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Department of Psychology


Professor Anne Campbell, B.A. (Hons), D.Phil.

Emeritus Professor in the Department of Psychology
Fax: +44 (0)191 3343241
Room number: 75
Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 43235

Contact Professor Anne Campbell (email at


My research is concerned with sex differences in aggression with special emphasis upon female aggression, both as an end in itself and because it may illuminate the more physically dangerous nature of male aggression. To this end I have employed a variety of methods and populations including ethnograhapic work with gang members in New York, interviews with British inner-city teenagers, development of a psychometric instrument to measure differences in the representations which people hold about the causes and consequences of their own aggression and larger-scale analysis of criminal justice, employment and mortality trends. Recent work and interests include:
  • A reinterpretation of sex differences in forms of aggression based on differences in parental investment and the fitness enhancement benefits of survival to the primary caregiver.
  • An analysis of the foci of female-female adolescent competition in terms of bidirectional mate selection under monogamy.
  • The role of cognitive and emotional inhibitory mechanisms in the expression of aggression.
  • The extent to which representations that men and women hold of their own aggression derives from accurate phenomenological report rather than cultural transmission.

    Indicators of Esteem

    • 2013: Journal editing: Associate Editor, Human Nature
    • 2013: Journal editing: Associate Editor, Agressive Behavior

    Research Groups

    Research Interests

    • Development aspects of gender
    • Evolutionary psychology
    • Female delinquency and crime
    • Sex differences in aggression and violence

    Selected Publications

    Authored book

    Chapter in book

    • Cross, C. & Campbell, A. (2013). Violence and aggression in women. In The Evolution of Violence. Shackelford, T.K. & Hansen, R.D. Springer.
    • Cross, C. & Campbell, A. (2012). Women and aggression. In The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Violence, Homicide, and War. Shackelford, T. & Weekes-Shackelford, V. Oxford University Press.
    • Campbell, A. (2008). Gender and crime: An evolutionary perspective. In Criminology and biology: The biosocial synthesis. Walsh, A. and Beaver, K.M. New York: Routledge.
    • Campbell, A. (2007). Sex differences in aggression. In Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. Dunbar, L. & Barrett, L. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Campbell, A. (2005). Aggression. In Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. Buss, D. New York: John Wiley. 628-652.
    • Campbell, A. (2005). Feminism and evolutionary psychology. In Missing the revolution: Darwinism for the social sciences. Barkow, J. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 63-99.

    Edited book

    • (1998). The social child. Hove: Psychology Press.
    • Campbell, A. & Gibbs, J. (1986). Violent Transactions: The Limits of Personality. Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell.

    Journal Article

    • Copping, L., Campbell, A. & Muncer, S. (2013). Impulsivity, sensation seeking and reproductive behaviour: A life history perspective. Personality and Individual Differences 54(8): 908-912.
    • Campbell, A. (2013). Mutual mate choice: Sexual selection versus sexual conflict. Psychological Inquiry 24(3): 178-182.
    • Santiago-Menendez, M. & Campbell, A. (2013). Sadness and anger: Boys, girls and crying in adolescence. Psychology of Men and Masculinity
    • Cross, C.P. & Campbell, A. (2012). The effects of intimacy and target sex on direct aggression: Further evidence. Aggressive Behavior 38: 272-280.
    • Campbell, A. (2012). The study of sex differences: Feminism and biology. Journal of Psychology 220: 137-143.
    • Campbell, A. (2011). Ladies, choose your weapons. The Evolutionary Review 2: 106-112.
    • Cross, C., Copping, L. & Campbell, A. (2011). Sex differences in impulsivity: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin 137(1): 97-130.
    • Cross, C. & Campbell, A. (2011). Women’s aggression. Aggression and Violent Behavior 16: 390-398.
    • Campbell, A. (2010). Oxytocin and human social behaviour. Personality and Social Psychology Review 14(3): 281-295.
    • Campbell, A. & Muncer.S. (2009). Can ‘risky’ impulsivity explain sex differences in aggression? Personality and Individual Differences 47: 402-406.
    • Campbell, A. (2009). Fatal attraction syndrome: Not a good way to keep your man. (Commentary). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32: 24-5.
    • Campbell, A. (2009). What kind of selection? (Commentary). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32: 272-3.
    • Campbell, A. (2008). Attachment, aggression and affiliation: The role of oxytocin in female social behaviour. Biological Psychology 77(1): 1-10.
    • Campbell, A. (2008). The morning after the night before: Affective reactions to one-night stands among mated and unmated women and men. Human Nature 19(2): 157-173.
    • Tester, N & Campbell, A. (2007). Digit ratio and sporting prowess: What are the psychological mediators? Journal of Personality 75: 663-678.
    • Campbell, A. & Muncer, S. (2007). An intent to harm or injure? Gender and the expression of anger. Aggressive Behavior 33,: 1-12.
    • Campbell, A. (2007). Personality: Does selection see it? (Commentary). European Journal of Personality 21: 591-593.
    • Campbell, A. (2006). Sex differences in direct aggression: What are the psychological mediators?. Aggression and Violent Behavior 11(3): 237-264.
    • Driscoll, H., Zinkivskay, A., Evans, K. & Campbell, A. (2006). Sex differences in social representations of aggression: The phenomenological experience of differences in inhibitory control? British Journal of Psychology 97(139-153).
    • Alexander, F., Allen, C., Brooks, J., Cole, C. & Campbell, A. (2004). Reason to believe: Representations of aggression as phenomenological read-out. Sex Roles 51: 647-659.
    • Campbell, A., Shirley, L. & Candy, J. (2004). A longitudinal study of gender-related cognition and behaviour. Developmental Science 7(1): 1-9.
    • Campbell, A. (2004). Female competition: Causes, constraints, content and contexts. Journal of Sex Research 41: 6-26.
    • Campbell, A. (2004). Words, words, words: Commentary on Korobov and Bamberg. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 22: 509-514.
    • Campbell, A., Shirley, L. & Cargill, L. (2002). Sex-typed preferences in three domains: Do 2-year-olds need cognitive variables? British Journal of Psychology 93: 203-217.
    • Campbell, A. (2000). Putting people before parasites and places. (Commentary). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23: 596-7.
    • Campbell, A., Muncer, S., McManus.I. & Woodhouse, D. (1999). Instrumental and expressive representations of aggression: One scale or two? Aggressive Behavior 25: 435-444.
    • Campbell, A. (1999). Staying alive: Evolution, culture and women's intra-sexual aggression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22(2): 203-252.
    • Campbell, A., Muncer, S. & Bibel, D. (1998). Female-female criminal assault: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 35: 413-428.
    • Campbell, A., Muncer, S. & Odber, J. (1998). Primacy of organising effects of testosterone. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(3): 365-365.
    • Campbell, A., Muncer, S. & Odber, J. (1997). Aggression and testosterone: Testing a bio-social model. Aggressive Behavior 23: 229-238.
    • Campbell, A., Sapochnik, M. & Muncer, S. (1997). Sex differences in aggression: Does social representation mediate form of aggression? British Journal of Social Psychology 36: 161-171.
    • Campbell, A., Muncer, S., Guy, A. & Banim, M. (1996). Social representations of aggression: Crossing the sex barrier. European Journal of Social Psychology 26: 135-147.
    • Campbell, A. (1995). A few good men: The evolutionary psychology of female adolescent aggression. Ethology and Sociobiology 16: 99-123.
    • Campbell, A. (1995). Representations, repertoires and power: Mother-child conflict. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 25: 35-38.
    • Campbell, A. (1995). Sociopathy or hyper-masculinity? (Commentary). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18: 548-9.
    • Campbell, A & Muncer, S. (1994). Sex differences in aggression: Social roles and social representations. British Journal of Social Psychology 33: 233-240.
    • Campbell, A, Muncer, S & Gorman, B. (1993). Sex and social representations of aggression: A communal-agentic analysis. Aggressive Behavior 19: 125-135.
    • Campbell A, Muncer S. & Coyle E. (1992). Social representations of aggression as an explanation of gender differences: A preliminary study. Aggressive Behavior 18: 1-14.
    • Campbell, A., Gorman, B & Muncer, S. (1990). Dimensions of aggression: A replication with offenders. Aggressive Behavior 16: 33-39.
    • Campbell, A. (1990). On the invisibility of the female delinquent peer group. Women and Criminal Justice 2: 41-62.
    • Campbell, A & Muncer, S. (1989). Them and us: A comparison of the cultural context of American gangs and British subcultures. Deviant Behavior 10: 271-288.
    • Campbell, A. (1988). Intrapersonal and interpersonal discrepancy among delinquent and nondelinquent girls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 29: 73-78.
    • Campbell, A., Muncer, S. & Bibel, D. (1987). For disaggregation: A reply to Rushton and Erdle. British Journal of Social Psychology 26: 90-92.
    • Campbell, A. & Muncer, S. (1987). Models of anger and aggression in the social talk of women and men. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 17: 489-512.
    • Campbell, A. (1987). Self definition by rejection: The case of gang girls. Social Problems 34(5): 451-466.
    • Campbell, A. (1987). Self-reported delinquency and home life: Evidence from a sample of British girls. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 16: 165-175.
    • Campbell, A. (1986). Self-report of fighting by females. British Journal of Criminology 26: 28-46.
    • Campbell, A., Bibel, D. & Muncer, S. (1985). Predicting our own aggression: Personality, subculture or situation? British Journal of Social Psychology 24: 169-180.
    • Campbell, A. (1984). Girls' talk: The social representation of aggression by female gang members. Criminal Justice and Behavior 11: 139-156.

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    Media Contacts

    Available for media contact about:

    • Gender differences: gender differences
    • Relationships: evolutionary psychology
    • Aggression: aggression