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Durham University

Department of Anthropology


Publication details for Dr Adetayo Kasim

Brown, T.J., Todd, A., O’Malley, C., Moore, H.J., Husband, A.K., Bambra, C., Kasim, A., Sniehotta F.F., Steed, L., Smith, S., Nield, L. & Summerbell, C.D. (2016). Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation. BMJ Open 6(2): e009828.

Author(s) from Durham


Objectives: To systematically review the effectiveness
of community pharmacy-delivered interventions for
alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight
Design: Systematic review and meta-analyses. 10
electronic databases were searched from inception to
May 2014.
Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: Study
design: randomised and non-randomised controlled
trials; controlled before/after studies, interrupted times
series. Intervention: any relevant intervention set in a
community pharmacy, delivered by the pharmacy team.
No restrictions on duration, country, age, or language.
Results: 19 studies were included: 2 alcohol
reduction, 12 smoking cessation and 5 weight
management. Study quality rating: 6 ‘strong’, 4
‘moderate’ and 9 ‘weak’. 8 studies were conducted in
the UK, 4 in the USA, 2 in Australia, 1 each in 5 other
countries. Evidence from 2 alcohol-reduction
interventions was limited. Behavioural support and/or
nicotine replacement therapy are effective and costeffective
for smoking cessation: pooled OR was 2.56
(95% CI 1.45 to 4.53) for active intervention vs usual
care. Pharmacy-based interventions produced similar
weight loss compared with active interventions in other
primary care settings; however, weight loss was not
sustained longer term in a range of primary care and
commercial settings compared with control. Pharmacybased
weight management interventions have similar
provider costs to those delivered in other primary care
settings, which are greater than those delivered by
commercial organisations. Very few studies explored if
and how sociodemographic or socioeconomic
variables moderated intervention effects. Insufficient
information was available to examine relationships
between effectiveness and behaviour change strategies,
implementation factors, or organisation and delivery of
Conclusions: Community pharmacy-delivered
interventions are effective for smoking cessation, and
demonstrate that the pharmacy is a feasible option for
weight management interventions. Given the potential
reach, effectiveness and associated costs of these
interventions, commissioners should consider using
community pharmacies to help deliver public health services.