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Durham University

Durham Energy Institute

ReFINE briefing notes

ReFINE is the leading independent research consortium on fracking, led jointly by Durham University and Newcastle University. With support from academics across Europe and North America, the consortium focuses on researching the potential risks of shale gas and oil exploitation using fracking methods.

You can find a range of briefing notes and further research information on the ReFINE website. These have all been translated into 14 languages including Mandarin, French, Italian, Spanish, Romanian, Norwegian, Polish, Arabic, Dutch, Portuguese, Russian, Hungarian, and Bulgarian.

Briefings include:

  • An Introduction to shales and fracking

  • How does fracking interact with natural fractures?

  • Fracking and Aquifers: How far up can a frack go?

  • What size of earthquakes can be caused by fracking?

  • Well integrity & drilling for shale gas: Is the UK well-prepared?

  • How Radioactive is Fracking Flowback Water?

Find out more about the ReFINE project.