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Durham University

Department of Physics

Staff profile

Publication details for Associate Professor Fernando Dias

Lv, Xialei, Huang, Rongjuan, Sun, Shuaiqiang, Zhang, Qing, Xiang, Songpo, Ye, Shaofeng, Leng, Panpan, Dias, Fernando B. & Wang, Lei (2019). Blue TADF Emitters Based on Indenocarbazole Derivatives with High Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Efficiencies. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 11(11): 10758-10767.

Author(s) from Durham


A series of blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters were designed and synthesized, using 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine as the acceptor unit, and indenocarbazole derivatives as the electron-donating moiety. In contrast with other six-membered heterocycles, like phenothiazine, phenoxazine and dihydroacridine, where the TADF efficiency is affected by the presence of different conformers, indenocarbazole derivatives do not show this effect. Therefore, InCz23FlTz, InCz23DPhTz, InCz23DMeTz and InCz34DPhTz allow to investigate the effect of different substituents and substitution positions on TADF properties, without the influence of different conformation. We have demonstrated that the substituted position on the carbazole and different substituents in the same position have clear influence on the donor character of indenocarbazole derivatives. Also, the color purity of blue emission and excited states could be adjusted by substituents and substituted position, thus excellent blue emitters can be obtained. Besides, the four compounds show relatively small TADF contribution under optical excitation, however excellent performances are obtained in the electroluminescent devices, especially with InCz34DPhTz, which shows a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) around 26%. In the end, we find an effective way to design high efficiency blue TADF materials and deeply study the relation between structure and property in indenocarbazole derivatives.