 77–89.
Prestwich J. 1859. On the occurrence of flint implements associated
with remains of animals of extinct species in beds of a late geological
period in France at Amiens and Abbeville and in England at Hoxne.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 150: 277–
327.
Proctor CJ, Smart PL. 1991. A dated cave sediment record of Pleistocene
transgressionson Berry Head, Southwest England. Journal of
Quaternary Science 6: 233–244.
Reille M, de Beaulieu J-L, Svobodova H, Andrieu-Ponel V, Goeury C.
2000. Pollen analytical biostratigraphy of the last five climatic cycles
from a long continental sequence from the Velay region (Massif
Central, France). Journal of Quaternary Science 15: 665–685.
Roberts MB, Parfitt SA. 1999. Boxgrove. A Middle Pleistocene hominid
site at Eartham Quarry, Boxgrove, West Sussex. Archaeological
Report 17, English Heritage: London.
Rose J. 1979. River terraces and sea level change. Brighton Polytechnic
Geographic Society Magazine 3: 13–30.
Rumsby BT, Macklin MG. 1994. Channel and floodplain response to
recent abrupt climate change; the Tyne basin, northern England.
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 19: 499–516.
Said R. 1993. The River Nile. Geology, Hydrology and Utilization.
Pergamon Press: Oxford; 320 pp.
Sarnthein M, Stremme HE, Mangini A. 1986. The Holstein interglaciation:
time stratigraphic position and correlation to stable-isotope
stratigraphy
of deep-sea sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews 6:
283–298.
Saucier RT. 1996. Geomorphology and Quaternary Geoogic History
of the Lower Mississippi Valley. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers:
Vicksburg; 364 pp.
Schreve DC. 2001. Differentiation of the British late Middle Pleistocene
interglacials: the evidence from mammalian biostratigraphy.
Quaternary Science Reviews 20: 1693–1705.
Schreve DC, Bridgland DR, Allen P, Blackford JJ, Gleed-Owen CP,
Griffiths HI, Keen DH, White MJ. 2002. Sedimentology, palaeontology
and archaeology of late Middle Pleistocene River Thames terrace
deposits at Purfleet, Essex, UK. Quaternary Science Reviews 21:
1423–1464.
Schumm SA. 1993. River response to baselevel change: implications
for sequence stratigraphy. Journal of Geology 101: 279–294.
Schwarcz HP, Gru¨n R, Latham AG, Mania D, Brunnacker K. 1988. The
Bilzingsleben archaeological site: new dating evidence. Archaeometry
30: 5–17.
Semeniuk V. 1993. The Pilbara Coast: a riverine coastal plain in a
tropical
arid setting, northwestern Australia. Sedimentary Geology 83:
235–256.
Shackleton NJ, Opdyke ND. 1973. Oxygen Isotope and palaeomagnetic
stratigraphy of Equatorial Pacific Core V28-238, Oxygen Isotope
temperatures and ice volumes on a 105 year–106 year scale.
Quaternary Research 3: 39–55.
Shackleton NJ, Berger A, Peltier WR. 1990. An Alternative Astronomical
Calibration of the Lower Pleistocene Timescale Based on ODP Site
677. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 81: 252–261.
Shotton FW. 1983. Interglacials after the Hoxnian in Britain. In
Quaternary
Glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere, Billard A, Conchon
O, Shotton FW (eds). Project 73/1/24, Report 9, UNESCO International
Geological Correlation Programme: Paris; 109–15. Reproduced
in Quaternary Newsletter 39: 20–25.
S
Sibrava V. 1986(b). Correlations of European glaciations and their
relation to the deep sea record. Quaternary Science Reviews 5:
433–442.
Smart PL. 1991. Uranium Series Dating. In Quaternary Dating Methods,
a User’s Guide, Smart PL, Francis PD (eds). Technical Guide
4, Quaternary Research Association: London; 45–83.
Somme´ J, Tuffreau A. 1978. Historique des recherches sur le Quaternaire
de la region du Nord de la France. Bulletin de l’Association
Franc¸aise pour l’Etude du Quaternaire 15: 5–13.
Somme´ J, Fagnart JP, Leger M, Munaut AV, Puisse´gur JJ, Tuffreau A.
1984. Terrasses fluviatiles du Ple´istoce`ne moyen en France
septentrionale:
signification dynamique et climatique. Bulletin de l’Association
Franc¸aise pour l’Etude du Quaternaire 21: 52–58.
Starkel L. 2003. Climatically controlled terraces in uplifting mountain
areas. Quaternary Science Reviews 22: 2189–2918.
Strickland HE. 1858. On the deposits of transported materials usually
termed ‘drift’ which exist in the counties of Worcester and Warwick.
In Memoirs of H.E. Strickland, Jardine W (ed.). J. Van Voorst:
London; 90–104.
Stuart AJ. 1976. The history of the mammal fauna during the
Ipswichian/Last interglacial in England. Philosophical Transactions
of the Royal Society of London B276: 221–250.
Stuart AJ. 1982. Pleistocene Vertebrates of the British Isles. Longman:
London; 212 pp.
RIVER TERRACE SEQUENCES 217
Copyright  2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. J. QuaternaryStuart AJ, Lister
AM. 2001. The mammalian faunas of Pakefield/
Kessingland and Corton, Suffolk: evidence for a new temperate
episode in the British early Middle Pleistocene. Quaternary Science
Reviews 20: 1677–1692.
Sutcliffe AJ. 1964. The mammalian fauna. In The Swanscombe Skull,
Ovey CD (ed.). Royal Anthropological Institute: London; 85–111.
Sutcliffe AJ. 1975. A hazard in the interpretation of
glacial-interglacial
sequences. Quaternary Newsletter 17: 1–3.
Sutcliffe AJ. 1976. The British glacial–interglacial sequence: a reply.
Quaternary Newsletter 18: 1–7.
Sykes GA, Collins MJ, Walton DI. 1995. The significance of a
geochemically
isolated (intracrystalline) organic fraction within biominerals.
Organic Geochemistry 23: 1059–1106.
Thomas GN. 2001. Late Middle Pleistocene pollen biostratigraphy in
Britain: pitfalls and possibilities in the separation of interglacial
sequences. Quaternary Science Reviews 20: 1621–1630.
Tomlinson ME. 1925. River terraces of the lower valley of the
Warwickshire
Avon. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London
81: 137–169.
Tuffreau A. 1987. Le Pale´olithique infe´rieur et moyen du Nord de la
France (Nord, Pas-de-Calais, Picardie) dans son cadre straigraphique.
The`se de doctoral d’Etat, Universitie´ des Sciences et Technologie
de Lille Flandres-Artois; 609 pp.
Tuffreau A, Antoine P. 1995. The earliest occupation of Europe:
Continental Northwestern Europe. In The Earliest Occupation of
Europe, Roebroeks W, Van Kolfschoten T (eds). University of Leiden:
Leiden; 147–163.
Tyra`cek J. 1983. River terraces—important paleoclimatic indicator. In
Quaternary Glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere, Billards O,
Conchon O, Shotton FW (eds). IGCP Project 73-1-24, Report No.
9, UNESCO International Geological Correlation Programme: Paris;
34–41.
Tyra`cek J. 1987. Terraces of the Euphrates River. Sbornik Geologickych
Ved 18: 185–202.
Tzedakis PC, Bennett KD. 1996. Interglacial vegetation succession:
a view from southern Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews 14:
967–982.
Tzedakis PC, Andrieu V, de Beaulieu J-L, Crowhurst S, Follieri M,
Hooghiemstra H, Magri D, Reille M, Sadori L, Shackleton NJ,
Wijmstra TA. 2001. Establishing a terrestrial chronological framework
as a basis for biostratigraphical comparisons. Quaternary
Science Reviews 20: 1583–1592.
Van den Berg MW. 1994. Neo-tectonics in the Roer Valley Rift System.
Style and rate of crustal deformation inferred from syn-tectonic
sedimentation.
Geologie en Mijnbouw 73: 143–156.
Van den Berg M, van Hoof T. 2001. The Mass terrace sequence at
Maastricht, SE Netherlands: evidence for 200m of late Neogene
and Quaternary surface uplift. In River Basin Sediments Systems:
Archives of Environmental Change, Maddy D, Macklin M,
Woodward J (eds). Rotterdam: Balkema; 45–86.
Van den Boogard C, Van den Boogard P, Schmincke H-U. 1989.
Quarta¨rgeologisch-tephrostratigraphische Neuaufnahme und Interpretation
des Pleistoza¨nprofils Ka¨rlich, F.R.G. Eiszeitalter und
Gegenwart 39: 62–86.
Velegrakis AF, Dix JK, Collins MB. 1999. Late Quaternary evolution of
the upper reaches of the Solent River, Southern England, based upon
marine geophysical evidence. Journal of the Geological Society,
London 156: 73–87.
Veldkamp A, Kroonenberg SB. 1993. The Late Quaternary terrace
chronology of the Allier. Geologie en Mijnbouw 72: 179–192.
West RG. 1976. The British glacial–interglacial sequence. Quaternary
Newsletter 18: 1.
Westaway R, Maddy D, Bridgland D. 2002. Flow in the lower continental
crust as a mechanism for the Quaternary uplift of south-east
England: constraints from the Thames terrace record. Quaternary
Science Reviews 21: 559–603.
White MJ. 1998. Twisted ovate bifaces in the British Lower Palaeolithic.
In Stone Age Archaeology. Essays in Honour of John Wymer,
Ashton N, Healy F, Pettit P (eds). Oxbow Monograph 102, Oxbow
Books: Oxford; 98–104.
Whitehead PF. 1989. Development and deposition of the Avon Valley
River Terraces. In The Pleistocene of the West Midlands, Field Guide,
KeenDH(ed.). Quaternary Research Association: Cambridge; 37–41.
Wills LJ. 1924. The development of the Severn Valley in the neighbourhood
of Iron-Bridge and Bridgnorth. Quarterly Journal of the Geological
Society of London 80: 274–314.
Wills LJ. 1938. The Pleistocene development of the Severn from
Bridgnorth to the sea. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society
of London 94: 161–242.
Woodward JC, Macklin MG, Welsby DA. 2001. The Holocene fluvial
sedimentary record and alluvial geoarchaeology in the Nile Valley
of northern Sudan. In River Basin Sediments Systems: Archives of
Environmental Change, Maddy D, Macklin M, Woodward J (eds).
Balkema: Rotterdam; 327–355.
Wymer JJ. 1968. Lower Palaeolithic Archaeology in Britain, as represented
by the Thames Valley. John Baker: London; 429 pp.
Wymer JJ. 1999. The Lower Palaeolithic Occupation of Britain.Wessex
Archaeology and English Heritage: Salisbury; 234 ppþ2nd volume
of maps.
Yim WW-S. 1994. Offshore Quaternary sediments and their engineering
significance in Hong Kong. Engineering Geology 37: 31–50.
Zeuner FE. 1945. The Pleistocene Period: its Climate, Chronology
and Faunal Successions, 1st edn. Publication No. 130, Ray Society:
London; 322 pp.
Zeuner FE. 1959. The Pleistocene Period: its Climate, Chronology and
Faunal Successions, 2nd edn. Hutchinson: London; 447 pp.
Zo¨ ller L, Oches EA, McCoy WD. 1994. Towards a revised
chronostratigraphy
of loess in Austria with respect to key sections in the
Czech Republic and Hungary. Quaternary Geochronology 13:
465–472.

Department of Geography