We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Otherwise, we'll assume you're OK to continue.

Durham University

Department of Archaeology

Research Postgraduates

Ms Enas Bubtana

(email at

Academic background/Biography

I have a degree in Islamic Archeology from the University of Garyounis (Libya) and an MA from the same university, where I worked on: The Kufi* Script On The Head Stones In Libya in the Period Between 6-8 Centuries (Hijri) / 8 – 12 Centuries (A.D.)> I have been teaching Islamic Art and Archaeology at the University of Garyounis and Teucheira.

Research Topic

Continuity and Change in Arab Cyrenaica (7th to 10/12th c.)


I am looking at the transformation of settlement and economy in Cyrenaica from the 7th to the 10/12th c., a period which spans from the Late Byzantine era into the first centuries of the Arab occupation.

This research is important as no synthetic work on the Islamic occupation of Cyrenaica has ever been carried out while the Libyan government has never had a complete catalogue of all the archaeological sites and monuments in the landscape. My research aims to fill this gap by looking at the continuity and change of Cyrenaica immediately before and after the Arab conquest. The chronological range chosen for this research finds its justification in the historical development of the Arab state. Most of the Roman cities in North Africa continued to be inhabited until the 9th and the 10th c. and it is only from this moment that a new social and territorial organization will take place. The project will investigate four core research questions:

1. Is it possible to define Arab settlements? What characteristics and specific elements is it possible to single out?

2. How far settlements were changed by the Arab presence? And how did the settlement organization change from the conquest into the 9th/10-12th c.?

3. Did the Arab conquest have a disruptive impact on the life of the inhabitants of the region?

4. How did economy change? What trade routes continued to be in use and which ones were abandoned?

5. How did the Arab conquest impact on the Christian presence?


  • E. Boubtana : “The Kufi Script On The Head Stones In Libya in the Period Between 6-8 Centuries (Hijri) / 8 – 12 Centuries (A.D.)”, Publisher: Garyounis University Press (2007).
  • Enas Boubtaba Development of the Arabic Script, Al-Thakafa Al-Arabia magazine, issue 279, January 2007