Professor Anna Leone, PhD
I took my first degrees in Turin and at the "Scuola di Specializzazione" at the University La Sapienza - Rome. I then completed my PhD at the University of Leicester. I have worked on several excavations in central and southern Italy and in North Africa, in particular in Carthage (Tunisia) and in Libya (Fazzan). I worked at the University of Oxford as research assistant to the Professor of Roman Archaeology, where I developed my interest in the topography of Rome. My research and publications focus on the problems related to the evolution of North African cities from Late Antiquity to the Arab conquest and to issues of the economy of te Maditerranean between the 6th and the 9th c. I am also working on a joint project with the Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut (Rome Department - Dr Ralf Bockmann) on the impact of the Arab conquest on north Africa. I currently preparing for publication an excavation done in the '70s in Syria (Dibsi Faraj) of a fortified citadel occupied from the 1st-3rd c. AD to the 10th c.
My interests in Roman Archaeology focus on different aspects.
In Rome I have co-directed with Dr. D. Palombi (Università La Sapienza) the project at the villa dei Gordiani along the via Prenestina.
I am also interested in architecture and statuary. In particular I have published two papers on the cult of Mercury Sober in the city of Rome and a study of the statuary group of the Dioscuroi found in Cori (South Latium). Studying several fragments I proposed a reconstruction of the statuary group (now visible at the Museum of Cori). In my recent book "The End of the Pagan City" I also considered the fate of statuary and building material after the closure of temples. Recently my research has focused on recycling and spolia.
I have been working for a long time and published several articles on Roman pottery in Rome, Italy and North Africa. I have a good knowledge of all the classes of pottery that circulated in the Mediterranean from the Republican period to the 7th/8th century AD and beyond. I am interested in all the aspects related to the pottery studies (economy, trade, consumption, problems of chronologies etc.). I have however experience on the study of a number of artefacts, including glass, marble decoratioons.
Roman,Byzantine and early Arab Urbanism
My interest on this aspect started with my PhD, that I have now published. The principal aim of the book was to examine the complex sequence of transition in the selected provinces of Zeugitana, Byzacena and Tripolitana of late Roman North Africa. The general analysis (based on historical sources, epigraphy and archaeological evidence) focuses on transitions in town and country and economy from Roman to Vandal and to Byzantine rule and observing patterns and facets of continuity and change. The period in question from AD 300 to AD 700, spans more that political transitions: it sees the adoption of Christianity (during the Las Imperial period and the Byzantine times), the Vandal rule and the adoption of Arianism and the Arab/Muslim imposition. It is also a period of archaeological and material transition: towns and economic system change, public structures (but not churches) decay. I have analysed how classical towns changed through centuries, how building were reused and progressively transformed.
I am currently working on the publication of the excavation of the Fortified citadel of Dibsi Faraj (Syria). The very rich and important site was excavated in the '70s under the direction of Richard Harper. The archive of the excavation and numerous finds are now at Durham University. The site was occupiedfrom the 1st- 3rd century into probably the 10th c. AD, the most important phase of occupation dates to the Byzantine period with the construction of two churches.
Paganism and Christianity
My last book published in 2013 by Oxford University Press, The End of the Pagan City, focuses primarily on the end of the pagan religious tradition and the dismantling of its material form in North Africa (modern Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya) from the 4th to the 6th centuries AD. It considers how urban communities changed, why some traditions were lost and some others continued, and whether these carried the same value and meaning upon doing so. Addressing two main issues, mainly from an archaeological perspective, the volume explores the change in religious habits and practices, and the consequent recycling and reuse of pagan monuments and materials, and investigates to what extent these physical processes were driven by religious motivations and contrasts, or were merely stimulated by economic issues.
My interests in landscape archaeology started from my PhD, where I looked at the transformation of the countryside from Late Antiquity to the Arab conquest. I am currently focussing on the clergy and the progressive acquisition of estates and properties by the Clergy and the rise of the Church as an economic and secular power. I am also particularly interested in looking at the transformations occurred in rural villas in Late Antiquity and early medieval period.
I am currently working (in co-operation with my colleague Ralf Bockmann at the Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut - Rome) on the Arab expansion in north Africa, with a specific focus on Tripolitania. The work has started since 2014 in co-operation with the Department of Antiquities of Libya. the major focus on this first part of the project has been on the Gebel Nafusa. The work has also included a series of GIS training courses for Staff of the Department of Antiquities of Libya. The project is also finalized to train local archaeologists on the field and on recording, managing and protecting the Cultural Heritage after the conflict. Results of the project will be part of the new plans of the Department of Antiquities to create a complete archive of the archaeological remains on the territory. The project will combine interpretation of satellite images, landscape extensive survey and GIS recording, as well as geophysical investigation of the Salama fort area and stratigraphic analysis and recording of the standing structures (the Medieval Salama fort and the nearby mosque, cisterns and Roman farms). In the longer term the project will also include extensive excavation. The project is in co-operation with the Deutsches Archäologische Institut – Rome (Dr R. Bockmann) and the University of Msurata (Dr H. Abdouli). The work has now expanded to the whole of Libya, to include also Cyrenaica. The project is developing with the fieldwork on the site of Iunca (Borj Younga - Tunisia). The project will include training of Libyan and Tunisian archaeologists as well as research on the site.
Work to prevent looting and illicit traffic
I am currently leading a project which include the creation of an app for fast recording of archaeological objets on site and in storerooms. the project is currently piloted in Libya.
Fieldwork project in Sicily
I have directed the survey project in Sicily. The project research area on the north-western slopes of Etna includes the territories of the comuni of Bronte,Maletto and Maniace in the provincia di Catania and focuses,in particular, on the area located in the upper valley of the river Simeto that is formed at the confluence of the Saracena, Acuto and Martello rivers. The project is now in preparation for publication
I have supervised students working on: the rural sanctuaries of Syria, the 3rd century crisis in Egypt, the Pithais in Classical and Roman Greece, The fate of Statuary in Late Antique and Byzantine Cyprus. I am currently supervising PhD on: Water systems in Nabataean Petra, private Architecture and its decoration in Late Antique Greece, Water and Christianity in Isreal, The transition or Sasanian cities into the Islamic period, The Arab expansion in Cyrenaica. If you have any idea for a PhD research that you want to discuss with me, feel free to email me.
- Leone, A. (2013). The End of the Pagan City. Religion, Economy and Urbanism in Late Antique North Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Leone, A. (2007). Changing Townscapes in North Africa from Late Antiquity to the Arab conquest. Bari: Edipuglia.
Chapter in book
- Leone, A. (2018). Urban decor and public spaces in late antique North Africa. In Entre civitas y madīna. El mundo de las ciudades en la Península Ibérica y en el norte de África (siglos IV‑IX). Panzram, S. & Callegarin, L. Madrid: Casa de Velázquez. 379-391.
- Leone, A. (2017). From the Classical to the Medieval City: Fora in Late Antique and Byzantine North Africa. In "Cités et religions dans l’Afrique tardive (IIIe-VIIe siècle après J.-C.)" en hommage à Claude Lepelley. Éditions Hermann - Collection AOROC.
- Leone, Anna (2016). Tracing the Donatist Presence in North Africa: An Archaeological Perspective. In The Donatist Schism. Controversy and Contexts. Miles, Richard Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. 317-344.
- Leone, A. & (with minor contributions from J. N. Dore† and H. Eckardt) (2013). 13. Pottery from the FP project excavation in Jarma. In The Archaeology of Fazzān. Volume 4, Survey and Excavations at Old Jarma (Ancient Garama) carried out by C. M. Daniels (1962-69) and the Fazzān Project (1997-2001). Mattingly, D. J., Daniels, C. M., Dore, J. N., Edwards, D., Leone, A. & Thomas, D. C. London: Society for Libyan Studies. 4: 325-408.
- Leone, A. & Moussa, F. (2012). Roman North Africa and Sahara. In Oxford handbook of African Archaeology. Lane, P. & Michell, P. Oxford University Press. 1.
- Edwards, D.N., Mattingly D.J., Daniels, C.M., with contributions from, Dore, J.N. & Leone, A. (2010). Excavations and survey at Tinda, al Khara'iq and Ikhlif Escarpment Settlements. In The Archaeology of Fazzan. Vol. 3, Excavations of C.M. Daniels. Mattingly, D.J. London: The Society for Libyan Studies. 3.
- Mattingly, D.J., HAwthorne, J., Daniels, C.M., With contributions from, Dore, J.N., Leone, A. & Cole, F. (2010). Excavations at the Classic Garamantian Settlement of Saniat Jibril. In The Archaeology of Fazzan. Vol. 3, Excavations of C.M. Daniels. Mattingly D.J. London: The Society for Lybian Studies. 3.
- Edwards, D.N., Mattingly, D.J., Daniels, C.M., with contributions from, Dore, J.N. & Leone, A. (2010). Excavations of other Garamantian Cemeteries and Burials. In The Archaeology of Fazzan. Vol. 3, Excavations of C.M. Daniels. Mattingly, D.J. London: The Society for Libyan Studies. 3.
- Mattingly, D.J., Hawthorne, J., Daniels, C.M., with contributions from, Dore, J.N., Leone, A., Kenrick, Ph. & Tagart, C. (2010). The Garamantian Cemetery of Saniat Bin Huwaydi. In The Archaeology of Fazzan. Vol. 3, Excavations of C.M. Daniels. Mattingly D.J. London: The Society for Libyan Studies. 3.
- Hawthorne,J., Mattingly,D.J., Daniels, C.M., with contributions from, Barnett, T., Dore, J.N. & Leone, A. (2010). Zinkekra: an Early Garamantian Escarpement Settlement and Associated Sites. In The Archaeology of Fazzan. Vol. 3, Excavations of C.M. Daniels. Mattingly, D.J. London: The Society for Libyan Studies. 3: 19-84.
- Leone, A. (2007). Christianity and Paganism, IV: North Africa. In The Cambridge History of Christianity.2. Constantine to c.600. Casiday A., & Norris F.W. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2: 231-247.
- Dore, J. N., Leone, A. & Hawthorne, J. (2007). Section 41. The Pottery Type Series. In The Archaeology of Fazzan Volume 2, Site Gazetteer, Pottery and other Survey finds. Mattingly, D.J., Daniels, C.M., Dore, J.N., Edwards, D. & Hawthorne, J. London: Society for Libyan Studies. II: 305-431.
- Leone,A., Witcher, R., Privitera, F. & Spigo, U. (2007). The Upper Simeto Valley Poject. An interim report of the first season. In Understanding Upland Landscapes: Interdisciplinary Investigations of Sicily. Fitzjohn, M. London: Accordia Research Institute.
- Leone, A. (2006). Changing Urban Landscapes: Burials in North African Cities from the Late Antique to Byzantine periods. In Mortuary Landscape in North Africa. D. Stone & L. Stirling Toronto: Toronto University Press.
- Leone, A. & Mattingly, D.J. (2004). Vandal, Byzantine and Arab Rural Landscapes in North Africa. In Landscapes of Change: Rural Evolutions in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Christie, N. Aldershot: Ashgate. 135-162.
- Leone, A. (2003). Topographies of production in the cities of late antique North Africa. In Theory and Practice in Late Antique Archaeology. Lavan, L. & Bowden, W. Leiden: Brill. 257-287.
- Leone, A. (2000). Darius rex a Nemi. In Rome: 29-34.
- Leone, Anna (1999). Change or no Change? Revised Perceptions of Urban Transformation in Late Antiquity. In Leicester: 121-130.
- Leone, A. (1999). I manufatti Greci e Romani nel museo del Cairo. In La Collezione del Museo del Cairo. F. Tiradritti Vercelli: White Star. 488-409.
- Leone, A. (1997). Terrecotte dell’Egitto Greco-Romano. In Enciclopedia dell’Arte Antica Classica e Orientale. Roma: Secondo Supplemento 1971-1994, V.
- Leone, A. (1996). Un’Adultera Meretrix a Bulla Regia: alcuni aspetti della città tardoantica. In 11: 1371-1383.
- Bockmann R., Leone, A. & Von Rummell, P. (2017). Africa - Ifriqiya. Cultures of Transition in North Africa between Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages. Papers of a conference held in Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano- Terme di Diocleziano, 28 February - 2 March 2013. Palilia.
- Kaizer, T., Leone, A., Thomas, E. & Witcher, R. (2012). Cities and Gods: Religious Spaces in Transition. BABesch. Annual Papers on Mediterranean Archaeology, Supplement 22. BABESCH.
- Leone, A., Palombi, D. & Walker, S. (2007). Res Bene Gestae. Ricerche di storia urbana su Roma antica in onore di Eva Margareta Steinby. Rome: Quasar.
- Leone, A. & Sarantis, A. (2020). The Middle Euphrates and its Transformation from the 3rd to the 7th c.: The case of Dibsi Faraj. Journal of Late Antiquity (13).
- Nebbia, N., Leone, A., Bockmann, R., Hddad, M., Abdouli, H., Masoud, A. M., Elkendi, N., Hamoud, H., Adam, S. & Khatab, M. (2016). Developing a Collaborative Strategy to Manage and Preserve Cultural Heritage During the Libyan Conflict. The Case of the Gebel Nāfusa. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 23(4): 971-988.
- Leone, A. (2012). Bishops and Territory: The case of Late Roman and Byzantine North Africa. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 65-66(2011-2012): 5-27.
- Leone, A. (2012). Water Management in Late Antique North Africa: Agricultural Irrigation. Water History 4(1): 119-133.
- Leone A. & Palombi D. (2008). Mercurio Sobrio tra Africa e Roma. Archeologia Classica 59(9): 409-433.
- Palomnbi, Domenico & Leone, Anna (2007). Il gruppo statuario dei Dioscuri dal tempio del foro di Cori. Con un’appendice di Attanasio, Donato: Analisi chimico-fisica e provenienza del marmo del gruppo dei Dioscuri. MITTEILUNGEN DES DEUTSCHEN ARCHÄOLOGISCHEN INSTITUTS, RÖMISCHE ABTEILUNG 113(1): 339-442.
- Leone, A (2006). Clero, proprietà, cristianizzazione delle campagne nel nord Africa tardoantico: status quaestionis. Antiquité Tardive 14: 93-104.
- Zevi, Fausto., Geremia, Roberta., Leone, Anna. & Moreschini, Laura. (2005). OSTIA - Sondaggio Stratigrafico in uno degli ambienti della domus dei Pesci (1995-1996). Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità 15-16: 9-310.
- Leone, A. (2003). Late Antique North Africa: Production and Changing use of Buildings in Urban Areas. Al –Masaq: Islam and Medieval Mediterranean 15(1): 21-33.
- Leone, A. (2003). Le sepolture nello spazio urbano a Cartagine tra V e VII secolo d.C. L’inumazione in “spazio urbano” a Cartagine tra V e VII secolo d.C. Antiquité Tardive 10: 233-248.
- Geremia Nucci R. & Leone A. (2003). Ostia – Sondaggio nella Domus dei Pesci. Dati preliminari sullo scavo esul materiale ceramico. Rei Cretariae Fautorum Acta 38: 63-67.
- Leone, A. (2002). Pratiche funerarie nelle città Nord Africane: limiti e prospettive per una ricerca. HORTUS 2002 465-475.
- Mattingly, D.J., Brooks, N., Cole, F., Dore, J., Drake, N., Leone, A. , Hay, S., McLaren, S., Newson, P., Parton, H., Pelling, R., Preston, J., Reynolds, T., Schrufer-Kolb, I., Thomas, D., Tindall, A., Townsend, A. & White, K. (2001). The Fezzan Project 2001: Preliminary report on the fifth season of work. Libyan Studies 32: 133-153.
- Mattingly, D.J., Leone, A. & et Al. (2000). The Fezzan Project 2000: preliminary report on the fourth season of work. Libyan Studies 31: 103-120.
- D.J. Mattingly, A. Leone & et Al. (1998). The Fezzan Project 1998: preliminary report on the second season of work. Libyan Studies 29: 115-144.
- Leone, Anna (1995). Nuove acquisizioni sul tempio di Medinet Madi: un ritratto idealizzato di Principe tardo-tolemaico. Rivista dell’Istituto Nazionale d’Archeologia e Storia dell’arte 18(ser. 3): 129-138.
- Leone, A. (1994). “L’orientalizzazione del culto nel Santuario di Nemi e Caligola: una proposta di lettura delle fonti e delle strutture. Documenta Albana 1994-1995: 53-70.
- Heritage, Archaeology, People & Places Research & Impact Group
- Landscapes of Complex Society Research Group
- Visual and Material Culture Research Group
- From Africa to Ifriqiya: Investigating Lepcis Magna and its Territory
- The Upper Simeto Valley Project (Sicily): an Inside-out View of a Rediscovered Landscape
- Co-organiser: Cities and Gods conference
- Durham Centre for Roman Culture
- The 'Villa dei Gordiani' project
- The Islamic Expansion in North Africa
- Upper Simeto Valley Project
- 2017: Training in Action - Cultural Protection Funds (£657.000) https://www.britishcouncil.org/arts/culture-development/cultural-protection-fund/projects/training-in-action
- 2010: Knott Fellowship - IAS (university of Durham) http://www.dur.ac.uk/ias/christopherson_knott/
- 2009: BETWEEN CHRISTIANS AND PAGANS (£16161.00 from Arts and Humanities Research Council)
- 2007: Grant from the Institute of Advanced Studies Durham for the conference Cities and Gods (£1000)
- 2007: THE UPPER SIMETO VALLEY PROJECT (£7475.00 from The British Academy)
- 2006: Rosemary Cramp funds for the conference Cities and Gods (£1000)
- 2006: THE VILLA OF THE GORDIANI AT THE 3RD MILE (£5635.00 from The British Academy)
- 2005: LACUS IUTURNAE (£13955.26 from Academy of Finland)