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Durham University

Department of Physics

Staff profile

Publication details for Associate Professor Fernando Dias

Penfold, T. J., Dias, F. B. & Monkman, A. P. (2018). The theory of thermally activated delayed fluorescence for organic light emitting diodes. Chemical Communications 54(32): 3926.

Author(s) from Durham


The interest in organic molecules exhibiting Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF)
has been reinvigorated in recent years owing to their potential to be exploited as emitters in highly
efficient purely organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, designing new molecules that
exhibit efficient TADF is a non-trivial task because they would appear to require the optimisation
of a number of contrasting properties. For example these molecules must exhibit rapid conversion
between the singlet and triplet manifolds without the use of heavy elements to enhance spinorbit
coupling. They should also display a large fluorescence rate, but simultaneously a small
energy gap between low lying singlet and triplet states. Consequently to achieve systematic
material design, a detailed understanding of the fundamental factors influencing the photophysical
behaviour of TADF emitters is essential. Towards achieving this goal, theory and computation is
playing a crucial role. In this feature article the recent progress in the theory of organic TADF
molecules in the context of OLEDs is presented, with a view of achieving a deeper understanding
of these molecules and driving systematic material design.