Cookies

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Otherwise, we'll assume you're OK to continue.

Department of Physics

Staff profile

Publication details for Prof Sir Arnold Wolfendale

Erlykin, A. D. & Wolfendale, A. W. (2003). The visibility of shell-type supernova remnants in gamma rays. Journal of Physics G-Nuclear and Particle Physics 29(4): 641-664.

Author(s) from Durham

Abstract

The question of the origin of the cosmic radiation (CR) is a continuing
one. The idea that the shocks from supernova remnants (SNR) expanding
into the interstellar medium (ISM) accelerate CR is still a popular one
but a number of authors have drawn attention to the fact that the
experimental evidence for the presence of gamma rays from the expected
interaction of CR with gas in the remnant is poor. Indeed, it is
claimed that many SNR are not 'seen' in GeV or TeV gamma rays, whereas
'they should have been'.
We have looked at this problem and we conclude that the idea of CR
production in SNR cannot be faulted in this way; if the evacuation of
ambient gas by the stellar wind of the progenitor star and, frequently,
by associated earlier close-by SN, is taken into account; such
phenomena are expected for the important type II SN which result from
very massive stars and which provide the SNR which are thought to
accelerate CR. Other SNR have, apparently, been seen and the
interaction of SNR-accelerated particles with adjacent molecular clouds
has been deemed responsible. However, we worry about this
interpretation because of the slow progress of the SNR shock through
such clouds, although electron-effects may, indeed, contribute.
This paper is devoted mainly to the visibility of nearby (within about
1 kpc) SNR in gamma rays although many of the arguments also relate to
remote SNR. For the nearby SNR another problem enters the scene: the
large angular spread of the remnant. It is especially important for the
old SNR, where cosmic rays have already diffused to a large distance
from the SNR centre. We have also examined the effect of the 'anomalous
diffusion' of CR propagation in the non-homogeneous interstellar medium
on the visibility of SNR for gamma rays of different energies.

References

Aharonian F A, Akhperjanian A and Barrio J et al 2001 Astron. Astrophys. 370 112
Aharonian F A 2002 Preprint astro-ph/0209360 (Astron. Astrophys. at press)
Alpgard K et al 1982 Phys. Lett. B 115 71
Arnal E M and Mirabel F 1991 Astron. Astrophys. 250 171
Axford W I 1981 Proc.17th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. (Paris) vol 12 p 155
Berezhko E G, Elshin V K and Ksenofontov L T 1996 J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 82 1
Berezhko E G 1999 Private communication
Berezhko E G, Ksenofontov L T and V¨olk H J 2001 Proc. 27th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. (Hamburg) vol 6 p 2489
Berezhko E G, P¨uhlhofer G and V¨olk H J 2003 Preprint astro-ph/0301205
Berezinsky V S et al 1984 Astrophysics of Cosmic Rays (Moscow: Nauka)
Bhadra A 2002 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 28 397
Bhat C L et al 1985 Nature 314 515
Blitz L 1980 Giant Molecular Clouds in the Galaxy vol 1 ed P M Solomon and M G Edmunds (Oxford: Pergamon)
Bykov A M et al 2000 Astrophys. J. 538 203
Chevalier R A 1999 Astrophys. J. 511 798.
Dodds D, Wolfendale A W and Wdowczyk J 1976 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 176 345
Drury L O’C, Aharonian F A and V¨olk H 1994 Astron. Astrophys. 287 959
Dyson J E and Williams D A 1980 Physics of the Interstellar Medium (Manchester: Manchester University Press)
Enomoto R et al 2002 Nature 416 823
Erlykin A D and Wolfendale A W 1997 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 23 979
Erlykin A D and Wolfendale A W 2001 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 27 941
Erlykin A D, Lagutin A A and Wolfendale A W 2002 Preprint astro-ph/0209506 (2003 Astropart. Phys. at press)
Erlykin A D and Wolfendale A W 2002a J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 28 2329
Erlykin A D and Wolfendale A W 2002b J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 28 359
Ferriere K M 2001 Preprint astro-ph/0106359
Frisch P 1997 Preprint astro-ph/9705231
Green D A 2000 A Catalogue of Galactic SNR Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, UK
Hara S et al 2001 Proc. 27th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. (Hamburg) vol 6 p 2455
Hartman R C et al 1999 Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 123 179
Heiles C 1987 Astrophys. J. 315 555
Heiles C 1990 Astrophys. J. 354 483
Heß M et al 1997 Proc. 25th Int. Cosmic Ray. Conf. (Durban) vol 3 p 229
Houston B P and Wolfendale A W 1984 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 10 1587
Ito K 1988 Cosmic Ray Astrophysics ed M Oda, J Nishimure and K Sakurai (Tokyo: Terra Science Publication
Company)
Lagutin A A et al 2001a Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 97 267
Lagutin A A et al 2001b Proc. 27th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. (Hamburg) vol 5 p 1900
Lampeitl H et al 2001 Proc. 27th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. (Hamburg) vol 6 p 2348
Lebrun F and Paul J 1985 Proc. 19th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. (La Jolla) vol 1 p 309
Li T P and Wolfendale A W 1981 Astron. Astrophys. Lett. 100 L126
Longair M S 1992 High Energy Astrophysics 2nd edn, vol 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
Lozinskaya T A 1991 Supernovae and Stellar Winds in the Interstellar Medium (New York: AIP)
Moffett D A, Gross W M and Reynolds S P 1993 Astrophys. J. 106 1566
Osborne J L,Wolfendale A W and Zhang L 1995 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 21 429
Pare E et al 1990 Phys. Lett. B 242 531
Parizot E, Paul J and Bykov A 2001 Proc. 27th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. (Hamburg) vol 6 p 2070
Plaga R 2001 Preprint astro-ph/0111555 private communication
Plucinsky P P et al 1996 Astrophys. J. 463 224
Pohl M 2001 Proc. 27th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. (Hamburg) Invited, Rapporteur and Highlight Papers p 147
Pollock A M T 1985 Astron. Astrophys. 150 339
Prosch C et al 1996 Astron. Astrophys. 314 275
Ramana Murthy P V and Wolfendale A W 1993 Gamma Ray Astronomy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
Rogers M J and Wolfendale A W 1987 Proc. 20th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. (Moscow) vol 1 p 81
Rossi B 1952 High Energy Particles (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall)
Stecker F W 1971 Cosmic Gamma Rays (Baltimore, MD: Mono Book Corporation)
Strong A W and Mattox J R 1996 Astron. Astrophys. 308 L21
Sturner S J and Dermer C D 1995 Astron. Astrophys. 293 L17
Sturner S J, Dermer C D and Mattox J R 1996 Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 120 445
Torres D F, Romero G F and Dame T M et al 2002 Preprint astro-ph/0209565 (Phys. Rep. at press)
Torres D F et al 2003 Preprint astro-ph/0301424
V¨olk H 2002 Preprint astro-ph/0210297
Wallace B J, Landecker T L and Taylor A R 1994 Astron. Astrophys. 286 565
Wiebel-Sooth Band Biermann P L 1999 Astronomy and Astrophysics—Interstellar Matter, Galaxy, Universe (Landolt-
B¨ornstein, Group VI, vol 3C) (Berlin: Springer) p 37
Wolfendale A W and Zhang L 1994 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 20 935.