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Durham University

Department of Archaeology

All Research Projects

Dr Penny Wilson, BA PhD

Associate Professor in the Department of Archaeology

(email at


I am a specialist in Egyptology with a particular focus in areas of both hieroglyphic texts as well as field archaeology. After reading Oriental Studies (Egyptian with Coptic) at Liverpool University (BA 1985), I continued to develop my interest in the Egyptian language. My specialist research for my PhD was a lexicographical study of the hieroglyphic texts in the Ptolemaic period Temple of Edfu (1991). Evolving out of this study, I continue to research the Egyptian hierogyphic writing system, temple ritual practice and the interweaving of mythical stories into Egyptian religious practice as a whole. I worked for seven years as Assistant Keeper in the Department of Antiquities in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (1992-1999), where I developed a wider passion for material culture of Egypt, the Classical World and the Near East. Since 1999 I have been employed as a Lecturer and Senior Lecturer in Egyptology at the Department of Archaeology, Durham University.

My first archaeological work was at Bearpark near Durham, while I was at school. I have since worked on various projects in Egypt: as epigrapher at Qasr Ibrim and archaological supervisor at Ashmunein, Sinai, Tell el Balamun and Zawiyet Umm el Rakham.

I am currently the Field Director of the joint Durham University/Egypt Exploration Society/Supreme Council of Antiquities project at Sais (Sa el-Hagar), which was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council of the UK (2002-2007). The work at Sais is looking at settlement changes in relation to wider landscape dynamics and change, as well as specific sharp changes in settlement structure. The rebuilding of the late New Kingdom-Third Intermediate Period city after a collapse-event is of particular interest as it provides a sealed context for the late Ramesside city and a change in building decisions in the next phase. The long period of settlement from the Neolithic period to the modern day, with continuous but not necessarily contiguous settlement also provides an unparalleled chance to understand the relationships between material culture of differet periods in one palce and in in comparison with other Delta and Valley settlements.

I am also actively involved in the Egypt Exploration Society/British Academy Special Project 'Delta Survey'. The project aims to record and investigate as many of the archaeological sites in northern Egypt as possible. Many are in remote areas, such as the lagoons in the very north of the country and are visited only rarely.

I am currently also carrying out survey work at Tell Mutubis, a large Late Roman site near Rosetta, in order to understand cultural transitions during the Roman period to the early Islamic period. This project will include training and heritage development aspects. It has been supported by funding from the British Academy IPM award scheme and will be a separate monograph focussing on the development of the Bolbitine/Rashid Nile branch system.

I am interested in the dynamics of life in the Nile delta including coping with the Nile's flood regime in the past, the development of urban centres and the tension between agricultural life and the state. I am also interested in the interactions between the religious life and thinking of the temple and the world outside and the nature of religious experience in 'ordinary' daily life. My current work is focussed upon the process of change in material culture and settlements from the Pharaonic period, through the hellenistic and Roman eras, to the Christian and Islamic periods.

I am interested in supervising students in subjects connected with the archaeology of the Delta, settlement archaeology and Egyptian material culture of all periods. In addition, I am also keen to supervise work on Ptolemaic hieroglyphic texts in general. Themes such as connectivity, geomorphology, sustainability and materiality in Egypt are also of interest.

Research Groups

Research Projects

  • Benchmarking the social and economic impacts of the tangible and intangible heritage of Middle Egypt
  • Ceramics
  • Inside the mind of ancient People: the tangible and constructed landscape of the western Delta in the Late Period (664-332BC)
  • Nile Delta Survey Project, Egypt
  • Saïs and its Hinterland: Dynamics and Power in the West Nile Delta

Research Interests

  • Egyptian settlement archaeology, especially in the Delta region
  • Material culture, pottery and artefact studies
  • Egyptian Late Period to Late Antique history and archaeology
  • Egyptian Religious practice and hieroglyphic texts

International Collaboration

  • Mansoura University, International Partnership and Mobility Award


Authored book

Chapter in book

  • Wilson, Penelope (2014). Living the High Life: Late Antique Archaeology in the Delta. In Egypt in the First Millennium AD: Perspectives from New Fieldwork. O'Connell, Elisabeth Leuven Paris Walpole, MA: Peeters. 43-58.
  • Wilson, Penelope. (2011). Masking and multiple personas. In Ancient Egyptian Demonology. Kousoulis, P. Peeters. OLA 175: 77-88.
  • Wilson, Penelope (2011). Pots, People and the Plural Community: A case Study of the Greeks in Egypt at Sais. In Intercultural Contacts in the Ancient Mediterranean. Proceedings of the International Conference at the Netherlands-Flemish Institute in Cairo, 25th to 29th October 2008. Duistermat, K. & Regulski, I. Peeters. 149-160.
  • Wilson, Penelope. (2011). Ramsîs: Ancient Memory, Archaeology and the Western Delta. In Ramesside Studies in Honour of K. A. Kitchen. Collier, M. & Snape, S. Rutherford Press. 533-540.
  • Wilson, Penelope. (2011). Settlement Connections in the Canopic Region. In Alexandria and the North-Western Delta. Robinson, Duncan. & Wilson, Andrew. Oxford: Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology. 111-126.
  • Wilson, Penelope. (2010). Consolidation, Innovation and Renaissance. In Egyptian Archaeology. Wendrich, Willeke. Oxford: Blackwell. 241-257.
  • Wilson, Penelope. (2010). Temple Architecture and Decorative Systems. In The Blackwell Companion to Ancient Egypt. Lloyd, A.B. Oxford: Blackwell. 781-803.
  • Wilson, Penelope. & Gilbert, Gregory. (2008). Trading Relations with the Eastern Mediterranean. In Moving Across the Boders: Foreign Relations, Religion and Cultural Interactions in the Ancient Mediterranean. Kousoulis, P. & Magliveras, K. Leuven: Peeters. 249-265.
  • Wilson, Penelope & Snape, Steven (2007). 3. The Excavation of the Chapels: 5. Stelae from the Habachi Excavations. In Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham I: The Temple and Chapels. Snape, Steven Bolton: Rutherford Press. 33-68; 93-129.
  • Wilson, Penelope (2007). A Cult of Amasis and 'The Procession of Two Gods' at Sais. In Egyptian Stories. A British Egyptological Tribute to Alan B. Lloyd on the Occasion of His Retirement. Schneider, Thomas & Szpakowska, Kasia Münster:
  • Wilson, Penelope. (2007). Chapter 18: The Meroitic Temple Graffiti. In The Meroitic Temple Complex at Qasr Ibrim, Egypt. Rose, Pamela J. London: Egypt Exploration Society. 105-163.
  • Wilson, P. (2007). The Delta. In The Egyptian World. Wilkinson, T.A. London: Routledge. 15-28.
  • Wilson, P. & Gilbert, G. (2006). Saïs and its Trading Relations with the Eastern Mediterranean. In Kousoulis, P.
  • Wilson, P. (2005). Naming names and shifting identities in ancient Egyptian iconoclasm. In Negating the Image: Case Studies in Iconoclasm. McClanan, A. & Johnson, J. Aldershot: Ashgate. 113-136.
  • Wilson, P. (2002). Ramesses III, Belzoni and the Mysterious Reverend Browne. In Egypt Through the Eyes of Travellers III Proceedings of the ASTENE Cambridge Congress 1998. El-Kholy, N. & Starkey, P. Durham: ASTENE. 45-56.
  • Wilson P (1997). Slaughtering the crocodile at Edfu and Dendera. In The temple in Ancient Egypt: new discoveries and recent research. Quirke, S. London: British Museum. 179-203.
  • Wilson P (1996). The roadway and its inscriptions. In Qasr Ibrim: the hinterland survey. Rose, P. London: Egypt Exploration Society. 102-117.

Conference Paper

Conference Proceeding

  • Wilson, P. (2007). Masking and Multiple Personas.

Journal Article


Related Links

Selected Grants

  • 2017: Benchmarking the social and economic impacts of the tangible and intangible heritage of Middle Egypt, particularly with reference to traditional handicraft production. (£109140.53 from British Council Yemen)
  • 2014: Inside Out: Settlement, Trade and Displacement in Northern Egypt (£30000.00 from The British Academy)
  • 2010: The Saite Kilns Project (£2000.00 from Gerald Avery Wainwright Near Eastern Archaeological Fund)
  • 2010: The Saite Kilns Project (£7500.00 from The British Academy)
  • 2008: SAISAND ITS HINTERLAND (£17640.00 from Arts and Humanities Research Council)
  • 2002: SAIS AND ITS HINTERLAND (£213414.00 from Arts & Humanities Research Board)


Scottish Soldiers Project

Cooperating with the Palace Museum in China