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Durham University

Department of Physics

Staff profile

Publication details for Prof Carlos Frenk

Springel, V., White, S. D. M., Jenkins, A. R., Frenk, C. S., Yoshida, N., Gao, L., Navarro, J., Thacker, R., Croton, D., Helly, J. C., Peacock, J. A., Cole, S., Thomas, P., Couchman, H., Evrard, A., Colberg, J. & Pearce, F. (2005). Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars. Nature 435(7042): 629-636.

Author(s) from Durham


The cold dark matter model has become the leading theoretical picture for the formation of structure in the Universe. This model, together with the theory of cosmic inflation, makes a clear prediction for the initial conditions for structure formation and predicts that structures grow hierarchically through gravitational instability. Testing this model requires that the precise measurements delivered by galaxy surveys can be compared to robust and equally precise theoretical calculations. Here we present a simulation of the growth of dark matter structure using 2,1603 particles, following them from redshift z = 127 to the present in a cube-shaped region 2.230 billion lightyears on a side. In postprocessing, we also follow the formation and evolution of the galaxies and quasars. We show that baryon-induced features in the initial conditions of the Universe are reflected in distorted form in the low-redshift galaxy distribution, an effect that can be used to constrain the nature of dark energy with future generations of observational surveys of galaxies.


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Supplementary Information is linked to the online version of the paper at
Acknowledgements The computations reported here were performed at the
Rechenzentrum der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Garching, Germany.
Author Information Reprints and permissions information is available at The authors declare no competing
financial interests. Correspondence and requests for materials should be
addressed to V.S. (