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Durham University

Department of Physics

Staff profile

Publication details for Professor Stewart Clark

Robertson, J. & Clark, S.J. (2011). Limits to doping in oxides. Physical Review B 83(7): 075205.

Author(s) from Durham


The chemical trends of limits to doping of many semiconducting metal oxides is analyzed in terms of the formation energies needed to form the compensating defects. The n-type oxides are found to have high electron affinities and charge neutrality levels that lie in midgap or the upper part of their gap, whereas p-type oxides have small photoionization potentials and charge neutrality levels lying in the lower gap. The doping-limit energy range is found to vary with the bulk free energy of the compound.