Dr Tom Moore, BA, MA, PhD, PGCERT, FSA
I am a specialist in the British and European Iron Age with a focus on landscape and field archaeology. My research is underpinned by a collaborative approach: I work closely with partners across Europe, comparatively with colleagues in Early Medieval studies, and co-productively with stakeholders beyond archaeology. I have been at Durham since 2006 having previously worked at the University of Newcastle and Cotswold Archaeology.
My research builds on my major field-based research projects, to examine how the transformations in monuments and society of the Iron Age can better be understood in wider comparison to social and urban development around the world.
Oppida and alternative urban trajectories
The massive complexes, known as ‘oppida’, which appeared at the end of the Iron Age, represent a fundamental social transformation in European Prehistory. Often regarded as the first towns north of the Alps, these developments have traditionally been studied in isolation. Underpinned by major field-based projects, my research explores the comparative context of these developments, demonstrating how they should best be viewed alongside a range of alternative urban trajectories, such as low-density urbanism, elsewhere in the world. Two major projects are reassessing these complexes, taking a landscape archaeology approach to understanding their role, origins and place within wider settlement patterns. (1) Examining the nature of Late Iron Age urbanism in Gaul: Through survey and excavation, this project has sought to understand the nature of the environs of the world renowned oppidum of Bibracte in Burgundy, France. Our discovery of a massive, contemporary unenclosed complex at Sources de l’Yonne, close to Bibracte, is demonstrating the more complex nature of the Late Iron Age oppidum, potentially indicating that it is an example of dispersed urbanism. The first phase of this collaborative project, conducted with colleagues from the USA, France and Germany, is now in post-excavation. A second phase (with Ralf Hoppadietz, Leipzig/ Bibracte EPPC) is now examining the Gallo-Roman sanctuaries at the heart of the complex, establishing that they overlie Late La Tene religious structures. (2) A biography of power: Bagendon ‘oppidum’. An extensive field project at this major Iron Age complex in Gloucestershire, UK, is currently in press. It explores the changing nature of power and identity from the Iron Age to Roman period. Combining large-scale geophysical survey of the entire complex with analysis of both historic and new excavations. It is providing a radical new appreciation of the nature of this ‘oppidum’ as a landscape of power, with earlier origins and more complex roles than previously envisaged. It radically reassesses how we should define these complexes and their socio-political importance at the turn of the 1st millennium BC.
Social complexity, landscape and heterarchy.
My work explores how the large social entities of the Iron Age manipulated places and landscape to articulate new forms of power. Exploring notions of heterarchy (e.g. Moore and Gonzalez forthcoming), building on my work on tribes and social organisation, it critically examines how we reconstruct and define larger social, political and ethnic entities, challenging simplistic notions of social complexity. Emphasising the connection between landscape and power, my recent work emphasises a comparative approach. Working with colleagues in Early Medieval studies, a new major Leverhulme funded project (‘Monumentality and Landscape: Linear earthworks in Britain’, with PI-Andrew Reynolds, UCL) will explore how both Early Medieval and Iron Age societies defined and manipulated landscape as expressions of power.
Historiography and European Iron Age research and agendas
There have long been theoretical and methodological contrasts in European 1st millennium BC studies. I am keen on breaking down the barriers between different approaches. To this end, I co-organized an international conference to explore these issues. This resulted in a book ‘Crossing the Divide’ (OUP 2011) which focused on critical discussion of the problems with, and reasons behind, current divisions. Many of my other publications explore the current state and future direction of Iron Age studies in Britain and beyond.
Landscape sustainability and management
I believe it is crucial to explore how we can transmit landscape archaeological research into contemporary reconsiderations of sustainable management of Europe’s landscapes. A major European project ‘REFIT: resituating Europe’s first towns: A case study in enhancing knowledge transfer and developing sustainable management of cultural landscapes’ has used oppida as case studies in exploring the ways in which farming, heritage and wildlife can be integrated in landscape management. Funded by an EU-JPICH Heritage Plus grant (€354,000) this project is a cooperation with partners in France (Bibracte EPPC) and Spain (Universidad Complutense, Madrid) and worked co-productively with key landscape stakeholders: Gloucestershire Wildlife Trust; Reseau de Grand Sites de France; Natural Parc du Morvan; Regional Government of Avíla and Cotswold Archaeology. The project has developed a broader understanding of the perceptions and needs of stakeholders whilst integrating them into developing new strategies and policies. It emphasises the need to champion archaeology as a key driver in connecting stakeholders in sustainable landscape management.
Digital and other resources from the project can be found at: www.refitproject.com
PhD student research
I am keen to supervise postgraduate research on any area related to the themes above or aspects of the European Iron Age. Past students have undertaken topics such as:
Arthur Anderson Traditions and Transitions: Later and Roman Iron Age Communities in the North-East of England. (now adjunct lecturer University of New England, USA)
Paul Murtagh Materiality, community and identity: The Iron Age of west central Scotland. (now CAVLP Heritage Project Officer, Northlight Heritage)
Elizabeth Foulds 'Iron Age glass beads from Britain: a social approach' (now Finds Specialist, Northern Archaeological Associates)
Sam Wilford 'Riddles in the Dark? Cavescapes Across The British Isles During the 1st Millennia BC and AD (800BC-800AD)' (now Sr. Archaeologist, Florida, USA, Department of State Historical Resources).
Jo Zalea Matias Facing Gender: A Historiographical Analysis of Gender Construction in Iron Age Britain.(now Wilbur Wright College, Chicago, USA)
- Greene, K. & Moore, T. (2010). Archaeology: an introduction. London: Routledge.
- Trow, S., James, S. & Moore, T. (2009). Becoming Roman, Being Gallic, Staying British. Research and excavations at Ditches 'hillfort' and villa 1984-2006. Oxford: Oxbow.
- Moore, T. (2006). Iron Age societies in the Severn-Cotswolds: developing narratives of social and landscape change. Oxford: Archaeopress.
Chapter in book
- Moore, T & Hoppadietz, R (2019). La sanctuaire des Sources de l’Yonne. In Rapport intermédiaire 2018 du programme quadriennal de recherche 2017-2020 sur le Mont-Beuvray. Guichard, V BIBRACTE. 291-317.
- Moore, T. & Hoppadietz, R. (2018). Le sanctuaire des Sources de l'Yonne. In Rapport intermédiaire 2017 du programme quadriennal de recherche 2017-2020 sur le Mont Beuvray. Guichard, V. Bibracte - Centre archéologique européen, Glux-en-Glenne. 307-324.
- Moore, T. (2018). Wealth, status, and occupation groups. In The Oxford Handbook of the European Iron Age. Haselgrove, C., Rebay-Salisbury, K. & Wells, P.S. Oxford University Press.
- Moore, T. (2017). Caesar on Britain. In The Landmark Julius Caesar. Raaflaub, K. & Strassler, R. Landmark. 2: Web essays: 52-56.
- Moore, T (2016). Britain, Gaul, and Germany: cultural interactions. In The Oxford Handbook of Roman Britain. Millett, M, Revell, L & Moore, A Oxford University Press. 262-282.
- Haselgrove, C. & Moore, T. (2016). Iron Age and Roman settlement in the Stanwick Environs. In Cartimandua's capital? The late Iron Age royal site at Stanwick, North Yorkshire, fieldwork and analysis 1981-2011. Haselgrove, C. Oxbow. 358-374.
- Moore, T. & Hoppadietz, R. (2016). Le sanctuaire de Sources de l'Yonne - 2016. In Programme quadriennal 2013-1016 de recherche sur le mont Beuvray, rapport annuel 2016, synthèse. Guichard, V. Glux-en-Glenne: Bibracte - Centre archéologique européen. 251-270.
- Moore, T. (2014). The birth of a capital? Bagendon 'Oppidum' and the impact of Rome on the British countryside. In The Impact of Rome on the British Countryside: a conference organised by the RAI, Chester, 11-13 October 2013. Breeze, David J. London: The Royal Archaeological Institute. 26-30.
- Moore, T. & Ponroy, C. (2014). What's in a wall? Considerations on the role of open settlements in Late La Tène Gaul. In Paths to Complexity: Centralisation and Urbanisation in Iron Age Europe. Fernández-Götz, M., Wendling, H. & Winger, K. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 140-155.
- Moore, T. & Armada, X-L. (2012). Crossing the divide: opening a dialogue on approaches to Western European first millennium BC studies. In Atlantic Europe in the first millennium BC: Crossing the divide. Moore, T. & Armada, X-L. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 3-77.
- Moore, T. (2009). La construction des communautés Nouvelles perspectives sur l’habitat, le monde rural et la société de l’Âge du Fer en Grande-Bretagne occidentale. In Habitats et paysages ruraux en Gaule et regards sur d'autres régions du monde celtique. Actes du XXXIe colloque international de l'Association Française pour l'Etude de l'Âge du Fer 17-20 mai 2007, Chauvigny (Vienne, F). Bertrand, I., Duval, A., Gomez de Soto, J. & Maguer, P. Chauvigny: Association des Publications Chauvinoises (Mémoire XXXV). II: 363-382.
- Fitzpatrick, A. with contributions from, Brunning, R., Johns, C., Minnit, S., Moore, T. & Mullin, D. (2008). Later Bronze Age and Iron Age. In The Archaeology of South West England: South West Archaeological Research Framework Resource assessment and Research Agenda. Webster, C. Taunton: Somerset County Council.
- Creighton, J. & Moore, T. (2008). Sondages au site des sources de l'Yonne, commune de Glux-en-Glenne. In Rapport Annuel d'activite 2007. Guichard, V. Glux-en-Glenne: Bibracte. 211-218.
- Moore, T. (2007). Life on the edge? Exchange, community and identity in the later Iron Age of the Severn-Cotswolds. In The Later Iron Age in Britain and Beyond. Haselgrove, C. & Moore, T. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 41-61.
- Haselgrove, C. & Moore, T. (2007). New narratives of the Later Iron Age. In The Later Iron Age in Britain and Beyond. Haselgrove, C. & Moore, T. Oxford: Oxbow. 1-15.
- Creighton,J., Haupt, P., Klenner,I., Moore,T. & Schoenfelder,M. (2007). Prospections autour de Bibracte: Sites des sources de l'Yonne, commune Glux-en-Glenne. In Rapport annuel d'activité 2006. Guichard, V. Glux-en-Glenne: Bibracte. Centre archeologique europeen. 193-201.
- Moore, T. (2007). The early to later Iron Age transition in the Severn-Cotswolds: enclosing the household?. In The Earlier Iron Age in Britain and the Near Continent. Haselgrove, C. & Pope, R. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 259-278.
- Moore, T. (2006). The Iron Age. In Twenty-five years of Archaeology in Gloucestershire: A review of new discoveries and new thinking in Gloucestershire, South Gloucestershire and Bristol 1979-2004. Holbrook, N. & Jurica, J. Cirencester: Cotswold Archaeology BGAR 3. 61-96.
- Moore, T. (2003). Rectangular Houses in the British Iron Age - Squaring the Circle? In Re-Searching the Iron Age. Humphrey, J. Leicester: Leicester University Monograph 11. 47-58.
- Moore, T. (2006). Following the digger: the impact of developer-funded archaeology on academic and public perceptions of cultural landscapes. 10th International Seminar of Forum UNESCO University and Heritage: Cultural Landscapes in the 21st century, International Centre for Cultural Heritage Studies (ICCHS), University of Newcastle, UK.
- Moore, T. & Armada, X-L. (2011). Atlantic Europe in the first millennium BC: Crossing the divide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Moore, T., Guichard, V. & Álvarez Sanchís, J. (2020). The place of archaeology in integrated cultural landscape management. A case study comparing landscapes with Iron Age oppida in England, France and Spain. Journal of European Landscapes 1: 9-28.
- Moore, T. & Tully, G. (2018). Connecting landscapes: Examining and enhancing the relationship between stakeholder values and cultural landscape management in England. Landscape Research 43(6): 769-783.
- Moore, T. (2017). Alternatives to urbanism? Reconsidering oppida and the urban question in Late Iron Age Europe. Journal of World Prehistory 30(3): 281-300.
- Moore, T. (2017). Beyond Iron Age ‘towns’ Examining oppida as examples of low-density urbanism. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 36(3): 287-305.
- Moore, T., Braun, A., Creighton, J., Cripps, L., Haupt, P., Klenner, I., Nouvel, P., Ponroy, C. & Schönfelder, M. (2013). Oppida, agglomerations and suburbia: The Bibracte environs and new perspectives on Late Iron Age urbanism in central-eastern France. European Journal of Archaeology 16(3): 491-517.
- Moore, T. (2012). Beyond the Oppida: Polyfocal Complexes and Late Iron Age Societies in Southern Britain. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 31(4): 391-417.
- Moore, T. (2011). Detribalizing the later prehistoric past: concepts of tribes in Iron Age and Roman studies. Journal of Social Archaeology 11(3): 334-360.
- Creighton,J., Haselgrove, C., Lowther, P. & Moore, T. (2008). Becoming Roman in southern Burgundy: A field survey between Autun and Bibracte in the Arroux Valley (Saône-et-Loire), 2000-2003. Internet Archaeology (25).
- Moore, T. (2007). Perceiving communities: exchange, landscapes and social networks in the later Iron Age of western Britain. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 26(1): 79-102.
- Creighton,J., Haupt, P., Klenner, I., Moore, T., Nouvel, P., Petit, C. & Schönfelder, M. (2007). Prospections autour de Bibracte Nouvelles méthodes et nouveaux résultats. Bulletin de l'Association Française pour l’Étude de l’Âge du Fer 25: 17-20.
- Moore, T. (2001). An archaeological assessment of Hailey Wood Camp, Sapperton, Gloucestershire: a Roman temple complex in the Cotswolds?. Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society 119: 83-93.
- Moore, T. & Reece, R. (2001). The Dobunni. Glevensis 34: 17-26.
- Moore, T. (2017). Un nuevo estilo de vida en la Britania celtica. Arqueologia & Historia 15: 20-25.
- Landscapes of Complex Society Research Group
- North East Research Group
- Prehistory of Eurasia Research Group
- Visual and Material Culture Research Group
- A biography of power: Bagendon ‘oppidum’ and the Late Iron Age-Roman transition
- A capital landscape: survey of the Stanwick ‘oppidum’ and its environs
- Crossing the Divide: Dialogues in the First Millennium BC of Western Europe
- Examining the nature of Late Iron Age urbanism in Gaul: Bibracte and the Sources de l’Yonne agglomeration
- REFIT: Resituating Europe’s first towns: A case study in enhancing knowledge transfer and developing sustainable management of cultural landscapes
- A Howard CC student produced video of season 2010 at Sources de l'Yonne
- Archaeology: an introduction companion website
- Bagendon Project
- Conference 'Western Europe in the First Millennium BC: Crossing the divide'. Department of Archaeology, Durham University. November 23-25th, 2007
- Downloadable guide to Bagendon
- Downloadable guide to Salmonsbury
- Online walking guide to Bagendon
- REFIT project website
- 2020: Monumentality and Landscape: Linear Earthworks in Britain (£153605.23 from Leverhulme Trust)
- 2018: Examining the nature of Late Iron Age urbanism in Gaul (£4570.71 from Rust Family Foundation)
- 2016: A Cotswold Story: The Bagendon Landscape (£820.00 from Cotswold Conservation Board)
- 2016: Analysis of courseware pottery from Bagendon project 2012-15 excavations (£1150.00 from The Roman Research Trust)
- 2016: Environmental Analysis from Bagendon Iron Age 'oppidum' project (£5000.00 from Society of Antiquaries of London)
- 2015: Evaluation of possible Roman temple at Bagendon 'oppidum', Gloucestershire (£3100.00 from The Roman Research Trust)
- 2015: REFIT: Resituating Europe’s first towns.A case study in enhancing knowledge transfer and developing sustainable management of cultural landscapes. AHRC through the JPI Heritage Plus scheme (€354,000 - £155,409 to Durham)
- 2014: Excavations of a second enclosure within the Lia/Eroman Oppidum at Bagendon (£1000.00 from Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological society)
- 2013: Understanding the birth of a capital. Excavations of a banjo enclosure within the Late Iron Age and Early Roman oppidum at Bagendon, Gloucestershire (£1000.00 from Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological society)
- 2012: Excavations of a banjo enclosure within the Late Iron Age and Early Roman oppidum at Bagendon, Gloucestershire (£1000.00 from Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological society)
- 2012: Post-excavation analysis of Bagendon ceramics (£3000.00 from The Roman Research Trust)
- 2012: Post-excavation of ceramics from Bagendon 'oppidum' excavations (£5000.00 from Society of Antiquaries of London)
- 2012: Understanding the birth of a capital. Remote sensing survey of Bagendon 'oppidum', Gloucestershire (£5580.00 from The British Academy)
- 2010: Late Iron Age and Early Roman Bagendon, Gloucestershire-geophysical survey (£700.00 from Royal Archaeological Institute)
- 2009: Late Iron Age and Early Roman Bagendon (£640.00 from Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological society)
- 2009: UNDERSTANDING THE BIRTH OF A CAPITAL (£3020.00 from Royal Archaeological Institute)
- 2008: UNDERSTANDING THE BIRTH OF A CAPITAL (£2210.00 from The Roman Research Trust)
- 2007: ARISTOCRATIC OR SACRED? (£3618.00 from The British Academy)
- 2007: WESTERN EUROPE IN THE FIRST MILLENNIUM (£797.00 from The British Academy)