DECE latest news
On Tuesday 26th February, Stephen Gorard attended a roundtable discussion at Newcastle University as part of the Social Mobility Commission's two day visit to the region. Those attending the event were from a range of organisations across North East England. Attendees discussed current developments on social mobility and school performance in the region, as well as a long-term strategy to tackle social mobility.
DECE members Stephen Gorard, Naomi Griffin, Beng Huat See and Nadia Siddiqui have written a new guide on how to improve education by the increased use of good research evidence. It is called 'How can we get educators to use research evidence? A review of the best ways to get evidence into use from many areas of public policy' and is the largest evidence-base of its kind.
It is available now for £12 from the following link: http://www.lulu.com/shop/stephen-gorard-and-naomi-griffin-and-beng-huat-see-and-nadia-siddiqui/how-can-we-get-educators-to-use-research-evidence/paperback/product-23986826.html
Full reference: Gorard, S., Griffin, N., See, BH and Siddiqui, N. (2019) How can we get educators to use research evidence?, Raleigh NC: Lulu Press, ISBN 9780244159160, 186 pages
Translational Research Insights (TRI) is a new free brief open access on-line and print journal, published four times per year, accepting articles of 2,000 words, written for a general audience interested and involved in educational improvement.
TRI publishes short articles on the topic of improving the use of good research. The Editors welcome articles from academics, policy-makers, practitioners, organisations and members of the general public. Articles must have a focus on the evidence of how best to get high quality education research findings into more widespread use in real-life. This includes how to evaluate ways of getting evidence into use, how to judge high quality evidence, and examples of high quality evidence that should be in more widespread use for policy/practice.
All TRI issues will be available on our 'TRI Journal' page, which you can visit by clicking the link in the left hand navigation pane of this page.
If you would like a hard copy of an issue, please send an email request to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Professor Vikki Boliver will give a public lecture in honour of the late Professor David Raffe, Professor of Sociology of Education and Director of the Centre for Educational Sociology at the University of Edinburgh on 25th March 2019. Professor Boliver’s lecture will draw on her recent research in Scotland to consider how we can promote fairer access to university study for disadvantaged applicants. using this link: https://mhse-uoe-pomote-fair-access-scottish-unis.eventbrite.co.uk/
This new paper by Dr Beng Huat See and Prof. Stephen Gorard explores the widespread concern about the shortage of secondary school teachers in England. Recruitment to initial teacher training regularly fails to meet its intake targets. The secondary school pupil population is increasing. Teacher vacancies have risen, and more teachers are reportedly leaving the profession prematurely. Despite considerable investment in a wide range of initiatives, costing millions of pounds, the government has acknowledged that it has been unable improve the situation substantially.
This paper presents time-series analyses of official data and documentary analyses of government publications. These suggest that teacher shortages are partly created by government policies themselves - including flaws in the selection system, and school funding system, the official extension of the education and training leaving age, and increases in the number of small schools. It is difficult when planning for teacher supply to anticipate the impact of such varied policy changes years ahead. Consequently, estimations of the numbers needed to be trained are hardly ever accurate.
This paper suggests a reconsideration of the current selection processes for initial teacher training, independent review of the Teacher Supply Model to, and a long-term approach to teacher supply planning, considering other policy changes in a more coordinated way.
Full reference: See, BH and Gorard, S. (2019) Why don’t we have enough teachers?: A reconsideration of the available evidence, Research Papers in Education, https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/7QeZtdK7kSSvtuMyHIhq/full
The work of DECE members won second place in the 2018 BERA Public Engagement and Impact Award as a result of our ongoing impact activities and engagement events. As a result of this award Professor Stephen Gorard was invited to write a post on the BERA Blog (Jan 11th 2019) on the work that was given the award and its impact.
In the blog posty Gorard explains: 'A common theme for this work is the assessment of poverty/disadvantage as a potential determinant of lower attainment and participation in education, and how best to intervene to improve outcomes for the poorest children – supported through grant funding from Economic and Social Research Council, the Education Endowment Foundation, the Nuffield Foundation and the Department for Education. The research has led to the creation of more successful ways of assessing disadvantage using official data, based on the ‘trajectory’ of individual indicators, and taking missing data seriously.'
See: www.bera.ac.uk/news/2018-public-engagement-impact-award-winners to read more about the 2018 BERA Public Engagement and Impact Awards and www.bera.ac.uk/blog/lets-make-education-fairer to read the full blog post.
Vikki Boliver was a keynote speaker at the annual conference of the Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE) on 6th December 2018. Her talk entitled "The prestige claims of UK universities: rhetoric and reality" is available to watch here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACE9rDOP98k&feature=youtu.be and the presentation slides can be downloaded from here https://www.srhe.ac.uk/conference2018/downloads/keynotes/Boliver_SRHE_2018.pptx
Question Time Session from the ESRC | DECE 'Let's Make Education Fairer' event
Question Time Session from the ESRC | DECE 'Let's Make Education Fairer' event
Please enjoy our 'Question Time' session, in full from the 'Let's Make Education Fairer' event at Durham Marriott (10th November 2018), with panelists Professor Stephen Gorard, Professor Vikki Boliver, Dr Beng Huat See, Dr Nadia Siddiqui, Dr Rebecca Morris, Professor Steve Higgins and Dave Cookson. This was a great session with questions from policy makers, educational professionals, teachers (including newly qualified, trainee, and head teachers), local residents, students and academics. We would like to thank all who attended and contributed to such an interesting and vibrant event and hope that these discussions will continue!
DECE ESRC Public Engagement Event 'Let's make Education Fairer', 10.11.18 - Highlights
DECE ESRC Public Engagement Event 'Let's make Education Fairer' Highlights, 10.11.18.
Please enjoy our highlights video from the #makeeducationfairer #esrcfestival event on Nov 10th. An incredible event with lots of interesting and inspiring conversations that we hope will continue.
A new special issue of Review of Education focusses on 'Multiple Methods in Education Research', and showcases a collection of studies that use multiple research methods in interesting and creative ways to explore a range of educational issues. As the authors explain in their editorial, the collection intends to serve as a catalyst for greater debate about the use of multiple methods to improve the quality of future education research.
Professor Stephen Gorard has written a new book on education policy addressing what has been done to achieve fairer and more efficient education systems, and what more can be done in the future. From the book abstract: 'Stephen Gorard provides a comprehensive examination of crucial policy areas for education, such as differential outcomes, the poverty gradient, and the allocation of resources to education, to identify likely causes of educational disadvantage among students and lifelong learners. This analysis is supported by 20 years of extensive research, based in the home countries of the UK and on work in all EU28 countries, USA, Pakistan and Japan. This approachable, rich text brings invaluable insights into the underlying problems within education policy, and proposes practical solutions for a brighter future.' Select the link above for more information and to order the book.
Professor Gorard's book entitled 'Equity in Education: an international comparison of pupil perspectives', originally published by Palgrave Press, has also been translated into Chinese by East China Normal University.
Professor Steve Higgins has written a new book on meta-analysis of intervention research in education, published by Cambridge University Press. From the book abstract: 'Improving Learning centres on the findings from different areas of education-focused research that support evidence-informed teaching and contextualises these results to optimise decision-making in schools. It also describes the origins and principles of meta-analysis in education and how this identifies the successes in improving learning in classrooms. Moreover, it explains the thinking behind the 'Teaching and Learning Toolkit' and similar approaches, which seek a big-picture overview of research findings. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are explored with practical examples. Additionally, it identifies the issues in using research evidence in education and the steps that can be taken to improve this. It is not a manual on how to conduct a meta-analysis; instead the focus is on developing understanding of the approach in order to present its strengths and weaknesses. This understanding can advance critical engagement and effective use to improve educational outcomes for children and young people.' Select the link above for more information and to order the book.
The North East of England is an area suffering from relatively high and chronic deprivation, where secondary schools are deemed by many to be failing their pupils. Not many young people go on to attend university, and specialist teachers are in high demand.
Come along to this event and learn about the findings of three new studies that suggest ways to improve the outcomes for disadvantaged students at school, and increase the supply of high-quality teachers to areas of high demand. After academics have presented their research there will be a free buffet lunch, where you will have the chance to ask questions and speak to presenters.
Following this there will be a ‘Question Time’-style segment, where you will have the chance to talk to experts and commentators, ask questions, and suggest your own plans of action. The ‘Question Time’ panel will include local journalists and policymakers, as well as Dave Cookson, the Pupil Premium Champion for Northumberland, and Professor Steve Higgins, developer of the Teaching and Learning Toolkit.
Pre-registration is preferred. Intending participants are also invited to submit questions/comments to be discussed by the panel, concerning the poverty gradient in school attainment, widening participation to universities, or attracting/retaining teachers in areas of disadvantage.
- Venue: Durham Marriott Hotel, Old Elvet, Durham, DH1 3JN
- Contact: Naomi Griffin (email: email@example.com or telephone: 0191 334 8323)
- To attend, email your questions/comments for the panel to discuss to Naomi Griffin by 9 November
- Lunch and refreshments provided
- Twitter: #makeeducationfairer
The thirteenth annual RCTs in the Social Sciences conference will be held on 5, 6 and 7 September, at King's Manor, University of York, in pertnership with Durham University and National Foundation for Educational Research. The conference will be an opportunity for delegates to share expertise, interests, and concerns about conducting trials in all fields of social sciences.Visit https://www.york.ac.uk/healthsciences/research/trials/rct2018/ to download the full event brochure.
A research study carried Binwei Lu, a post-graduate candidate in the School fo Education Durham University (supervised by Professor Stephen Gorard), has recieved a lot of media attention this week. The study used the National Pupil Database to explore how grammar school opportunities vary among pupil groups, and how grammar school opportunities correlate with the Local Authorities (LAs), pupil backgrounds and attainment. The results show that grammar school admission is relatively fair, based on its selection criterion, but there is no evidence that grammar schools can promote social mobility by providing more opportunities for disadvantaged pupils, which is the major claim supporting their expansion.
Binwei Lu said: “There is also no evidence that grammar schools can help the poor, as their likelihood of attending such schools is limited.”
Lu's article entitled 'Selection on attainment? Local authorities, pupil backgrounds, attainment and grammar school opportunities' in Educational Review is available here: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00131911.2018.1483893
Below are links to some of the articles published about the study:
Download from the resources list at the right hand side of this page or from the Newsletter tab in the options list on the left hand side of this page.
New Job Opportunity
The School of Education seeks to appoint a Research Assistant to work on an ESRC-funded project investigating the complex determinants of teacher shortages in England. It will involve a longitudinal analysis of all available data on teacher recruitment and retention, a large-scale survey and interviews of undergraduates, and a systematic review of existing international evidence. Select the following link for more information and to apply: https://recruitment.durham.ac.uk/pls/corehrrecruit/erq_jobspec_version_4.display_form?p_company=1&p_internal_external=E&p_display_in_irish=N&p_applicant_no=&p_recruitment_id=015266&p_process_type=&p_form_profile_detail=&p_display_apply_ind=Y&p_refresh_search=Y
New Resources available from DECE
See the 'Resources' section of this site (in the left hand column of this page) to find two newly added papers from DECE members Professor Stephen Gorard and Dr Nadia Siddiqui.
One paper, 'Modus Tollens', demonstrates how significance testing with incompletely randomised cases cannot possibly work. The second paper, 'Kinds of poverty in schools' explores different kinds of disadvantages and their influence on school attainment.
Recently published research by DECE members Christine Merrell and Peter Tymms, along with Gabrijela Aleksić, Dieter Ferring and Jasmina Klemenović provided an insight into young children’s development and learning in Serbia. It investigated the links between their personal, social and emotional development (PSED), behaviour and cognitive development in literacy and mathematics during pre-school and Grade 1. The PIPS On-entry Baseline Assessment was adapted for use in the research and a sample of 159 children were assessed at three time-points over a period of 14 months through their time in pre-school and Grade 1. The children were aged between 5 ½ and 6 ½ over this period. More than 3 million children around the world have been assessed with PIPS and this study is another example of how it is used for research as well as to provide teachers with information about the development and progress of their pupils.
The study found that teachers in Serbia generally gave higher ratings for girls’ PSED than boys. This echoes the findings of research from other countries, including England and Scotland. The Serbian children’s PSED were closely related to their mathematics and literacy skills. However, there was a weaker relationship between inattentive behaviour and cognitive development than has been found in other countries.
Although pre-school education in Serbia places emphasis on developing children’s socio-emotional skills, there is the issue of attendance at pre-school being significantly lower than other European countries. This is the first study of its kind in Serbia and the research team call for further systematic monitoring of children’s development alongside the evaluation of interventions aimed at enhancing children’s personal, social and emotional development.
The Kodaly approach to music is a fun and interactive way to introduce music to young children. There is currently some evidence suggesting that this approach to music training can have beneficial effects on children. This paper presents the results of a pilot study investigating the impact of the Kodály approach to music on the developmental outcomes of 56 pre-school children in one school in the North East of England.
- • RCT of the Kodály approach to music shows positive effects on children’s learning.
- • Effects are particularly strong on social, emotional and behavioural outcomes.
- • Impact on literacy is weak.
- • At least two terms of delivery needed for full benefits to be realised.
- • Regular classroom teachers can be trained to deliver the sessions.
Full reference: See, B.H. and Ibbotson, L. (2018) A feasibility study of the impact of the Kodály-inspired music programme on the developmental outcomes of four to five year olds in England, International Journal of Educational Research, Vol 89, pp. 10-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijer.2018.03.002
Professor Stephen Gorard has appeard on several television and radio segments (including BBC News and Sky News) and has been quoted in many national and local media outlets as a result of a recent research project and related journal article available here: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01425692.2018.1443432. The research highlights that Grammar schools are no better or worse than non-selective state schools in terms of attainment, but can be damaging to social mobility. Gorard and Siddiqui (2018) say a policy of increasing selection within the schools system is dangerous for equality in society. Instead, they are calling on the Government to phase out grammar schools as their analysis shows that grouping more able and privileged children in grammar schools can harm the majority of others who don’t attend those schools.
Examples of national media coverage available online include:
https://theconversation.com/grammar-schools-damage-social-cohesion-and-make-no-difference-to-exam-grades-new-research-93957 (Tuesday 27 March 2018 at 10.35am)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-43542565 (Tuesday 27 March 2018 at 12:59pm)
http://www.itv.com/news/2018-03-27/grammar-school-pupils-study/ (Tuesday 27 March 2018 at 2:17am)
https://www.tes.com/news/school-news/breaking-news/grammar-school-pupils-do-no-better-other-children-research-finds (Tuesday 27th March 2018 at 00:02)
More information is available via the Durham University News webpage: https://www.dur.ac.uk/news/newsitem/?itemno=34136
This paper illustrates the links between different ways of assessing disadvantage at school and subsequent qualification outcomes at age 16 in England. Our previous work has compared variables that represent current or recent snapshots of disadvantage (such as eligibility for FSM) with longer term summary variables and found the latter to improve measures of both social segregation between schools and explanations of raw-score differences in attainment. This new work takes an even more detailed longitudinal approach, modelling the course of one age cohort of 550,000 pupils from the National Pupil Database through their entire schooling to the age of 16 in 29 distinct analytical steps, using “effect” sizes, correlations, and a regression model. The steps represent stages such as what is known about each pupil when they were born, who they attended school with at age 10, and where they lived at age 14. The model also includes variables representing where data is missing for any pupil in any year. Using capped Key Stage 4 points as an outcome measure, these stages can predict the outcome with R=0.90. This is considerably higher than for models using either snapshots or summaries of disadvantage. Key predictors are poverty and special educational needs at age 5, and throughout schooling, coupled with prior attainment at ages 6, 10, and 13. With predictors fed into the model in life order, there is little evidence of differential progress for different language and ethnic minority groups, and no evidence of regional differences or a type of school effect. The paper concludes with the implications of these results for assessing disadvantage when considering school contexts, and for policy-makers. Given the small but apparently consistent negative school composition ‘effects’ in every year, one clear implication is that school intakes should be as mixed as possible both socially and academically.
The determination of readiness to enter primary school is a complex process. Identifying factors that contribute to a child's positive transition into school can help parents, teachers and the wider support network make a sound decision of whether or not a child is ready to commence primary school. This paper investigates the relationship between age, cognitive development and school readiness and concludes that at the national level there is no optimum age for starting school. The decision of when to start school is individual to each child.
Full Reference: Boereboom, J. & Tymms, P. (2018). Is there and optimum age for starting school in New Zealand?. NZ International Research in Early Childhood Education Journal, 21(2), 32-44. https://www.childforum.com/research/about-the-journal/17-contents-early-childhood-research-journal.html
Professor Stephen Gorard has collected together open-access links to some of the hundreds of peer-reviewed journal articles and research reports he has written so far with a range of valued colleagues, in recognition of the increasing number of peer-reviewed papers becoming freely and openly available to all, either because of new journal designs, or because research funders pay for ‘gold’ open access, or university repositories, and of the benefits of such availability of information for potential readers and consumers of research, such as policy-advisers, think tanks, unions and practitioners. The document can be found under 'Resources' on the right hand column of this page and under 'Resources' at the bottom of out our 'Publications' page.
Expertise called for from DECE members on value-added measures research
Professor Stephen Gorard's expertise have been called upon for several media outlets in the past month (Jan-Feb 2018), particularly in relation to the research on school progress measures he and his collegues, Dr Beng Huat See and Dr Nadia Siddiqui, have been undertaking. See the following six links for more information:
Progress 8 is biased towards grammar schools, Schools Week, 26/1/18, https://schoolsweek.co.uk/progress-8-is-biased-towards-grammar-schools-heres-the-solution/
Progress 8 disguises grammar school pupils’ true attainment, Schools Week, 28/1/18, https://schoolsweek.co.uk/how-progress-8-disguises-grammar-school-pupils-true-attainment/
The schools where the poorest pupils make most progress, Schools Week, 3/2/18, https://schoolsweek.co.uk/revealed-the-schools-where-the-poorest-pupils-make-most-progress/
Canarias, la segunda comunidad con mayor segregación socioeconómica en Secundaria, Canarias Ahora, 8/2/18, https://www.eldiario.es/canariasahora/sociedad/Canarias-comunidad-segregacion-socioeconomica-Secundaria_0_738077131.html (Translation of article title in English: Canarias, the second autonomous Spanish community with the highest socioeconomic segregation in Secondary Education, Canary Islands - Translation of article available at https://translate.google.co.uk/translate?hl=en&sl=pt&tl=en&u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.eldiario.es%2Fcanariasahora%2Fsociedad%2FCanarias-comunidad-segregacion-socioeconomica-Secundaria_0_738077131.html&sandbox=1)
The Northern Powerhouse, interview with Professor Stephen Gorard on BBC Radio 4 6:00 News, 1/2/18 http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b09pjgs5
Tom Perry has produced a blog post about the results of the team's research entitled 'Progress 8, Ability bias and the ‘phantom’ grammar school effect', 26/01/18, https://socialscienceandpolicy.wordpress.com/2018/01/26/progress-8-ability-bias-and-the-phantom-grammar-school-effect/
DECE's Professor Vikki Boliver (Director of Research – Professor and Deputy Head of School, School of Applied Social Sciences, Durham University) will be on a panel for the Reform UK event 'Diversifying the elite: the responsibility of universities?' to discuss contextualised admissions as a means of widening participation in Higher Education (26 January 2018,13.00 - 14.30pm)
Download from the resources list at the right hand side of this page or from the Newsletter tab in the options list on the left hand side of this page.
A research project and subsequent paper (Tymms, P. and Merrell, C. and Bailey, K. (2017) 'The long-term impact of effective teaching.', School effectiveness and school improvement)has found that those classes defined as effective and students from those classes were tracked on 3 further occasions up to the age of 16 and compared with others. Being in an effective class in the 1st year of school, when the children were aged 4 to 5 years, was significantly related to later attainment at age 16 (Effect Size = 0.2).
Schools are places where children can learn behaviour, skills and attitudes that have lifelong relevance. In England, despite the continuing emphasis on attainment, there are clear moves to consider also the wider and non-cognitive outcomes of schooling – such as pupils’ development of trust, critical thinking and civic-mindedness. However, there is little existing evidence on how such non-cognitive outcomes can be improved through school-based interventions. This paper presents findings from a quasi-experimental design using 2722 pupils in 42 primary schools. A treatment group of schools participated in Philosophy for Children (P4C) for 18 months, whereas the other group of schools was a clean control. The outcomes compared were pupil self-reports with an instrument designed to assess “social and communication skills”, “teamwork and resilience” and “empathy” and a number of other such constructs. Post-intervention comparisons show that pupils who received the P4C intervention were ahead of their counterparts in the comparison schools, and this was generally more so for those pupils living in relative poverty (FSM-eligible). Teachers reported that positive effects could be observed in pupils’ confidence in questioning and reasoning, and pupils generally reported that they enjoyed the intervention. However, the differences are small, and it is not clear that the two groups were comparable at the outset. Nevertheless, there is promise that targeted school-based intervention such as P4C can improve pupils’ non-cognitive outcomes, and there are lessons for how to conduct such studies and how to assess the wider outcomes of schooling.
With the push for evidence-informed policy and practice, schools and policy makers are now increasingly encouraged and supported to use and enagage with research evidence. This means that consumers of research will now need to be discerning in judging the quality of research evidence that will inform their decisions. This paper evaluates the quality of evidence behind some well-known education programmes using examples from previous reviews of over 5,000 studies on a range of topics. It shows that much of the evidence is weak, and fundamental flaws in research are not uncommon. This is a serious problem if teaching practices and important policy decisions are made based on such flawed evidence. Lives may be damaged and opportunities missed. The aim of this paper is to show how widespread this problem is and to suggest ways by which the quality of education research may be improved. For example, funders of research and research bodies need to insist on quality research and fund only those that meet the minimum quality criteria. Journal editors and reviewers need to be cognizant of fundamental flaws in research and reject such submissions. One way to do this is to encourage submission of the research design and research protocol prior to acceptance, so acceptance or rejection is based on the design and not on the outcomes. This helps prevent publication bias and biased reporting. Individual researchers can improve quality by making it their moral responsibility to be truthful and transparent.
This Nuffield Foundation project focused on developing an assessment tool for children starting primary school in South Africa. This tools were designed to monitor pupils’ progress through primary school, as well as the performance of teachers, schools and school systems. The findings have research and policy implications for education in South Africa.
The Trials of Evidence-based Education explores the promise, limitations and achievements of evidence-based policy and practice, as the attention of funders moves from a sole focus on attainment outcomes to political concern about character-building and wider educational impacts.
This Sutton Trust project focused on university access gap between disadvantaged students and their more advantaged peers has narrowed somewhat in recent years, the gap at the most selective universities remains stubbornly wide. The findinsg suggest that the contextualised admissions is one way through which universities may be able to make greater progress towards narrowing these gaps.
As part of Scottish Funding Coucil's Impact for Access project, this major study was comissioned on investigating the admission of disadvantaged learners onto degree courses at Scottish universities. The findings have research and policy implications.
- Modustollens3.pdf (last modified: 20 August 2018)
- A virtual free-to access journal of 20 years of research by Stephen Gorard (last modified: 18 February 2019)
- KindsofpovertyinschoolsWorkingpaper4.pdf (last modified: 29 June 2018)