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Durham University

Department of Chemistry

Publication details for Dr Robert Pal

Pal, Robert (2015). Phase modulation nanoscopy: a simple approach to enhanced optical resolution. Faraday Discussions 177: 507-515.

Author(s) from Durham


A new modular super-resolution technique called Phase Modulation Nanoscopy (PhMoNa) has been developed in order to break the optical diffraction barrier in Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSCM). This technique is based on using spatially modulated illumination intensity, whilst harnessing the fluorophore's non-linear emission response. It allows experimental resolution in both lateral and axial domains to be improved by at least a factor of 2. The work is in its initial phase, but by using a custom built Electro Optical Modulator (EOM) in conjunction with functionalised Ln(III) complexes as probes, a sub-diffraction resolution of ∼60 nm was achieved of selected cellular organelles in long term live cell imaging experiments.