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Durham University

Computer Science


Publication details for Dr Tobias Weinzierl

Reps, Bram & Weinzierl, Tobias (2017). Complex additive geometric multilevel solvers for Helmholtz equations on spacetrees. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software 44(1): 2.

Author(s) from Durham


We introduce a family of implementations of low-order, additive, geometric multilevel solvers for systems of Helmholtz equations arising from Schrödinger equations. Both grid spacing and arithmetics may comprise complex numbers, and we thus can apply complex scaling to the indefinite Helmholtz operator. Our implementations are based on the notion of a spacetree and work exclusively with a finite number of precomputed local element matrices. They are globally matrix-free.

Combining various relaxation factors with two grid transfer operators allows us to switch from additive multigrid over a hierarchical basis method into a Bramble-Pasciak-Xu (BPX)-type solver, with several multiscale smoothing variants within one code base. Pipelining allows us to realize full approximation storage (FAS) within the additive environment where, amortized, each grid vertex carrying degrees of freedom is read/written only once per iteration. The codes realize a single-touch policy. Among the features facilitated by matrix-free FAS is arbitrary dynamic mesh refinement (AMR) for all solver variants. AMR as an enabler for full multigrid (FMG) cycling—the grid unfolds throughout the computation—allows us to reduce the cost per unknown.

The present work primary contributes toward software realization and design questions. Our experiments show that the consolidation of single-touch FAS, dynamic AMR, and vectorization-friendly, complex scaled, matrix-free FMG cycles delivers a mature implementation blueprint for solvers of Helmholtz equations in general. For this blueprint, we put particular emphasis on a strict implementation formalism as well as some implementation correctness proofs.