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School of Education

Staff Profile

Prof Mike Byram

Emeritus Professor in the School of Education
Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 48324

Contact Prof Mike Byram (email at


Michael Byram is Professor Emeritus since October 2008.
His work in the School comprised initial teacher education and being Director of Research Degrees with supervision of research students. He began his career teaching French and German at secondary school level and in adult education in an English comprehensive community school. After being appointed to a post in teacher education at the University of Durham in 1980, he carried out research into the education of linguistic minorities, foreign language education and student residence abroad.
He supervised doctoral students in intercultural studies, language teaching and comparative education.
He has published many books and articles including, most recently, Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence; Language Teachers, Politics and Cultures (with Karen Risager); From Foreign Language Education to Education for Intercultural Citizenship; and is the editor of the Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning.

 NEW BOOK: The Common European Framework of Reference. The globalisation of language education policy.


Completed Supervisions (since 2008)

Managing The Evaluation of Difference in Foreign Language Education : A Complex Case Study in a Tertiary Level Context in Japan

Fostering criticality in a beginners’ Japanese language course: a case study in a UK higher education modern languages degree programme.

Minority education and curriculum in the multilingual and multicultural society of the UAE.


‘Approaching the real’: an historical and autobiographical account of foreign language teaching in a middle school.

Designing a reading literacy curriculum for secondary school students in Egypt.

Deaf Education in Early Childhood: Bilingual Approaches in Mainland China from 1996-2004

Chinese Postgraduate Students in a British University: Their Learning Experiences and Learning Beliefs

Reflective Outcomes in Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communication: A Case Study using a Comparative Method.

EFL learners developing critical intercultural awareness through process drama: Dialogue and discovery.


Identity, Language, and Education – A Case Study in Taiwan

Teaching Translation in Higher Education in Taiwan- A Needs Analysis and Action Research Approach.

Indicators of Esteem

  • 2015: Lecture tour in China:

    Harbin Institute of Technology, Nottingham Ningbo University, Linan University of Forestry, Shanghai Normal University, TESOL conference at Shanghai University (Plenary: The role of ELT in Intercultural Education) 4-21 May 2015

  • 2015: Lectures:

    Workshop on Intercultural Competence in Foreign Language Education Beijing China, July 22-23 2015

  • 2015: Plenary:

    ‘Intercultural communicative competence – past and future’ at Intercultural Communicative Competence in Action Symposium Sussex Centre for Language Studies, University of Sussex Monday 12th January 2015

  • 2015: Plenary:

    ‘CLIL in the Foreign Language Classroom’ at Narva College, Estonia, conference "Reconsidering the Practice of CLIL and ELT" , March 19-20, 2015

  • 2015: Plenary and follow-up seminar:

    TESOL conference on “Redefining competence and redesigning teaching in the 21st century”, Toronto 25-26 March 2015

  • 2015: Plenary Lecture:

    Annual conference of the Polish Modern Language Association (Polskiego Towarzystwa Neofilologicznego) ‘Language Teaching, intercultural competence and their socio-cultural significance’, Warsaw University, 7 September 2015

  • 2015: Plenaty at Wenzao University Conference on Language Education and Studies:

    The role of Language Teaching in Intercultural Education’ 23-24 May 2015; and lecture at KaohsiungMedical University

  • 2015: Research mentor:

    The Open University Department of Languages (February- July 2015)

  • 2015: Seminar:

    ‘Internationalisation and internationalism in the curriculum – an example from foreign language teaching’, University of Bath, 4 March 2015

  • 2015: Seminar:

    ‘Education for Intercultural Citizenship – Principles in Paractice’, University of Sussex, 5 March 2015

  • 2015: Visit:

    University of Connecticut, USA, (seminars, project consultancy) 1st to 9th February 2015

  • 2015: Webinar:

    ACTFL (USA) on ‘Planning to teach intercultural communicative competence’, 9 March 2015

  • 2014: Course:

    For PhD students on Intercultural Competence and Communication, Thammasat University, Banghkok, Thailand, 31 May-12 June 2014;
    and plenary paper ‘English Language Teaching and/as Education’ 2nd Thammasat University International ELT Conference “Redesigning the Ecology of Asian Englishes: Where Theory Meets Practice” June 6-7, 2014

  • 2014: Invited lecture:

    University of East Anglia, Dept of Languages “What did you learn (to be) in school today. Nationalism, internationalism and foreign language education” , 20 February 2014

  • 2014: Lecture tour: Taiwan; lectures at Nanhua University (Chiayi), Wenzao University (Kaohsiung); Taipei National University, NTUST (Taipei), 26 March-2 April 2014
  • 2014: Lecture tour in USA:

    Lectures at Southern Connecticut University; Columbia University; University of Wisconsin at Madison – 12-19 April 2014

  • 2014: Paper:

    Competence-based approach(es) to Interculturality in Education for Criticality’ at seminar on ‘Interculturality is a Transdiscilinart Concept’. University of Luxembourg, 5 November 2014

  • 2014: Paper on:

    From ‘communicative competence’ through ‘intercultural competence’ to ‘intercultural dialogue’ – ignoring the relationship of language and culture, at Conference on Sloganizations in Language Education Discourse, Humboldt University, Berlin, 8-10 May 2014

  • 2014: Plenary by internet:

    ‘From Foreign Language Education to Education for Intercultural Citizenship’ at Universidad del Valle at Cali (Colombia), First International Seminar on Intercultural Competence and Language Teaching, November 13th to 15th 2014

  • 2014: Plenary lecture:

    ‘Internationalism and education in the 1920s, with special reference to
    foreign language teaching in Britain’ at 'Connecting Cultures?: An International Conference on the History of Teaching and Learning Second/Foreign Languages, 1500-2000 (2-5 July 2014, University of

  • 2014: Plenary speech: ‘Internationalisation or internationalism? Bringing intercultural citizenship’ to university language learning through international telecollaboration’, INTENT Conference, University of Leon, Spain, 12-14 February 2014
  • 2014: Seminar:

    ‘Policy dialogues’ Buenos Aires, Argentina for British Council with Mike Fleming, 5-7 February 2014

  • 2014: Seminar:

    PhD students at the University of Vigo, Spain, on ‘Interculturality, interculturalism and intercultural language teaching’, 11 November 2014

  • 2014: Seminar:

    University of Brighton on ‘Internationalisation and internationalism in
    the curriculum – an example from foreign language teaching’, 18 November 2014

  • 2014: Seminars:

    PhD students at University of Mostaganem, Algeria, 21-24 September 2014

  • 2013: Lecture:

    'The purposes of foreign language teaching, intercultural competence and citizenship education in HE' at Japan Foundation, London 23 February 2013

  • 2013: Lecture:

    ‘Questions, questions… about culture and aims in language teaching’ at conference of ICC, Sofia. 8-10 March 2013

  • 2013: Lecture:

    ‘Competence, interaction and action. Developing intercultural citizenship education in the language classroom and beyond’ for BAAL SIG,Newcastle 17 May 13 (pre-recorded)

  • 2013: Lecture: ‘Foreign language teaching and intercultural citizenship’ at International conference on ‘Current trends in ELT’ Urmia, Iran, 21 May 13 (pre-recorded)
  • 2013: Lecture and consultation:

    With ‘Glasport’ taskforce group, Glastonbury Schools, Connecticut USA, 3-5 March 2013

  • 2013: Lecture by internet to Helsinki Summer School:

    ‘Intercultural Communication and Education: Moving On’ on ‘Research design and operationalisation’, 19 August 2013

  • 2013: Lecture series:

    Public lecture and seminars for stff and Masters students – at University of Los Andes, Bogota, Colombia, 13-19 October 2013

  • 2013: Lectures to PhD and Masters students:

    Researching intercultural competence etc at Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest 6-8 February and 8-11 April 2013

  • 2013: Organiser and contributor:

    Symposium on ‘Multilingualism, Identity, Education – Asian and European Perspectives’, University of Luxembourg, 4-5 November 2013

  • 2013: Plenary speech:

    ‘Language among the inter/multiculturalists – die grosse Lücke’ at conference “Intercultural vs. Multicultural Education: The End of Rivalries?”, Helsinki 29-30 August 2013

  • 2013: Plenary speech:

    Language, education and identities – implications for teachers and
    policy makers’ at 5th Internaional Adriatic-Ionian Conference "Migration and Diaspora. From the Industrial Revolution to nowadays" Igoumenitsa, Greece, 3-5 October 2013

  • 2013: Plenary speech:

    ‘Intercultural and Plurilingual Education’ at Seminario internazionale La scuola – laboratorio: sperimentazione di pratiche educative plurilingui ed interculturali Spoleto (PG) Italy, 26/27/28 November 2013.

  • 2013: Plenary speech: ‘Education for intercultural citizenship’ Ustinov College Durham and Higher Education Academy Seminar, University of Durham, 3 December 2013
  • 2013: Recorded interview with Tim Lewis on Intercultural Communicative Competence:

    the Autobiography of intercultural Encounters, Intercultural Dialogue as material for an Open University course ‘Exploring Languages and Cultures’, 3 July 2013 in Paris

  • 2013: Seminar:

    ‘Intercultural citizenship’ – a purpose for foreign language education? at University of Cambridge Faculty of Education, 25 November 2013.

  • 2013: Visit to University of Aveiro (Portugal) for consultation on Education Research Centre and plenary lecture:

    Research Day of the university: The role and ‘impact’ of research in educational innovation’ 18-20 June 2013

  • 2013: Workshop:

    ‘Developing intercultural competence and the implications for assessors’ at ALTE seminar, Salamanca, Spain. 18 April 2013

  • 2008: External Examiner: PhD external examiner, Dublin City University, 24 July 2008
  • 2008: Lectures and workshops: Lectures and workshop on 'Multiple linguistic and cultural identities in the classroom', Universidad internacional de Andalucia, Huelva, 22 July 2008
  • 2008: Plenary lecture: 'Self-assessment/evaluation of intercultural competence - and the Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters', University of West of England and Bristol City Council conference on 'Intercultural Dialogue: the Way Forward'. Bristol 12 April 2008
  • 2008: Plenary lecture: Estonia: Plenary lecture: ‘Teaching “national cultures” in foreign language education’, Narva College, University of Tartu, conference on ‘Issues of multilingualismn and multiculturalism in modern education systems’, Narva, Estonia, 18-19 April 2008
  • 2008: Plenary lectures: 1. 'Intercultural competence - teaching and assessing/evaluating' and workshop on 'Social interaction - with and without a foreign language' at Far Eastern National University, Vladivostok, Russia - conference on 'Building bridges with languages and cultures', 26-28 June 2. 'Intercultural citizenship - an education perspective' at University of Surrey CRONEM conference 'Nationalism, Ethnicity and Citizenship: Whose Citizens? Whose Rights?', 30 June-1 July
  • 2008: Seminar co-organiser & contributor: Co-organiser and contributor (with Adelheid Hu) of a seminar on 'Intercultural Competence and Foreign Languages: Models, empiricism and assessment' - University of Hamburg, 29-31 May 2008
  • 2007: Plenary lecture: 'Foreign language and citizenship education: CLIL in foreign language classroom' at conference on New Challenges in Foreign Language Education: content and language integrated learning and intercultural language teacing at University of Lleida, Spain, 18-29 October
  • 2006: Rapporteur of Council of Europe: Study on Language Policy in Lombardy, Italy: * presentation of results 'Roundtable'; * presentation of results In-service course for teachers 'Plurilingual education in school and university'.
  • Adviser to Council of Europe Language Policy Division: CoE is the major influence on language teaching and language education policy and this position is influential in setting the agenda for the work of the CoE in this area. The position includes leading teams to carry out ‘Language Policy Profiles’ in member states (e.g. Hungary, Norway, Poland)
  • Assessment at Jaen University, Spain: Assessment of students on PhD modules on Intercultural Studies:
  • British Council: Member of British Council (North Europe Region) Think tank on Plurilingualism in Europe - meeting 25 January in Berlin.
  • British Council: Invitation to British Council Think Tank and Conference on Multilingualism in Europe, 31 Jan - 2 Feb
  • Editorships etc: I am co-editor of a book series on ‘Language for intercultural communication and education’ for Multilingual Matters which has produced 10 or so books in the RAE period.
  • External evaluator: External evaluator for applicatio for Readership, Institute of Education, London
  • Guest/Visiting professorships and lectures etc: I am a Guest Professor at Beihang University Beijing (Honorary position for the period 2003-8); was Visiting Professor at Tokyo Gakugei University Japan for six months 2004-05; have given numerous guest lectures and plenary lectures at international conferences and in foreign universities.
  • Keynote lecture: 'Foreign language education and education for intercultural citizenship' at International Forum on English Language Teaching II, University of Porto, Portugal, 11 Nov. 05
  • Leader: Leader of group on Languages across the Curriculum in Primary Education, Counicl of Europe 'Languages of Education', meeting in Oslo 31 January - 2 Feb.
  • Lecture Tour - Argentina: Lecture tour for British Council Argentina 18-24 September, including opening plenary ‘Intercultural competence for the intercultural speaker – a task for foreign language education’, and seminars FAAPI Conference, Jujuy, 20-22 September 2007
  • Lectures and workshop: Moscow 2005: Guest lecture on 'Concepts for describing Language People' at Moscow State Linguistic University, 28 Sept 05 Lecture and workshop on 'Autiobiography of Key Intercultural Experiences' at Seminar on the European Language Portfolio, Moscow, 30 Sept. 05
  • Lectures in New Zealand: Guest lecture Auckland University of Technology, 'Language Education and Education for Intercultural Citizenship'- 30 June 2006 Plenary lecture "Standing on the bridge - the 'intercultural speaker' and the purposes of language teaching"; Seminar 'Language teaching for intercultural citizenship' New Zealand Association of Lanugage Teachers, 2 - 5 July 2006
  • Member of organising committee: Member of organising committee 'Forum on the common European Framework', Council of Europe - Forum in Strasbourg 6-8 Feb.
  • Papers: Two papers given by invitation at the Conference 'Sprachen schaffen Chancen' of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Fremdsprachenforschung, Munich 3-6 Oct. 05 'Researching residence and study abroad'; 'Foreign language education in other countries - Britain'
  • PhD external examining: I have done numerous examinations in the RAE period including in France, Australia, Denmark, Finland
  • Plenary lecture: Plenary lecture on 'Intercultural dialogue and encounters' at 2008 Languages in Higher Education Conference, University of York 8-9 July
  • Plenary Lecture, Portugal: Intercultural competence - teaching and assessing/evaluating Plenary lecture University of Minho, Portugal, conference on «Implications didactiques de l’interculturalité pour le processusd’enseignement/ apprentissage des langues-cultures étrangères »
  • Plenary lectures: 'English is not enough' and 'Not enough English': a comparative analysis of purposes, aims and objectives in English Language Teaching', Annual Conference of the Japan Association of College English Teachers, Tokyo, Japan. 10 Sept 05 'Plurilingualism and 'intercultural citizenship'/Demokratialernen'. Kansai University seminar on 'The significance of 'Plurilingualism' in a global society and the European Language Portfolio: prospects for Japan', Osaka Japan. 11 Sept. 05 'Exploring language, identities and education in a European perspective. Croatian Applied Linguistics Society annual conference 'Language and Identities', Split, Croatia, 25-26 May 2006
  • Rapporteur: Language Education Policy Profile: Lombardy. Published by Ministry of Education, Italy and Council of Europe (October 06)
  • Referee: Referee for Royal Society of New Zealand - Marsden Fund
  • Referee for applications: Referee for applications for promotion at Chinese University of Hong Kong, Lingnan University Hong Kong and Dublin City University, Ireland
  • Special lecture and seminar: Lecture: 'Language Learniners as Ethnographers and Teachers as Educators', November 04, Univesity of Hokkaido, Sappora, Japan Seminar: 'The Council of Europe and Language Education Policy', Nov. 04, Univesity of Hokkaido, Sappora, Japan

Research Interests

  • Bilingual education
  • Comparative education
  • Foreign language teaching

Research Groups


Books: reviews

Journal papers: academic

Books: authored

Books: edited

Books: sections

  • Hua, Z., Holmes, P., Young, T. & Angouri, J. (2016). How to identify research questions. In Research methods in intercultural communication: a practical guide. Hua, Z. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell. 73-87.
  • Byram, M. (2013). Citizenship Education. In Wiley Online encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Chapelle, C. Wiley Online Library.
  • Byram, M. (2013). Cultural awareness in multilingual education. In Wiley Online Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Chapelle, C.
  • Byram, M. (2013). De la formation en langues étrangères à l'éducation à la citoyenneté interculturelle. In Éthique et politique en didactigue des langues. Beacco, J-C. Paris: Didier. 1-26.
  • Byram, M. (2013). Identifications through languages. In Intersecting Identities and Interculturality: Discourse and Practice. Machart, R., Lim, C.B., Lim, S.N. & Yamato, E. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 45-56.
  • Byram, M. & Masuhara, H. (2013). Intercultural competence. In Applied linguistics and materials development. Tomlinson, B. London: Bloomsbury. 143-160.
  • Byram, M. (2013). Intercultural Competence. In Wiley Online Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Chapelle, C.
  • Byram, M. (2013). Sprachenpolitik zwischen Theorie und Praxis. In Mehrsprachigkeit grenzuberschreitend. Modelle, Konzepte, Erfahrungen. Gombos, G. Klagenfurt: Drava Verlag. 35-45.
  • Byram, M.S. (2012). Characteristics and competences of the plurilingual and intercultural citizen. In Mehrsprachigkeit. Bildung - Kommunikation - Standards. Facke, C., Martinez, H. & Meissner, F-J. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Verlag. 15-25.
  • Byram, M. (2012). Reflecting on teaching 'culture' in foreign language education. In Insights into the European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages (EPOSTL). Newby, D. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  • Byram, M.S. (2011). A research agenda for 'intercultural competence'. In Intercultural competence. Concepts, challenges and evaluations. Witte, A. & Harden, T. Oxford: Peter Lang. 19-36.
  • Byram, M. (2011). Conceptualizing intercultural (communicative) competence and intercultural citizenship. In The Routledge Handbook of Language and Intercultural Communication. Jackson, J. Routledge: London. 85-97.
  • Byram, M.S. (2011). Intercultural citizenship - an education perspective. In Nationalism, Ethnicity, Citizenship. Barrett, M., Flood, C. & Eade, J. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 163-180.
  • Byram, M.S. (2011). La competence interculturelle. In guide pur la recherche en didactique des langues et des cultures. Blanchet, P. & Chardent, P. Paris: Editions des archives contemporaines. 253-260.
  • Byram, M. (2011). Language teaching (and learning) in a European perspective. In Foreign language teaching - history, theory, methods. Appel, J., Doff, S., Rymarczyk, J. & Thaler, E. Langenscheidt. 11-18.
  • Byram, M.S. (2011). Recherche et prise de position. In Guide pur la recherche en didactique des langues et des cultures. Blanchet, P. & chardent, P. Paris: Editions des archives contemporaines. 41-44.
  • Byram, M. & Parmenter, L. (2010). An overview of the international influences oon the CEFR. In Statements in language education in Japan and beyond - Applications of the CEFR. Schmidt, M.G., Naganuma, N., O'Dwyer, F., Imig, A. & Sakai, K. Tokyo: Asahi Press.
  • Byram, M., Lapkin, S., LoBianco, J., Met, M. & Scott, A. (2010). Fremds[prachen] didaktik in englischsprachigen Landern. In Handbuch Fremdsprachendidaktik. Hallet, W. & Konigs, F.G. Seelze-Velber, Germany: Klett/Kallmeyer.
  • Byram, M. (2010). Intercomprehension; intercultural competence and foreign language teaching. In Lernerautonouire durch Interkomprehension. Doye, P. & Meissner, F-J. Tubingen: Narr Verlag.
  • Byram, M. & Guilherme, M. (2010). Intercultural education and intercultural communication: tracing the relationship. In Becoming intercultural: inside and outside the classroom. Tsai, Y. & Houghton, S. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 2-22.
  • Byram, M.S. (2008). Education for intercultural citizenship: language teaching and education for citizenship - in Europe and beyond. In Visions of Language in Education. Visionen der Bildung durch Sprachen. Doff, S., Hullen, W. & Klippel, F. (eds) Berlin: Langenscheidt. 65-75.
  • Byram, M.S. (2008). Researching residence and study abroad. In Auslandsaufenthalte in Schule und Studium. Bestanbdsaufnahme aus Forschung und Praxis. Ehrenreich, S., Woodman, G. & Perrefort, M. Munster: Waxman. 19-28.

Conference papers

  • Byram, M. (2010), Global communities, cosmopolitan and intercultural citizenship, International Association for Intercultural Studies Conference. Guangzhou, China.

Edited works: journals

  • Byram, M., Holmes, P. & Savvides, N. (2013). Teaching and Learning Intercultural communication in the Second/Foreign Language Classroom. The Language Learning Journal Special Issue I, 41 (3).

Journal papers: online

Media Contacts

Available for media contact about:

  • Subject specialists: modern languages
  • Subject specialists: bilingual education
  • Subject specialists: foreign language teaching
  • Subject specialists: ethnic minority education
  • Europe: Language, literature & culture: France/Germany
  • Europe: Language, literature & culture: language teaching
  • Foreign Literature & Language: French/German
  • Foreign Literature & Language: modern language teaching