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Durham University

Department of Physics

Staff profile

Publication details for Miss Huizhe Yang

Yang, H, Gonzalez, C, Bharmal, N A & de Cos, F (2019). Projected Pupil Plane Pattern (PPPP) with artificial Neural Networks. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 487(1): 1480-1487.

Author(s) from Durham


Focus anisoplanatism is a significant measurement error when using one single laser guide star (LGS) in an Adaptive Optics (AO) system, especially for the next generation of extremely large telescopes. An alternative LGS configuration, called Projected Pupil Plane Pattern (PPPP) solves this problem by launching a collimated laser beam across the full pupil of the telescope. If using a linear, modal reconstructor, the high laser power requirement (∼1000 W) renders PPPP uncompetitive with Laser Tomography AO. This work discusses easing the laser power requirements by using an artificial Neural Network (NN) as a non-linear reconstructor. We find that the non-linear NN reduces the required measurement signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) significantly to reduce PPPP laser power requirements to ∼200 W for useful residual wavefront error (WFE). At this power level, the WFE becomes 160 nm root mean square (RMS) and 125 nm RMS when r0 = 0.098 m and 0.171 m respectively for turbulence profiles which are representative of conditions at the ESO Paranal observatory. In addition, it is shown that as a non-linear reconstructor, a NN can perform useful wavefront sensing using a beam-profile from one height as the input instead of the two profiles required as a minimum by the linear reconstructor.