Cookies

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Otherwise, we'll assume you're OK to continue.

Durham University

Department of Archaeology

Staff

Mr Aryel Pacheco-Miranda

(email at a.h.pacheco-miranda@durham.ac.uk)

Biography

I hold a Bachelor in Anthropology, with a Mayor in Physical Anthropology, and a Professional Degree as Physical Anthropologist from Universidad de Chile. Then I received a Master Degree in Forensic Anthropology and Bioarchaeology from the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.

I have been working in Andean bioarchaeology since 2003 in academic projects and in commercial archaeology on several sites of Chile, mostly in the North (Atacama Desert). I have excavated, analysed and/or supervised the analyses of more than 1,000 human remains in Chile and Peru.

Memberships

I am member of the Sociedad Chilena de Antropología Biológica (SOCHIAB), and member of the Comisión de Patrimonio Bioantropológico (Commission of Bioanthropological Patrimony) of the SOCHIAB.

Research Topic

My current PhD research is “Tuberculosis in Andean communities from the North of Chile between 2000 BC to 1450 AD”

Abstract

TB has modeled the human history (Aufderheide and Rodríguez-Martin 1998:126-131; Daniel 1997; Dormandy 1999; Feldberg 1995; Ryan 1992). Although the coevolution human-infectious agent dates from the very beginnings of our specie (Gagneux 2012), the critical point in this partnership occurred when TB changed from a latent infection into a disease during the Neolithic period (Comas et al. 2013).

In the Americas, the earliest convincing evidence of TB is from an AD 290 body buried in a cemetery site associated with the “Formative” period located in Northern Chile (Allison et al. 1981). For the later pre-Columbian communities that inhabited the area an increase in TB is evident (Arriaza et al. 1995; Arriaza et al. 2008). This evidence has been related to an increase in the population and Formative transformations that changed the nature and size of settlements (from temporary habitations to permanent nucleated and crowded settlements), and the economy (from hunting/fishing-gathering to pastoralism and agriculture), and led to increased population mobility (migration). Although it is correct to relate the origin and spread of the disease with the characteristics of a process (Formative changes or “Neolithic transition” as whole), it does not contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon. To develop explanations (how?) it is necessary to explore archaeologically local differences and stated specific relationships.

The general objective of this Project is to develop an overview of the relationship between the temporal and geographical distribution of pre-Columbian dated people with TB and the extrinsic factors existing in their communities that predisposed them to TB. To do this approximately 500 mummies and skeletons recovered from Chilean sites located in a region of 168,275 km² will be studied, which cover a span of almost 3,500 years (ca 2000 BC to 1450 AD).

The data collected will comprise recording each individual according sex, age, stature, body mass index, and the presence of artificial cranial deformation - ACD (which could be considered as a potential ethnic marker). This latter will be analysed through images produced by a 3D light structured scanner. The identification of individuals potentially TB affected will be based on the presence of macroscopic bone lesions, supplemented by radiographs. The documentation will also include taking photographs. Several bone, hair, soft tissue, and dental samples will be taken from the individuals potentially TB affected. These will be analysed for mycolic acid specific to TB as confirmation (Minnikin et al. 2012), for dating the individuals (radiocarbon), and to establish their diet and mobility through stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.

My research will provide new and well documented evidence of ancient TB in Northern Chile, which will contribute to the knowledge of the history of TB. Because of the lack of pre-Columbian written sources in South America, that history will be written by bioarchaeologists.

References cited

Allison M, Gerszten E, Munizaga J, Santoro C, and Mendoza D. 1981. Tuberculosis in Pre-Columbian Andean Populations. In Prehistoric Tuberculosis in the Americas. Buikstra J. (Ed.) Northwestern University, Archaeological Program. pp 49-51.

Arriaza B, Salo W, Aufderheide A, and Holcomb T. 1995. Pre-Columbian tuberculosis in Northern Chile: Molecular and skeletal evidence. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 98 (1): 37-45.

Arriaza B, Cartmell L, Moragas C, Nerlich A, Salo W, Madden M, and Aufderheide A. 2008. The bioarchaeological value of human mummies without provenience. Chungará 40 (1): 55-65

Aufderheide A, Rodríguez-Martin C. 1998. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Paleopathology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Comas I, Coscolla M, Luo T, Borrell S, Holt K, Kato-Maeda M, Parkhill J, Malla B, Berg S, Thwaites G, Yeboah-Manu D, Bothamley G, Mei J, Wei L, Bentley S, Harris S, Niemann S, Diel R, Aseffa A, Gao Q, Young D, Gagneux S. 2013. Out-of-Africa migration and Neolithic coexpansion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with modern humans. Nature Genetics 45 (10): 1176-1182.

Daniel T. 1997. Captain of Death. The Story of Tuberculosis. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Dormandy T. 1999. The white death: A history of tuberculosis. London: Hambledon.

Feldberg GD. 1995. Disease and class: Tuberculosis and the shaping of modern North American society. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.

Gagneux S. 2012. Host-pathogen coevolution in human tuberculosis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:850-859 doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0316

Minnikin D, Lee O, Wu H, Besra G, and Donoghue H. 2012. Molecular Biomarkers for Ancient Tuberculosis, Understanding Tuberculosis - Deciphering the Secret Life of the Bacilli, Dr. Pere-Joan Cardona (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-946-2, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/understanding-tuberculosis-deciphering-the-secret-life-of-thebacilli/molecular-biomarkers-for-ancient-tuberculosis

Ryan F. 1992.Tuberculosis: The greatest story never told. Bromsgrove: Swift Publishers.

Grants

2013-date Advanced Human Capital Program of the National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research of Chile (Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, CONICYT), covering tuition fees and full maintenance.

 

2014 PhD Student Projects & Initiatives Grants Scheme (Faculty of Social Sciences & Health)

Part of the purchase of a light structured scanner (£1000)

 

2014 The Norman Richardson Postgraduate Research Fund (Ustinov College)

To cover some expenses of the fieldwork (£500)

 

2014 Birley Bursary Fund (University of Durham, Archaeology Students)

Part of the purchase of a light structured scanner (£600)

 

2014 Santander Mobility Grants, Latin America travel grant.

Fieldwork: flight UK-Chile-UK (£1000)

Publications

Books: sections

Pacheco A, Retamal R, Méndez-Quirós P. 2016. Violence in Northern Chile during the Late Intermediate Period (1000-1450 CE) revisited utilising three archaeological indicators. In Beyond War: Archaeological Approaches to Violence, García-Piquer A. and Vila-Mitjá A. (Eds). Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne, Chapter 2, pp 23-47

Pacheco A, Retamal R. 2014. Violencia y conflicto en el intermedio tardío tarapaqueño de Chile, reflexiones a partir de indicadores osteológicos y arqueológicos. In Indicadores arqueológicos de violencia, guerra y conflicto en Sudamérica, Lopez Mazz J.and Berón M (Eds). Comisión Sectorial de Investigación Científica - Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay). Chapter 7, pp 155-176

 

Journal papers: academic

Díaz P, Pacheco A, Retamal R. 2018. Deformación intencional del cráneo en poblaciones prehispánicas del Norte Grande de Chile. Un análisis exploratorio. Colecciones Digitales, Subdirección de Investigación, Servicio Nacional del Patrimonio Cultural.

http://www.museoarqueologicolaserena.cl/632/articles-88763_archivo_PDF.pdf

Pacheco A, Retamal R. 2017. Avoiding War in Tarapacá (Northern Chile) during the Andean Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1450). International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 27:35-44 doi: 10.1002/oa.2460

Gómez P, Pacheco A. 2016. Movilidad y Dieta en el Valle de El Mauro (31º 57`S - 71º 01`W), Norte Semiárido de Chile, entre El 8350-929 cal. AP. Comechingonia, Revista de Arqueología (Argentina) 20 (1): 51-79

Urzúa I, Cabello R, Rodríguez G, Sánchez J, Faleirosa S, Pacheco A. 2015. Absence of Non-Carious Cervical Lesions (NCCLs) in a Chilean Pre-Columbian Sample with Severe Occlusal Tooth Wear (Ausencia de lesiones cervicales no cariosas (NCCLs) en una muestra chilena precolombina con severo desgaste oclusal). International Journal of Odontostomatology 9 (1):59-64

Conference Proceedings

XIX Congreso Nacional de Arqueología Chilena, Arica, Chile, October 2012. Proccedings published in 2014 as Actas del XIX Congreso Nacional de Arqueología Chilena (ed. por Ajata R., D. Munita, R. Moyano, I. Leibowicz, I. Muñoz, M. Uribe, P. González, J. Tamblay, I. Cáceres, L. Núñez, G. Carmona, F. Vilches, J. Sauer, R. Mera, V. Standen, S. Urbina, G. Cabello, D. Jackson, I. Correa, A. Martínez, F, Mena, R. Campbell, A. Oyaneder, D. Jofré y M. Corvalán), Sociedad Chilena de Arqueología, Arica.

a) Pacheco A, Gómez P, Morales C, Marabolí N, Cavieres G, Cantarutti G, Cabello G. Bioarqueología del Sitio “El Olivar” Proyecto Brillamar. Presentation at Simposio Regional Norte semi-árido. Published in pp 431-437.

b) Gómez P, Pacheco A. Bioarqueología y Prácticas Mortuorias Arcaicas en El Valle Del Mauro, Norte Semiárido (IV Región de Chile). Poster. Published in pp 585-592.

Conference Contributions

XXI Congreso Nacional de Arqueología, 3rd-7th December 2018, Santiago, Chile. 

Retamal R, Pacheco A, Méndez-Quirós P. Violencia en Tarapacá durante el Periodo Intermedio Tardío: reflexiones a partir de la evidencia material, contextual y bioarqueológica. Presentation to the Simposio “Más allá de las fronteras disciplinares: aportes de la bioarqueología para la comprensión de las sociedades del pasado”, Abstract in (pp 50-56):

http://www.scha.cl/images/XXICongreso/Resumenes/SimposioVIBioarqueologia.pdf

I Reunión de Paleontología de vertebrados de Chile. Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile, 28th-30th November 2017.

Labarca R, Pacheco A. Primer análisis paleopatológico de un gonfoterio (Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae) chileno. Presentación

Segundo Taller de Arqueología e Isótopos estables en el Sur de Sudamérica. Los Reyunos, Mendoza, Argentina. 1st, 2nd y 3rd November 2017.

  • Pacheco A, Díaz P, Cantarutti G. Isótopos estables de Diaguitas chilenos del sitio El Olivar: dieta y movilidad más homogéneas de lo esperado. Presentación Sesión IV: Isótopos estables aplicados a restos humanos: Conectando paleodietas, movilidad y dinámica poblacional.
  • Díaz P, Pacheco A, Rivas P, González J. Contextos funerarios de la precordillera de la región de Atacama, Chile: Dataciones y análisis de isótopos estables. Presentación Sesión IV: Isótopos estables aplicados a restos humanos: Conectando paleodietas, movilidad y dinámica poblacional.

 

VII PAMinSA, Paleopathology Association Meeting in South America, Arica, 25th-27th October 2017.

  • Santana F, Retamal R, Pacheco A, Schulting R, Herrera MJ, Uribe M, Lee-Thorp J. La vida, viajes y traumas de una mujer andina: un caso de estudio en el cementerio Pica 8, norte de Chile. Poster.
  • Herrera MJ, Retamal R, Pacheco A, Díaz P, Santana F, Uribe M. Muerte violenta de una mujer del Formativo tarapaqueño, norte de Chile (1000 A.C. - 900 D.C.): una perspectiva bioarqueológica. Poster.

 

Cuarta Reunión Anual de la Sociedad Chilena de Antropología Biológica (SOCHIAB). Concepción, 6th and 7th October 2017.

Pacheco A. Radiología portátil aplicada a estudios bioarqueológicos en Chile: experiencias de OSTeam Ltda. en los últimos tres años. Presentación a la mesa de Comunicaciones Libres 3: Metodológico y Disciplinar.

 

II Reunión de la Sociedad Chilena de Antropología Biológica (SOCHIAB), Quillota, Chile, 25th-26th November 2016. Presentations at the Simposio 7: Bioarqueología:

a) Clarot A, Retamal R, Pacheco A, Montalva N, Pomeroy E. ¿Predicción de sexo en fémures?: Utilización de un algoritmo de aprendizaje automático y su contribución para el estudio de cementerios saqueados.

b) Gómez P, Pacheco A, Eyquem A. Potencialidades y ejemplos del uso de la estereofotogrametría en arqueología, antropología física y conservación.

 

XIIV Congreso de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Antropología Biológica, Tacuarembó, Uruguay, 18th-21th October 2016.

Díaz P, Gómez P, Pacheco A. Aplicación de Técnicas de registro tridimensional en Bioantropología. Presentation.

 

9th World Congress on Mummy Studies, Lima, Peru, August 2016.

Silva V, Pacheco A, Bahamondez F, Cabello H, Olguín Y. Radiographic analysis of the Pisagua Mummies Collection curated at the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural of Chile. Poster.

 

81st Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology (SAA), Orlando, US, 6-10 April 2016. Retamal R, Pacheco A, Santana-Sagredo F, Cox S, Pinares J. Punishment or surgical procedure?: Intentional amputation in a Late Intermediate Period (1000-1450 AD) individual from Pica 8 Cemetery (Northern Chile). Presentation.

 

XX Congreso Nacional de Arqueología Chilena, Concepción, Chile, 5th-9th October 2015:

a) Pacheco A, Mora A, Santana-Sagredo F, López-Barrales, Niemeyer H, Retamal R, Smith Colin. Análisis isotópicos y Paleopatología: Modelo de integración para el estudio de la tuberculosis prehispánica en el Norte de Chile. Presentation at Simposio 9: Aplicación de análisis isotópicos en Arqueología: Aportes e impacto en la interpretación del pasado.

b) Mora A, Arriaza B, Standen V, Pacheco A, Smith C. Análisis isotópicos de compuestos específicos: una nueva técnica para el análisis de isotopos estables en restos humanos. Poster.

c) Balcázar C, Bucchi A, Fernández C, Gómez P, Munzenmayer E, Pacheco A. Dieta en el curso superior del rio Choapa entre ca 800 AC-1300 DC: Sitio PTF13. Poster.

 

VI Jornadas Arqueológicas Cuyanas, Mendoza, Argentina, 29th, 30th Sept-01st Oct 2015. Presentations at the Simposio "Sobre dieta, paleopatologías, marcas de actividad y distancias biológicas: el estudio de restos óseos humanos en Cuyo y áreas aledañas":

a) Pacheco A, Gómez P. Movilidad y dieta en el curso superior del Choapa entre 274-675 cal AP: Sitio PTF13 (31º 53 S- 70º 41 W).

b) Gómez P, Pacheco A. Movilidad y dieta en el valle del Mauro (31º 57 S- 71º 01 W), Norte Semiárido de Chile entre el 8350-929 cal AP.

 

IV PAMinSA, Paleopathology Association Meeting in South America, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 12th-14th August 2015:

a) Pacheco A. New Probable Cases of Pre-Columbian Tuberculosis (TB) in Chile. Poster.

b) Pacheco A, Retamal R, Pinares J. Arrowhead Embedded in a Rib and Foot Amputation: A Case Study from Northern Chile (AD 1000-1450). Poster.

 

TAG (Theoretical Archaeology Group). Manchester, 15th-17th December 2014

Symposium 1, Session Title: Archaeological Approaches to Violence in Prehistory:

Pacheco A, Retamal R. Avoiding war: ritualized violence in the Andean Late Intermediate Period (LIP) of Tarapacá (Northern Chile, ca AD 900-1300). Presentation.

 

XIII Congreso Asociación Latinoamericana de Antropología Biológica, Santiago (Chile), October 2014

Simposio Dimensión Ética en Antropología Biológica:

Abarca V, Coros C, Martínez F, Pacheco A, Pardo T, Retamal R, Silva V. ¿Cómo conciliar investigación científica y proceso socio-cultural de las comunidades?: Propuesta de la Sociedad Chilena de Antropología Biológica (SOCHIAB) sobre el tratamiento del Patrimonio Bioantropológico. Presentation.

Research Groups

  • Bioarchaeology Research Group