The Experience of Emergence Lecture - What is the Anthropocene? Or, negu-anthropology as new critique of philosophical and scientific anthropology
This lecture has moved room and will now be held in ER140 not ER201 as listed in the printed programme.
Over the course of the 19th century, anthropology became scientific. Following the appearance of enquiries concerning the human, from Hume as well as Rousseau, and the philosophical questioning of anthropology, notably by Kant, a positive anthropology appeared founded on palaeontology and archaeology, and also, in France, on Auguste Comte’s positivist philosophy, which was particularly important for Durkheim.
Nevertheless, the scientific method for defining the human or describing its ‘natural history’, so to speak, was reproduced without a care for the specifically technical conditions that made the emergence of human life possible. As Georges Canguilhem argued, the human is a technical form of life, which is to say, one that emerges only through tool-use.
In France, André Leroi-Gourhan claimed that the emergence of the human was based on a process of technical exteriorisation of life into artefacts. But this has been denied by all kinds of anthropologists, from Levi-Strauss to contemporary American specialists in palaeoanthropology. This denial is the reason for which we must now move from questions of anthropology to questions of what I term neganthropology, which pertains to our use of tools to construct artificial, external and internal milieu whose function is to stave of entropy.
In the sciences the concept of emergence has recently become a central focus of interest. Originally developed by natural philosophers (Lewes, Broad) in the context of evolutionary theory, it connotes paradoxical ‘downward’ causation in an autopoietic system. So-called resultant effects derive traceably – ‘upwardly’ – from the interaction of the parts of the system, generate a quantitative difference, are by definition predictable. Autopoietic systems by contrast generate emergent effects which manifest themselves quasi-irrationally as something more than the sum of the traceable interaction of the system’s constituent parts. They generate a qualitative difference, are by definition unpredictable. As such, ‘downward’ causation is often claimed to ‘explain’ adaptation and evolution in both organic and social systems (Maturana and Luhmann): the reorganisation and restabilisation of a perturbed system under new terms. Examples are the spontaneous behaviour of flocks of birds and shoals of fish under threat; the saltationist evolution of species (Eldredge and Gould); perhaps also the emergence of consciousness from the brain.
In the last ten years emergence has also, increasingly, been seen as an explicatory factor in the humanities and social sciences. Emergence has variously been suggested to provide a model for the becoming of the soul in post-Darwinian Christian theology; for explaining the unstable behaviour of stock markets; for describing bewildering epochal shifts in aesthetic style. This project offers a programme of interdisciplinary research which will explore the patterns of emergence in humanities and social sciences, and so, in a scholarly environment dominated by scientism and positivism, make a positive contribution to the two cultures debate. The experience of emergence – something to be explored phenomenologically and in communicative media – is argued to be a contact zone of indeterminacy between human and natural science epistemologies.
This programme offers a series of lectures and workshops by internationally distinguished colleagues from Durham and abroad, addressing the extent to which the experience of emergence contributes to interdisciplinary expansion of cognitive horizons, inter alia
- technical evolution and the emergence of social change
- aesthetic communication and agency in systems theory
- the relations of cognitive psychology and literature
- the emergent experience of wonder and wellbeing
- the ontology of emergence
- the emergence and after-effects of social crisis
- the experience of risk and adventure as catalysing the emergence of new cognitive horizons.
The project team will explore these issues with the support of IAS Fellow Professor Katherine Hayles (Duke University). The IAS is also supporting a programme of fortnightly inter-departmental seminars and a conference, which will culminate in the publication of an edited volume.
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