Durham University

Department of Archaeology


Dr Tom Moore, BA, MA, PhD, PGCERT, FSA

Associate Professor in the Department of Archaeology

Contact Dr Tom Moore (email at t.h.moore@durham.ac.uk)


I completed my PhD on Iron Age societies in the Severn-Cotswolds at the University of Durham in 2003. Between 2004-2006 I was employed as a Lecturer in Prehistoric Archaeology at the University of Newcastle before moving back to Durham in 2006. I have directed a variety of field projects in Britain and France and worked for two years in contract archaeology for Cotswold Archaeology.

Research Interests

My research focuses on the British and French Iron Age and is currently centered on four core themes:

Oppida and urbanism

The massive complexes, known as ‘oppida’ which appeared at the end of the Iron Age represent a fundamental social transformation in European Prehistory. Often regarded as the first towns, these developments have been studied largely in isolation. My research seeks to explore the wider comparative context of these developments, for example with low-density urbanism elsewhere in the world. My current projects are underpinned by a landscape approach to these complexes, including for example applying large-scale geophysics, to understand their role, origins and place within wider settlement patterns. Two major research projects are exploring these issues:


Bibracte environs and agglomeration of Sources de l’Yonne (SDY) (France)

Through survey and excavation this project has sought to understand the nature of the environs of the famous oppidum of Bibracte. The discovery of a massive, contemporary unenclosed complex at SDY close to Bibracte is demonstrating the more complex nature of the Late Iron Age oppidum, potentially indicating that it is an example of dispersed urbanism. The first phase of this collaborative project (funded by the Centre archéologique européen/British Academy in co-operation with a team from the Johannes Gutenberg Universitat, Mainz and Howard College, USA) is now complete. A second phase (with Ralf Hoppadietz) is now examining the Gallo-Roman sanctuaries at the heart of the complex, attempting to determine if they overlie Late La Tene religious structures.


The birth of a capital: Bagendon ‘oppidum’ and the Late Iron Age-Roman transition (UK)

Exploring the changing nature of power and identity in the later Iron Age, this project focuses on the development of the oppidum at Bagendon, Gloucestershire. Combining large-scale geophysical survey of the entire complex, analysis of old excavations, and new excavations it is providing a new appreciation of the nature of this ‘oppidum’. Recent results demonstrate potentially earlier antecedence to the complex than previously envisaged and the presence of Roman villas related to the Late Iron Age occupation. The project has been funded by the British Academy, Society of Antiquaries, Royal Archaeological Institute, Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, Roman Research Trust.


Historiography and presentation of European Iron Age research

There have long been theoretical and methodological contrasts in European 1st millennium BC studies. I am keen on breaking down the barriers between different approaches. To this end I co-organized an international conference to explore these issues. This resulted in a book ‘Crossing the Divide’ (OUP 2011) which focused on critical discussion of the problems with, and reasons behind, current divisions. Many of my other publications explore the current state and future direction of Iron Age studies in Britain and beyond.

Social networks, tribes & heterarchies.

Approaches to reconstructing Iron Age social organisation remain fraught with problems. My research aims to explore the relationships between exchange, deposition and symbolic landscapes in enabling the construction of more dynamic, often heterarchical, models of Iron Age society. My work is also critically examining how we reconstruct and define larger social, political and ethnic entities in the Late Iron Age, particularly re-examining the notion of ‘tribes’.

Landscape archaeology, sustainability and management

My background in field-archaeology has led to an interest in archaeological resource management, including the impact of planning legislation, and sustainable management of cultural landscapes. My current project ‘REFIT: resituating Europe’s first towns: A case study in enhancing knowledge transfer and developing sustainable management of cultural landscapes’ is a cooperation with partners in France (Bibracte EPPC and Spain (Universidad Complutense de Madrid) exploring ways in which farming, heritage and wildlife can be integrated in sustainable management of oppida. The project is supported by a JPI Hertiage Plus €354,000 grant. Working with a range of partners (Gloucestershire Wildlife Trust; Reseau de Grand Sites de France; Natural Parc du Morvan; Regional Government of Avíla and Cotswold Archaeology) we aim to develop a broader understanding of the perceptions and needs of stakeholders whilst integrating them into developing strategies and policy. Follow the REFIT Project on Twitter @_REFIT

PhD student research

I am keen to supervise postgraduate research on any area related to the themes above or aspects of the European Iron Age. Past students have undertaken topics such as:

Arthur Anderson Traditions and Transitions: Later and Roman Iron Age Communities in the North-East of England. (now adjunct lecturer University of New England, USA)

Paul Murtagh Materiality, community and identity: The Iron Age of west central Scotland. (now CAVLP Heritage Project Officer, Northlight Heritage)

Elizabeth Foulds (nee Schech) 'Iron Age glass beads from Britain: a social approach' (now Finds Specialist, Northern Archaeological Associates)

Akira Nishitani Typological Classification and the Chronology of Iron Age pottery in central-southern Britain.

Sam Wilford 'Riddles in the Dark? Cavescapes Across The British Isles During the 1st Millennia BC and AD (800BC-800AD)' (now Sr. Archaeologist, Florida, USA, Department of State Historical Resources).

Jo Zalea Matias Facing Gender: A Historiographical Analysis of Gender Construction in Iron Age Britain.

Research Interests

  • Approaches to heritage and cultural landscape management
  • Iron Age Britain and France
  • Landscape archaeology
  • Late Iron Age/Roman transition
  • Oppida and the Late Iron Age in Europe
  • Social systems and social networks

Indicators of Esteem

Selected Publications

Authored book

Chapter in book

  • Moore, T & Hoppadietz, R (2019). La sanctuaire des Sources de l’Yonne. In Rapport intermédiaire 2018 du programme quadriennal de recherche 2017-2020 sur le Mont-Beuvray. Guichard, V BIBRACTE. 291-317.
  • Moore, T. & Hoppadietz, R. (2018). Le sanctuaire des Sources de l'Yonne. In Rapport intermédiaire 2017 du programme quadriennal de recherche 2017-2020 sur le Mont Beuvray. Guichard, V. Bibracte - Centre archéologique européen, Glux-en-Glenne. 307-324.
  • Moore, T. (2018). Wealth, status, and occupation groups. In The Oxford Handbook of the European Iron Age. Haselgrove, C., Rebay-Salisbury, K. & Wells, P.S. Oxford University Press.
  • Moore, T. (2017). Caesar on Britain. In The Landmark Julius Caesar. Raaflaub, K. & Strassler, R. Landmark. 2: Web essays: 52-56.
  • Moore, T (2016). Britain, Gaul, and Germany: cultural interactions. In The Oxford Handbook of Roman Britain. Millett, M, Revell, L & Moore, A Oxford University Press. 262-282.
  • Haselgrove, C. & Moore, T. (2016). Iron Age and Roman settlement in the Stanwick Environs. In Cartimandua's capital? The late Iron Age royal site at Stanwick, North Yorkshire, fieldwork and analysis 1981-2011. Haselgrove, C. Oxbow. 358-374.
  • Moore, T. & Hoppadietz, R. (2016). Le sanctuaire de Sources de l'Yonne - 2016. In Programme quadriennal 2013-1016 de recherche sur le mont Beuvray, rapport annuel 2016, synthèse. Guichard, V. Glux-en-Glenne: Bibracte - Centre archéologique européen. 251-270.
  • Moore, T. (2014). The birth of a capital? Bagendon 'Oppidum' and the impact of Rome on the British countryside. In The Impact of Rome on the British Countryside: a conference organised by the RAI, Chester, 11-13 October 2013. Breeze, David J. London: The Royal Archaeological Institute. 26-30.
  • Moore, T. & Ponroy, C. (2014). What's in a wall? Considerations on the role of open settlements in Late La Tène Gaul. In Paths to Complexity: Centralisation and Urbanisation in Iron Age Europe. Fernández-Götz, M., Wendling, H. & Winger, K. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 140-155.
  • Moore, T. & Armada, X-L. (2012). Crossing the divide: opening a dialogue on approaches to Western European first millennium BC studies. In Atlantic Europe in the first millennium BC: Crossing the divide. Moore, T. & Armada, X-L. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 3-77.
  • Moore, T. (2009). La construction des communautés Nouvelles perspectives sur l’habitat, le monde rural et la société de l’Âge du Fer en Grande-Bretagne occidentale. In Habitats et paysages ruraux en Gaule et regards sur d'autres régions du monde celtique. Actes du XXXIe colloque international de l'Association Française pour l'Etude de l'Âge du Fer 17-20 mai 2007, Chauvigny (Vienne, F). Bertrand, I., Duval, A., Gomez de Soto, J. & Maguer, P. Chauvigny: Association des Publications Chauvinoises (Mémoire XXXV). II: 363-382.
  • Fitzpatrick, A. with contributions from, Brunning, R., Johns, C., Minnit, S., Moore, T. & Mullin, D. (2008). Later Bronze Age and Iron Age. In The Archaeology of South West England: South West Archaeological Research Framework Resource assessment and Research Agenda. Webster, C. Taunton: Somerset County Council.
  • Creighton, J. & Moore, T. (2008). Sondages au site des sources de l'Yonne, commune de Glux-en-Glenne. In Rapport Annuel d'activite 2007. Guichard, V. Glux-en-Glenne: Bibracte. 211-218.
  • Moore, T. (2007). Life on the edge? Exchange, community and identity in the later Iron Age of the Severn-Cotswolds. In The Later Iron Age in Britain and Beyond. Haselgrove, C. & Moore, T. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 41-61.
  • Haselgrove, C. & Moore, T. (2007). New narratives of the Later Iron Age. In The Later Iron Age in Britain and Beyond. Haselgrove, C. & Moore, T. Oxford: Oxbow. 1-15.
  • Creighton,J., Haupt, P., Klenner,I., Moore,T. & Schoenfelder,M. (2007). Prospections autour de Bibracte: Sites des sources de l'Yonne, commune Glux-en-Glenne. In Rapport annuel d'activité 2006. Guichard, V. Glux-en-Glenne: Bibracte. Centre archeologique europeen. 193-201.
  • Moore, T. (2007). The early to later Iron Age transition in the Severn-Cotswolds: enclosing the household?. In The Earlier Iron Age in Britain and the Near Continent. Haselgrove, C. & Pope, R. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 259-278.
  • Moore, T. (2006). The Iron Age. In Twenty-five years of Archaeology in Gloucestershire: A review of new discoveries and new thinking in Gloucestershire, South Gloucestershire and Bristol 1979-2004. Holbrook, N. & Jurica, J. Cirencester: Cotswold Archaeology BGAR 3. 61-96.
  • Moore, T. (2003). Rectangular Houses in the British Iron Age - Squaring the Circle? In Re-Searching the Iron Age. Humphrey, J. Leicester: Leicester University Monograph 11. 47-58.

Conference Proceeding

Edited book

Journal Article

Newspaper/Magazine Article

  • Moore, T. (2017). Un nuevo estilo de vida en la Britania celtica. Arqueologia & Historia 15: 20-25.

Show all publications

Related Links

Selected Grants

  • 2018: Examining the nature of Late Iron Age urbanism in Gaul (£4570.71 from Rust Family Foundation)
  • 2016: A Cotswold Story: The Bagendon Landscape (£820.00 from Cotswold Conservation Board)
  • 2016: Analysis of courseware pottery from Bagendon project 2012-15 excavations (£1150.00 from The Roman Research Trust)
  • 2016: Environmental Analysis from Bagendon Iron Age 'oppidum' project (£5000.00 from Society of Antiquaries of London)
  • 2015: Evaluation of possible Roman temple at Bagendon 'oppidum', Gloucestershire (£3100.00 from The Roman Research Trust)
  • 2015: REFIT: Resituating Europe’s first towns.A case study in enhancing knowledge transfer and developing sustainable management of cultural landscapes. AHRC through the JPI Heritage Plus scheme (€354,000 - £155,409 to Durham)
  • 2014: Excavations of a second enclosure within the Lia/Eroman Oppidum at Bagendon (£1000.00 from Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological society)
  • 2013: Understanding the birth of a capital. Excavations of a banjo enclosure within the Late Iron Age and Early Roman oppidum at Bagendon, Gloucestershire (£1000.00 from Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological society)
  • 2012: Excavations of a banjo enclosure within the Late Iron Age and Early Roman oppidum at Bagendon, Gloucestershire (£1000.00 from Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological society)
  • 2012: Post-excavation analysis of Bagendon ceramics (£3000.00 from The Roman Research Trust)
  • 2012: Post-excavation of ceramics from Bagendon 'oppidum' excavations (£5000.00 from Society of Antiquaries of London)
  • 2012: Understanding the birth of a capital. Remote sensing survey of Bagendon 'oppidum', Gloucestershire (£5580.00 from The British Academy)
  • 2010: Late Iron Age and Early Roman Bagendon, Gloucestershire-geophysical survey (£700.00 from Royal Archaeological Institute)
  • 2009: Late Iron Age and Early Roman Bagendon (£640.00 from Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological society)
  • 2009: UNDERSTANDING THE BIRTH OF A CAPITAL (£3020.00 from Royal Archaeological Institute)
  • 2008: UNDERSTANDING THE BIRTH OF A CAPITAL (£2210.00 from The Roman Research Trust)
  • 2007: ARISTOCRATIC OR SACRED? (£3618.00 from The British Academy)
  • 2007: WESTERN EUROPE IN THE FIRST MILLENNIUM (£797.00 from The British Academy)