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Durham University

Department of Physics

Staff profile

Publication details for Miss Huizhe Yang

Yang, Huizhe, Bharmal, Nazim A. & Myers, Richard M. (2018). Projected Pupil Plane Pattern: an alternative LGS wavefront sensing technique. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 477(4): 4443-4453.

Author(s) from Durham


We have analysed and simulated a novel alternative Laser Guide Star (LGS) configuration termed Projected Pupil Plane Pattern (PPPP), including wavefront sensing and the reconstruction method. A key advantage of this method is that a collimated beam is launched through the telescope primary mirror, therefore the wavefront measurements do not suffer from the effects of focal anisoplanatism. A detailed simulation including the upward wave optics propagation, return path imaging, and linearized wavefront reconstruction has been presented. The conclusions that we draw from the simulation include the optimum pixel number across the pupilN = 32, the optimum number of Zernike modes (which is 78), propagation altitudes h1 = 10 km and h2 = 20 km for Rayleigh scattered returns, and the choice for the laser beam modulation (Gaussian beam). We also investigate the effects of turbulence profiles with multiple layers and find that it does not reduce PPPP performance as long as the turbulence layers are below h1. A signal-to-noise ratio analysis has been given when photon and read noise are introduced. Finally, we compare the PPPP performance with a conventional Shack–Hartmann Wavefront Sensor in an open loop, using Rayleigh LGS or sodium LGS, for 4-m and 10-m telescopes, respectively. For this purpose, we use a full Monte Carlo end-to-end AO simulation tool, Soapy. From these results, we confirm that PPPP does not suffer from focus anisoplanatism.