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Durham University

Computer Science


Publication details for Professor Alexandra Cristea

Toda, Armando M., Palomino, Paula T., Oliveira, Wilk, Rodrigues, Luiz, Klock, Ana C. T., Gasparini, Isabela, Cristea, Alexandra I. & Isotani, Seiji (2019). How to Gamify learning Systems? An Experience Report using the Design Sprint Method and a Taxonomy for Gamification Elements in Education. Journal of Educational Technology and Society 22(3): 47-60.

Author(s) from Durham


One of the main goals of gamification in educational settings is to increase student motivation and engagement. To facilitate the design of gamified educational systems, in recent years, studies have proposed various approaches (e.g., methodologies, frameworks and models). One of the main problems, however, is that most of these approaches are theoretical, and do not provide a proof-of-concept. This paper advances the state of the art by providing a practical way to help implement this kind of system. In this study, we present, for the first time, how one can apply gamification elements in a learning system using the Design Sprint method, to guide designers and developers on replicating this process. Additionally, as starting point, we use a taxonomy composed of 21 game elements, proposed to be used within learning environments, organised into five game element categories, according to their goal/usage. Our main contribution is to present how to systematically implement the gamification elements focused on educational ends, which is of special value to practitioners, designers and developers.