PHYS4151 Advanced Condensed Matter Physics (2018/19)
Soft Matter and Biological Physics
12 lectures in Michaelmas and Epiphany Terms
Required: Soft Condensed Matter, R. A. L. Jones (Oxford Master Series in Physics, 2002, ISBN 0 19 850589), Chapters 3, 7 and 9.
Additional: Soft Condensed Matter, M. Doi (Oxford University Press, 2013, ISBN 0199652953).
Syllabus: Advanced material building on concepts from soft matter and biological physics covering phase transitions, membranes and liquid crystals in a biological context where appropriate. The course will focus on: the kinetics of phase transitions including the mechanisms of liquid-liquid demixing phase separation; self-assembly of micelles and membranes; liquid crystals; and soft and biological systems out of equilibrium.
Low Dimensional Solids
12 lectures in Michaelmas Term
Additional: The Physics of Low Dimensional Semiconductors, J.H. Davies (CUP)
Additional: Introduction to Solid State Physics, C. Kittel (Wiley, 8th edition) Additional: Physics and Chemistry of Solids, S.R. Elliott (Wiley)
Syllabus: Definition of low dimensional solids, relevant length and energy scales for manifestation of quantum confinement. Physical realisation of low dimensional structures: brief overview of the production of quantum dots, wires, nanotubes, graphene and semiconductor heterostructures. Zero dimensional solids: density of states in zero dimensions; optical properties of metallic and semiconducting quantum dots; electronic transport in zero dimensions: Coulomb blockade, Kondo effect, superconducting dots; applications of zero dimensional solids (emphasis on electronic/optical properties, e.g. single electron transistor, semiconductor nanocrystals as biological labels). One dimensional solids: density of states in one dimension: subbands and van Hove singularities, periodic boundary conditions in nanotubes; the special case of the 1D Fermi surface: Coulomb interaction and lattice coupling in 1D metals (breakdown of Fermi liquid behaviour, Peierls distortion); transport in one dimension: transport regimes, phase coherence, Landauer formula, resonant tunnelling, universal conductance fluctuations, localisation; quantised vibrations, heat capacity and thermal transport in one dimension; applications of one dimensional solids. Two dimensional solids: density of states and the Fermi surface in two dimensions; confinement in two dimensions: graphene and real (finite-depth) potential wells in semiconductor heterostructures; transport in two dimensional solids: conductivity of a two dimensional electron gas, subband filling; magneto-transport in two dimensions: resistivity and conductivity tensors, Büttiker-Landauer formalism, integer quantum Hall effect; applications of two-dimensional solids.
12 Lectures in Epiphany Term
Required: Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, 4th edition, Donald A. Neamen, McGraw Hill International Edition (2012).
Additional: Optoelectronics and Photonics-Principles and Practices, 2nd edition, S.O. Kasap, Pearson International Edition (2013).
Syllabus: Review of the general theories of light/matter interaction: classical and quantum. Correspondence of the quantised nature of confined light-wave modes with one-dimensional matter wave solutions to the Schrödinger equation. Optical properties of materials, particularly doped semiconductors. Semiconductor (p-n) junctions. Optoelectronic devices using the semiconductor p-n junction: Photovoltaic/photoconductive detectors; Solar cell; Light emitting diode, (Franz Keldysh effect) Electro-absorption modulator. Optical waveguide devices: Passive devices (power splitters/combiners); Active devices (electro-optic/thermo-optic modulators, attenuators).
3 lectures in Easter Term, one by each lecturer.
Lectures: 2 one-hour lectures per week
Problem exercises: See https://www.dur.ac.uk/physics/students/problems/