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Durham University

Computer Science


Publication details for Professor Alexandra Cristea

Ashman, Helen Brailsford, Tim Cristea, A. I., Sheng, Quan Z. Stewart, Craig Toms, Elaine G. & Wade, Vincent (2014). The ethical and social implications of personalization technologies for e-learning. Information & Management 51(6): 819-832.

Author(s) from Durham


Personalization in information systems can be considered beneficial but also ethically and socially harmful. Like many other technologies, the uptake of personalization has been rapid, with inadequate consideration given to its effects. Personalization in e-learning systems also has potential for both harmful and beneficial outcomes, but less is known about its effects. The ethical and social hazards include privacy compromise, lack of control, reduced individual capability, and the commodification of education. Personalization is appearing in many systems already; thus, these hazards may already be occurring. Solutions, more research and community discussion of the issues are needed.