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Department of Chemistry

Prof. Ian R. Baxendale

Personal web page

Professor in the Department of Chemistry
Telephone: +44 (0) 191 33 42185

(email at i.r.baxendale@durham.ac.uk)

Research Interests

My general areas of interest are: Organic synthesis (natural products, heterocyclic and medicinal chemistry), Organometallic chemistry, Catalyst design and application, Meso flow chemistry, Microfluidics, Microwave assisted synthesis, Solid supported reagents and scavengers, and facilitated reaction optimisation using Robotics and Automation.

My primary research direction is the synthesis of biologically potent molecules which encompasses the design, development and integration of new processing techniques for their preparation and solving challenges associated with the syntheses of new pharmaceutical and agrochemical compounds. In our work we utilise the latest synthesis tools and enabling technologies such as microwave reactors, solid supported reagents and scavengers, enzymes, membrane reactors and flow chemistry platforms to facilitate the bond making sequence and expedite the purification procedure. A central aspect of our investigations is our pioneering work on flow chemical synthesis and microreactor technology as a means of improving the speed, efficiency, and safety of various chemical transformations. As a part of these studies we are attempting to devise new chemical reactions that are not inherently feasible or would be problematic under standard laboratory conditions. It is our further challenge to enhance the automation associated with these reactor devices to impart a certain level of intelligence to their function so that repetitive wasteful actions currently performed by chemists can be delegated to a machine; for example, reagent screening or reaction optimisation. We use these technologies as tools to enhance our synthetic capabilities but strongly believe in not becoming slaves to any methodology or equipment.

For those interested in our research and wishing to find out more we invite you to visit our website at: http://www.dur.ac.uk/i.r.baxendale/

Publications

Chapter in book

Journal Article

  • Baumann, M. & Baxendale, I. R. (2017). A Continuous Flow Synthesis and Derivatisation of 1,2,4-Thiadiazoles. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 25(3): 6218-6223.
  • Baumann, Marcus & Baxendale, Ian R. (2017). A Continuous-Flow Method for the Desulfurization of Substituted Thioimidazoles Applied to the Synthesis of Etomidate Derivatives. European Journal of Organic Chemistry
  • Hu, Te, Su, Yuchang, Baxendale, Ian R., Tan, Jiang, Tang, Hongbo, Xiao, Lihua, Zheng, Feng & Ning, Ping (2017). Adjust band gap of IATO nanoparticles to obtain desirable optical property by one-step hydrothermal oxidation. Current Applied Physics 17(4): 584.
  • Brocken, Laurens, Price, Paul D., Whittaker, Jane & Baxendale, Ian R. (2017). Continuous flow synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) via free radical polymerisation. Reaction Chemistry and Engineering 2(5): 662-668.
  • Baumann, Marcus & Baxendale, Ian R. (2017). Ethyl 5-(4-Bromophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate. Molbank 2017(3): M951.
  • Brocken, Laurens, Whittaker, Jane, Price, Paul & Baxendale, Ian R. (2017). Purification of poly(acrylic acid) using a membrane ultra-filtration unit in flow. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering 2(5): 656-661.
  • Baumann, M. & Baxendale, I. R. (2017). Rac-2′,3a,6,6,6′,6′-Hexamethyl-3a,3b,6,7-tetra-hydrospiro-[benzo[2,3]cyclopropa[1,2-c]pyrazole-1,1′-cyclo-hepta[2,4]diene]. Molbank 2017(3): M948.
  • Baumann, Marcus, Baxendale, Ian R., Filipponi, Paolo & Hu, Te (2017). Sustainable Flow Synthesis of a Versatile Cyclopentenone Building Block. Organic Process Research & Development
  • Mallia, C. J., Burton, P. M., Smith, A. M. R., Walter, G. C. & Baxendale, I. R. (2016). Catalytic Chan–Lam coupling using a ‘tube-in-tube’ reactor to deliver molecular oxygen as an oxidant. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry 12: 1598-1607.
  • Baumann, M. & Baxendale, Ian R. (2016). Continuous photochemistry: the flow synthesis of ibuprofen via a photo-Favorskii rearrangement. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering 1(2): 147-150.
  • Baumann, Marcus & Baxendale, Ian R. (2016). Continuous-Flow Synthesis of 2H-Azirines and Their Diastereoselective Transformation to Aziridines. SynLett 27(01): 159-163.
  • Filipponi, Paolo, Gioiello, Antimo & Baxendale, Ian R. (2016). Controlled Flow Precipitation as a Valuable Tool for Synthesis. Organic Process Research & Development 20(2): 371-375.
  • Parker, G. L., Smith, L. K. & Baxendale, I. R. (2016). Development of the industrial synthesis of vitamin A. Tetrahedron 72(13): 1645-1652.
  • Baumann, M. & Baxendale, I. R. (2016). Diastereoselective Trifluoroacetylation of Highly Substituted Pyrrolidines by a DakinWest Process. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 81(23): 11898-11908.
  • Hu, T., Baxendale, I. R. & Baumann, M. (2016). Exploring Flow Procedures for Diazonium Formation. Molecules 21(7): 918.
  • Mallia, C. J., Walter, G. C. & Baxendale, I. R. (2016). Flow carbonylation of sterically hindered ortho-substituted iodoarenes. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry 12: 1503-1511.
  • Holmes, Nicholas, Akien, Geoffrey R., Savage, Robert J. D., Stanetty, Christian, Baxendale, Ian R., Blacker, A. John, Taylor, Brian A., Woodward, Robert L., Meadowse, Rebecca E. & Bourne, Richard A. (2016). Online quantitative mass spectrometry for the rapid adaptive optimisation of automated flow reactors. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering 1(1): 96-100.
  • Filipponi, P. & Baxendale, I. R. (2016). The Generation of a Library of ­Bromodomain-Containing Protein Modulators Expedited by Continuous Flow Synthesis. European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2016(11): 2000-2012.
  • Mallia, C. J. & Baxendale, I. R. (2016). The Use of Gases in Flow Synthesis. Organic Process Research & Development 20(2): 327-360.
  • Rojo, M. V., Guetzoyan, L. & Baxendale, I. R. (2015). A monolith immobilised iridium Cp* catalyst for hydrogen transfer reactions under flow conditions. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 13(6): 1768-1777.
  • Baxendale, I. R. (2015). A Short Multi-step Flow Synthesis of a Potential Spirocyclic Fragrance Component. Chemical Engineering and Technology 38(10): 1713-1716.
  • Baxendale, I. R., Braatz, R. D., Hodnett, B. K., Jensen, K. F., Johnson, M. D., Sharratt, P., Sherlock J.-P. & Florence, A. J. (2015). Achieving Continuous Manufacturing: Technologies and Approaches for Synthesis, Workup, and Isolation of Drug Substance. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 104(3): 781-791.
  • Baumann, B. & Baxendale, I. R. (2015). Batch and Flow Synthesis of Pyrrolo[1,2-a]-quinolines via an Allene-Based Reaction Cascade. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 80(21): 10806-10816.
  • Christodoulou, M. S., Calogero, F., Baumann, M., García-Argáez, A. N., Pieraccini, S., Sironi, M., Dapiaggi, F., Bucci, R., Broggini, G., Gazzola, S., Liekens, S., Silvani, A., Lahtela-Kakkonen, M., Martinet, N., Nonel-Canals, A., Santamaría-Navarroh, E., Baxendale, I. R., Via, L. D. & Passarell, D. (2015). Boehmeriasin A as new lead compound for the inhibition of Topoisomerases and SIRT2. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 92: 766-775.
  • Mallia, C. J., Englert, L., Walter, G. C. & Baxendale, I. R. (2015). Ethyl 2-hydroxy-2-phenyl-2-(thiazol-2-yl)acetate. Molbank 2015(2): M857.
  • Baumann, M., Rodriguez Garcia, A. M. & Baxendale, I. R. (2015). Flow Synthesis of Ethyl Isocyanoacetate Enabling the Telescoped Synthesis of 1,2,4-Triazoles and Pyrrolo-[1,2-c]pyrimidines. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 14(13): 4231-4239.
  • Stanetty, C. & Baxendale, I. R. (2015). Large-Scale Synthesis of Crystalline 1,2,3,4,6,7-Hexa-O-acetyl-L-glycero-α-D-manno-heptopyranose. European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2015(12): 2718-2726.
  • Baumann, M. & Baxendale, I. R. (2015). Syn-Ethyl 1-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]quinolone-3-carboxylate HCl Salt. Molbank 2015(1): M846.
  • Teppo Olavi Leino, Marcus Baumann, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Ian R. Baxendale & Erik Aarne Anders Wallén (2015). Synthesis of 1,3,6-Trisubstituted Azulenes. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 80(22): 11513–11520.
  • Baumann, M. & Baxendale, I. R. (2015). The synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using continuous flow chemistry. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry 2015(11): 1194-1219.
  • Mallia, C. J., Englert, L., Walter, G. C. & Baxendale, I. R. (2015). Thiazole formation through a modified Gewald reaction. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry 11: 875-883.
  • Smith, L. K. & Baxendale, I. R. (2015). Total syntheses of natural products containing spirocarbocycles. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry 13(39): 9907-9933.
  • Deadman, B. J., Ley, S. V., Browne, D. L. & Baxendale, I. R. (2014). Back Pressure Regulation of Slurry Forming Reactions in Continuous Flow. Chemical Engineering & Technology 38(2): 259-264.
  • Baumann, M & Baxendale, I. R. (2014). Sustainable Synthesis of Thioimidazoles via Carbohydrate-Based Multicomponent Reactions. Organic Letters 16(23): 6076-6079.
  • Baumann, M., Baxendale, I.R., Hornung, C.H., Ley, S.V., Rojo, M.V. & Roper, K.A. (2014). Synthesis of Riboflavines, Quinoxalinones and Benzodiazepines through Chemoselective Flow Based Hydrogenations. Molecules 19(7): 9736-9759.
  • Battilocchio, Claudio, Deadman, Benjamin J., Nikbin, Nikzad, Kitching, Matthew O., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2013). A Machine-Assisted Flow Synthesis of SR48692: A Probe for the Investigation of Neurotensin Receptor-1. Chemistry - A European Journal 19(24): 7917-7930.
  • Hopkin, Mark D., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2013). An expeditious synthesis of imatinib and analogues utilising flow chemistry methods. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 11(11): 1822-1839.
  • Baumann, Marcus & Baxendale, Ian R. (2013). An overview of the synthetic routes to the best selling drugs containing 6-membered heterocycles. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry 9: 2265-2319.
  • Baxendale, Ian R., Brocken, Laurens & Mallia, Carl J. (2013). Flow chemistry approaches directed at improving chemical synthesis. Green Processing & Synthesis 2(3): 211-230.
  • Guetzoyan, Lucie, Nikbin, Nikzad, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2013). Flow chemistry synthesis of zolpidem, alpidem and other GABA(A) agonists and their biological evaluation through the use of in-line frontal affinity chromatography. Chemical Science 4(2): 764-769.
  • Baxendale, Ian R., Hornung, Christian, Ley, Steven V., Molina, Juan de Mata Munoz & Wikstrom, Anders (2013). Flow Microwave Technology and Microreactors in Synthesis. Australian Journal of Chemistry 66(2): 131-144.
  • Battilocchio, Claudio, Guetzoyan, Lucie, Cervetto, Chiara, Mannelli, Lorenzo Di Cesare, Frattaroli, Daniela, Baxendale, Ian R., Maura, Guido, Rossi, Antonietta, Sautebin, Lidia, Biava, Mariangela, Ghelardini, Carla, Marcoli, Manuela & Ley, Steven V. (2013). Flow Synthesis and Biological Studies of an Analgesic Adamantane Derivative That Inhibits P2X(7)-Evoked Glutamate Release. ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 4(8): 704-709.
  • Nakayama, Keiji, Browne, Duncan L., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2013). Studies of a Diastereoselective Electrophilic Fluorination Reaction Employing a Cryo-Flow Reactor. Synlett 24(10): 1298-1302.
  • Fernandez, Amadeo, Levine, Zebulon G., Baumann, Marcus, Sulzer-Mosse, Sarah, Sparr, Christof, Schlaeger, Sabrina, Metzger, Albrecht, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2013). Synthesis of (-)-Hennoxazole A: Integrating Batch and Flow Chemistry Methods. Synlett 24(4): 514-518.
  • Baxendale, Ian R. (2013). The integration of flow reactors into synthetic organic chemistry. JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 88(4): 519-552.
  • Baumann, Marcus & Baxendale, Ian R. (2013). The rapid generation of isothiocyanates in flow. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry 9: 1613-1619.
  • Deadman, Benjamin J., Hopkin, Mark D., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2013). The synthesis of Bcr-Abl inhibiting anticancer pharmaceutical agents imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 11(11): 1766-1800.
  • Baxendale, I. R., Cheung, S., Kitching, M. O., Ley, S. V. & Shearman, J. W. (2013). The synthesis of neurotensin antagonist SR 48692 for prostate cancer research. Biorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 21(14): 4378-4387.
  • Ingham, Richard J., Riva, Elena, Nikbin, Nikzad, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2012). A ``Catch-React-Release'' Method for the Flow Synthesis of 2-Aminopyrimidines and Preparation of the Imatinib Base. Organic Letters 14(15): 3920-3923.
  • Battilocchio, Claudio, Baxendale, Ian R., Biava, Mariangela, Kitching, Matthew O. & Ley, Steven V. (2012). A Flow-Based Synthesis of 2-Aminoadamantane-2-carboxylic Acid. Organic Process Research & Development 16(5): 798-810.
  • Wegner, Jens, Ley, Steven V., Kirschning, Andreas, Hansen, Anne-Lene, Garcia, Javier Montenegro & Baxendale, Ian R. (2012). A Total Synthesis of Millingtonine A. ORGANIC LETTERS 14(3): 696-699.
  • Browne, Duncan L., Wright, Steven, Deadman, Benjamin J., Dunnage, Samantha, Baxendale, Ian R., Turner, Richard M. & Ley, Steven V. (2012). Continuous flow reaction monitoring using an on-line miniature mass spectrometer. RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY 26(17): 1999-2010.
  • Zak, Jaroslav, Ron, David, Riva, Elena, Harding, Heather P., Cross, Benedict C. S. & Baxendale, Ian R. (2012). Establishing a Flow Process to Coumarin-8-Carbaldehydes as Important Synthetic Scaffolds. CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL 18(32): 9901-9910.
  • Battilocchio, Claudio, Baumann, Marcus, Baxendale, Ian R., Biava, Mariangela, Kitching, Matthew O., Ley, Steven V., Martin, Rainer E., Ohnmacht, Stephan A. & Tappin, Nicholas D. C. (2012). Scale-Up of Flow-Assisted Synthesis of C-2-Symmetric Chiral PyBox Ligands. SYNTHESIS 44(4): 635-647.
  • Hopkin, Mark D., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2012). The Lab of the Future The importance of remote monitoring and control. Chimica Oggi 30(2): 24-26.
  • Cross, BCS, Bond, PJ, Sadowski, PG, Jha, BK, Zak, J, Goodman, JM, Silverman, RH, Neubert, TA, Baxendale, IR, Ron, D & Harding, HP (2012). The molecular basis for selective inhibition of unconventional mRNA splicing by an IRE1-binding small molecule. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109(15): 869-878.
  • Petersen, Trine P., Polyzos, Anastasios, O'Brien, Matthew, Ulven, Trond, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2012). The Oxygen-Mediated Synthesis of 1,3-Butadiynes in Continuous Flow: Using Teflon AF-2400 to Effect Gas/Liquid Contact. CHEMSUSCHEM 5(2, SI): 274-277.
  • Lange, Heiko, Carter, Catherine F., Hopkin, Mark D., Burke, Adrian, Goode, Jon G., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2011). A breakthrough method for the accurate addition of reagents in multi-step segmented flow processing. CHEMICAL SCIENCE 2(4): 765-769.
  • Smith, Catherine J., Nikbin, Nikzad, Ley, Steven V., Lange, Heiko & Baxendale, Ian R. (2011). A fully automated, multistep flow synthesis of 5-amino-4-cyano-1,2,3-triazoles. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 9(6): 1938-1947.
  • Browne, Duncan L., Baumann, Marcus, Harji, Bashir H., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2011). A New Enabling Technology for Convenient Laboratory Scale Continuous Flow Processing at Low Temperatures. Organic Letters 13(13): 3312-3315.
  • Baumann, Marcus, Baxendale, Ian R., Brasholz, Malte, Hayward, John J., Ley, Steven V. & Nikbin, Nikzad (2011). An Integrated Flow and Batch-Based Approach for the Synthesis of O-Methyl Siphonazole. SYNLETT (10): 1375-1380.
  • Baumann, Marcus, Baxendale, Ian R., Ley, Steven V. & Nikbin, Nikzad (2011). An overview of the key routes to the best selling 5-membered ring heterocyclic pharmaceuticals. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry 7: 442-495.
  • Browne, Duncan L., Deadman, Benjamin J., Ashe, Robert, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2011). Continuous Flow Processing of Slurries: Evaluation of an Agitated Cell Reactor. ORGANIC PROCESS RESEARCH \& DEVELOPMENT 15(3): 693-697.
  • Carter, Catherine F., Lange, Heiko, Sakai, Daiki, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2011). Diastereoselective Chain-Elongation Reactions Using Microreactors for Applications in Complex Molecule Assembly. CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL 17(12): 3398-3405.
  • Smith, Catherine J., Smith, Christopher D., Nikbin, Nikzad, Ley, Steven V. & Baxendale, Ian R. (2011). Flow synthesis of organic azides and the multistep synthesis of imines and amines using a new monolithic triphenylphosphine reagent. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 9(6): 1927-1937.
  • O'Brien, Matthew, Taylor, Nicholas, Polyzos, Anastasios, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2011). Hydrogenation in flow: Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis using Teflon AF-2400 to effect gas-liquid contact at elevated pressure. CHEMICAL SCIENCE 2(7): 1250-1257.
  • Hodgkinson, James T., Galloway, Warren R. J. D., Saraf, Shreya, Baxendale, Ian R., Ley, Steven V., Ladlow, Mark, Welch, Martin & Spring, David R. (2011). Microwave and flow syntheses of Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) and analogues. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 9(1): 57-61.
  • Lange, Heiko, Capener, Matthew J., Jones, Alexander X., Smith, Catherine J., Nikbin, Nikzad, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2011). Oxidation Reactions in Segmented and Continuous Flow Chemical Processing Using an N-(tert-Butyl)phenylsulfinimidoyl Chloride Monolith. SYNLETT (6): 869-873.
  • Browne, Duncan L., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2011). Piecing together the puzzle: understanding a mild, metal free reduction method for the large scale synthesis of hydrazines. TETRAHEDRON 67(52): 10296-10303.
  • Martin, Laetitia J., Marzinzik, Andreas L., Ley, Steven V. & Baxendale, Ian R. (2011). Safe and Reliable Synthesis of Diazoketones and Quinoxalines in a Continuous Flow Reactor. ORGANIC LETTERS 13(2): 320-323.
  • Kasinathan, Sivarajan, Bourne, Samuel L., Tolstoy, Paivi, Koos, Peter, O'Brien, Matthew, Bates, Roderick W., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2011). Syngas-Mediated C-C Bond Formation in Flow: Selective Rhodium-Catalysed Hydroformylation of Styrenes. SYNLETT (18): 2648-2651.
  • Baumann, Marcus, Baxendale, Ian R., Kuratli, Christoph, Ley, Steven V., Martin, Rainer E. & Schneider, Josef (2011). Synthesis of a Drug-Like Focused Library of Trisubstituted Pyrrolidines Using Integrated Flow Chemistry and Batch Methods. ACS COMBINATORIAL SCIENCE 13(4): 405-413.
  • Baumann, Marcus, Baxendale, Ian R., Kirschning, Andreas, Ley, Steven V. & Wegner, Jens (2011). Synthesis of Highly Substituted Nitropyrrolidines, Nitropyrrolizines and Nitropyrroles via Multicomponent-Multistep Sequences within a Flow Reactor. Hetrocycles 82(2): 1297-1316.
  • Roper, Kimberley A., Lange, Heiko, Polyzos, Anastasios, Berry, Malcolm B., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2011). The application of a monolithic triphenylphosphine reagent for conducting Appel reactions in flow microreactors. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry 7: 1648-1655.
  • Polyzos, Anastasios, O'Brien, Matthew, Petersen, Trine P., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2011). The Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids using CO2 in a Tube-In-Tube Gas Permeable Membrane Reactor. ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION 50(5): 1190-1193.
  • Bourne, Samuel L., Koos, Peter, O'Brien, Matthew, Martin, Benjamin, Schenkel, Berthold, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2011). The Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Styrenes Using Ethylene in a Palladium-Catalysed Heck Cross-Coupling Reaction. SYNLETT (18): 2643-2647.
  • Baumann, Marcus, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2011). The flow synthesis of heterocycles for natural product and medicinal chemistry applications. MOLECULAR DIVERSITY 15(3, SI): 613-630.
  • Hopkin, Mark D., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2011). The Lab of the Future The importance of remote monitoring and control. Chimica Oggi 29(1): 28+.
  • Qian, Zizheng, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2010). A Continuous Flow Process Using a Sequence of Microreactors with In-line IR Analysis for the Preparation of N,N-Diethyl-4-(3-fluorophenylpiperidin-4-ylidenemethyl)benzamide as a Potent and Highly Selective delta-Opioid Receptor Agonist. CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL 16(41): 12342-12348.
  • Qian, Zizheng, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2010). A Flow Process Using Microreactors for the Preparation of a Quinolone Derivative as a Potent 5HT(1B) Antagonist. SYNLETT (4): 505-508.
  • Hopkin MD, Baxendale IR & Ley SV (2010). A flow-based synthesis of Imatinib: the API of Gleevec. Chemical Communications 46(14): 2450-2452.
  • Hornung, Christian H., Hallmark, Bart, Mackley, Malcolm R., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2010). A Palladium Wall Coated Microcapillary Reactor for Use in Continuous Flow Transfer Hydrogenation. ADVANCED SYNTHESIS \& CATALYSIS 352(10): 1736-1745.
  • Tozzi, Francesco, Ley, Steven V., Kitching, Matthew O. & Baxendale, Ian R. (2010). Enzymatic Oxidative Cyclisation Reactions Leading to Dibenzoazocanes. SYNLETT 2010(13): 1919-1922.
  • O'Brien, Matthew, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2010). Flow Ozonolysis Using a Semipermeable Teflon AF-2400 Membrane To Effect Gas-Liquid Contact. ORGANIC LETTERS 12(7): 1596-1598.
  • Sedelmeier, Joerg, Ley, Steven V., Baxendale, Ian R. & Baumann, Marcus (2010). KMnO4-Mediated Oxidation as a Continuous Flow Process. ORGANIC LETTERS 12(16): 3618-3621.
  • Baxendale, Ian R., Schou, Soren C., Sedelmeier, Joerg & Ley, Steven V. (2010). Multi-Step Synthesis by Using Modular Flow Reactors: The Preparation of Yne-Ones and Their Use in Heterocycle Synthesis. CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL 16(1): 89-94.
  • Hornung CH, Hallmark B, Baumann M, Baxendale IR, Ley SV, Hester P, Clayton P & Mackleigh MR (2010). Multiple Microcapillary Reactor for Organic Synthesis. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 49(10): 4576–4582.
  • Malet-Sanz, Laia, Madrzak, Julia, Ley, Steven V. & Baxendale, Ian R. (2010). Preparation of arylsulfonyl chlorides by chlorosulfonylation of in situ generated diazonium salts using a continuous flow reactor. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 8(23): 5324-5332.
  • Carter, Catherine F., Lange, Heiko, Ley, Steven V., Baxendale, Ian R., Wittkamp, Brian, Goode, Jon G. & Gaunt, Nigel L. (2010). ReactIR Flow Cell: A New Analytical Tool for Continuous Flow Chemical Processing. ORGANIC PROCESS RESEARCH \& DEVELOPMENT 14(2): 393-404.
  • Baumann, Marcus, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2010). Synthesis of 3-Nitropyrrolidines via Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions Using a Modular Flow Reactor. SYNLETT (5): 749-752.
  • Venturoni, Francesco, Nikbin, Nikzad, Ley, Steven V. & Baxendale, Ian R. (2010). The application of flow microreactors to the preparation of a family of casein kinase I inhibitors. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 8(8): 1798-1806.
  • Carter, Catherine F., Baxendale, Ian R., Pavey, John B. J. & Ley, Steven V. (2010). The continuous flow synthesis of butane-2,3-diacetal protected building blocks using microreactors. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 8(7): 1588-1595.
  • Baxendale, Ian R., Buckle, Christopher D., Ley, Steven V. & Tamborini, Lucia (2009). A Base-Catalysed One-Pot Three-Component Coupling Reaction Leading to Nitrosubstituted Pyrroles. SYNTHESIS-STUTTGART (9): 1485-1493.
  • Palmieri, Alessandro, Ley, Steven V., Hammond, Kelvin, Polyzos, Anastasios & Baxendale, Ian R. (2009). A microfluidic flow chemistry platform for organic synthesis: the Hofmann rearrangement. TETRAHEDRON LETTERS 50(26): 3287-3289.
  • Sedelmeier, Joerg, Ley, Steven V. & Baxendale, Ian R. (2009). An efficient and transition metal free protocol for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones as a continuous flow process. GREEN CHEMISTRY 11(5): 683-685.
  • Palmieri, Alessandro, Ley, Steven V., Polyzos, Anastasios, Ladlow, Mark & Baxendale, Ian R. (2009). Continuous flow based catch and release protocol for the synthesis of alpha-ketoesters. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry 5: 23.
  • Baumann, Marcus, Baxendale, Ian R., Martin, Laetitia J. & Ley, Steven V. (2009). Development of fluorination methods using continuous-flow microreactors. TETRAHEDRON 65(33): 6611-6625.
  • Baxendale, IR, Ley SV, Mansfield AC & Smith CD (2009). Multistep Synthesis Using Modular Flow Reactors: Bestmann–Ohira Reagent for the Formation of Alkynes and Triazoles. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48(22): 4017-4021.
  • Sedelmeier, Joerg, Ley, Steven V., Lange, Heiko & Baxendale, Ian R. (2009). Pd-EnCat (TM) TPP30 as a Catalyst for the Generation of Highly Functionalized Aryl- and Alkenyl-Substituted Acetylenes via Microwave-Assisted Sonogashira Type Reactions. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (26): 4412-4420.
  • Carter, Catherine F., Baxendale, Ian R., O'Brien, Matthew, Pavey, John B. J. & Ley, Steven V. (2009). Synthesis of acetal protected building blocks using flow chemistry with flow IR analysis: preparation of butane-2,3-diacetal tartrates. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 7(22): 4594-4597.
  • Baxendale, Ian R., Ley, Steven V., Smith, Christopher D., Tamborini, Lucia & Voica, Ana-Florina (2008). A Bifurcated Pathway to Thiazoles and Imidazoles Using a Modular Flow Microreactor. JOURNAL OF COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY 10(6): 851-857.
  • Baumann, Marcus, Baxendale, Ian R., Ley, Steven V., Nikbin, Nikzad, Smith, Christopher D. & Tierney, Jason P. (2008). A modular flow reactor for performing Curtius rearrangements as a continuous flow process. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 6(9): 1577-1586.
  • Baumann, Marcus, Baxendale, Ian R., Ley, Steven V., Nikbin, Nikzad & Smith, Christopher D. (2008). Azide monoliths as convenient flow reactors for efficient Curtius rearrangement reactions. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 6(9): 1587-1593.
  • Hopkin, Mark D., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2008). New focused microwave approach to the synthesis of amino-substituted pyrroloisoquinolines and pyrroloquinolines via a sequential multi-component coupling process. SYNTHESIS-STUTTGART (11): 1688-1702.
  • Mitchell, Sharon, Baxendale, Ian R. & Jones, William (2008). The application of focused microwave irradiation coupled with freeze drying to investigate the reaction of MgO and Al(2)O(3) slurries in the formation of layered double hydroxides. GREEN CHEMISTRY 10(6): 629-634.
  • Ley, Steven V. & Baxendale, Ian R. (2008). The changing face of organic synthesis. CHIMIA 62(3): 162-168.
  • Baumann, Marcus, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2008). The use of diethylaminosulfur trifluoride (DAST) for fluorination in a continuous-flow microreactor. SYNLETT (14): 2111-2114.
  • Smith, Christopher D., Baxendale, Ian R., Lanners, Steve, Hayward, John J., Smith, Stephen C. & Ley, Steven V. (2007). [3+2] Cycloaddition of acetylenes with azides to give 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles in a modular flow reactor. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 5(10): 1559-1561.
  • Hornung, Christian H., Mackley, Malcolm R., Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2007). A microcapillary flow disc reactor for organic synthesis. ORGANIC PROCESS RESEARCH \& DEVELOPMENT 11(3): 399-405.
  • Smith, Catherine J., Iglesias-Sigueenza, Francisco Javier, Baxendale, Ian R. & Ley, Steven V. (2007). Flow and batch mode focused microwave synthesis of 5-amino-4-cyanopyrazoles and their further conversion to 4-aminopyrazolopyrimidines. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 5(17): 2758-2761.
  • Mitchell, Sharon J., Baxendale, Ian R. & Jones, William (2007). Influence of microwave irradiation on the reaction of MgO and Al2O3 slurries to form layered double hydroxide. ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY 233: 205.
  • Baxendale, Ian R., Hayward, John J. & Ley, Steven V. (2007). Microwave reactions under continuous flow conditions. COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY \& HIGH THROUGHPUT SCREENING 10(10): 802-836.
  • Baxendale, Ian R., Hayward, John J., Ley, Steven V. & Tranmer, Geoffrey K. (2007). Pharmaceutical strategy and innovation: An academics perspective. CHEMMEDCHEM 2(6): 768-788.
  • Smith, Christopher D., Baxendale, Ian R., Tranmer, Geoffrey K., Baumann, Marcus, Smith, Stephen C., Lewthwaitee, Russell A. & Ley, Steven V. (2007). Tagged phosphine reagents to assist reaction work-up by phase-switched scavenging using a modular flow reactor. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 5(10): 1562-1568.
  • Baxendale, IR, Deeley, J, Griffiths-Jones, CM, Ley, SV, Saaby, S & Tranmer, GK (2006). A flow process for the multi-step synthesis of the alkaloid natural product oxomaritidine: a new paradigm for molecular assembly. CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS (24): 2566-2568.
  • Baxendale, Ian R., Ley, Steven V., Smith, Christopher D. & Tranmer, Geoffrey K. (2006). A flow reactor process for the synthesis of peptides utilizing immobilized reagents, scavengers and catch and release protocols. CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS (46): 4835-4837.
  • Baumann, Marcus, Baxendale, Ian R., Ley, Steven V., Smith, Christoper D. & Tranmer, Geoffrey K. (2006). Fully automated continuous flow synthesis of 4,5-disubstituted oxazoles. ORGANIC LETTERS 8(23): 5231-5234.
  • Baxendale, Ian R. & Pitts, Michael R. (2006). Microwave flow chemistry: the next evolutionary step in synthetic chemistry?. Chimica Oggi 24(3): 41+.
  • Baxendale, Ian R., Griffiths-Jones, Charlotte M., Ley, Steven V. & Tranmer, Geoffrey K. (2006). Microwave-assisted Suzuki coupling reactions with an encapsulated palladium catalyst for batch and continuous-flow transformations. CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL 12(16): 4407-4416.
  • Baxendale, IR, Griffiths-Jones, CM, Ley, SV & Tranmer, GK (2006). Preparation of the neolignan natural product grossamide by a continuous-flow process. SYNLETT (3): 427-430.
  • Siu, J, Baxendale, IR, Lewthwaite, RA & Ley, SV (2005). A phase-switch purification approach for the expedient removal of tagged reagents and scavengers following their application in organic synthesis. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 3(17): 3140-3160.
  • Baxendale, IR & Ley, SV (2005). Formation of 4-aminopyrimidines via the trimerization of nitriles using focused microwave heating. JOURNAL OF COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY 7(3): 483-489.
  • Saaby, S, Baxendale, IR & Ley, SV (2005). Non-metal-catalysed intramolecular alkyne cyclotrimerization reactions promoted by focussed microwave heating in batch and flow modes. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 3(18): 3365-3368.
  • Baxendale, IR & Ley, SV (2005). Synthesis of alkaloid natural products using solid-supported reagents and scavengers. CURRENT ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 9(15): 1521-1534.
  • Baxendale, IR & Ley, SV (2005). Synthesis of the alkaloid natural products (+)-plicane and (-)-obliquine, using polymer-supported reagents and scavengers. INDUSTRIAL \& ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH 44(23): 8588-8592.
  • Baxendale, IR, Ley, SV & Martinelli, M (2005). The rapid preparation of 2-aminosulfonamide-1,3,4-oxadiazoles using polymer-supported reagents and microwave heating. TETRAHEDRON 61(22): 5323-5349.
  • Siu, J, Baxendale, IR & Ley, SV (2004). Microwave assisted Leimgruber-Batcho reaction for the preparation of indoles, azaindoles and pyrroylquinolines. ORGANIC \& BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY 2(2): 160-167.
  • Storer, RI, Takemoto, T, Jackson, PS, Brown, DS, Baxendale, IR & Ley, SV (2004). Multi-step application of immobilized reagents and scavengers: A total synthesis of epothilone C. CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL 10(10): 2529-2547.
  • Baxendale, I.R., Davidson, T.D., Ley, S.V. & Perni, R.H. (2003). Enantioselective synthesis of the tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline alkaloid (-)-norarmepavine using polymer supported reagents. Heterocycles 60(12): 2707-2715.
  • Baxendale, IR, Ley, SV & Sneddon, HF (2002). A clean conversion of aldehydes to nitriles using a solid-supported hydrazine. SYNLETT (5): 775-777.
  • Baxendale, I.R., Lee, A.L. & Ley, S.V. (2002). A concise synthesis of carpanone using solid-supported reagents and scavengers. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1 (16): 1850-1857.
  • Baxendale, IR, Lee, AL & Ley, SV (2002). A polymer-supported iridium catalyst for the stereoselective isomerisation of double bonds. SYNLETT (3): 516-518.
  • Baxendale, IR, Ernst, M, Krahnert, WR & Ley, SV (2002). Application of polymer-supported enzymes and reagents in the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues. SYNLETT (10): 1641-1644.
  • Ley, SV & Baxendale, IR (2002). New tools and concepts for modern organic synthesis. NATURE REVIEWS DRUG DISCOVERY 1(8): 573-586.
  • Ley, SV & Baxendale, IR (2002). Organic synthesis in a changing world. CHEMICAL RECORD 2(6): 377-388.
  • Ley, SV, Baxendale, IR, Brusotti, G, Caldarelli, M, Massi, A & Nesi, M (2002). Solid-supported reagents for multi-step organic synthesis: preparation and application. FARMACO 57(4): 321-330.
  • Baxendale, IR, Brusotti, G, Matsuoka, M & Ley, SV (2002). Synthesis of nornicotine, nicotine and other functionalised derivatives using solid-supported reagents and scavengers. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1 (2): 143-154.
  • Baxendale, IR, Ley, SV, Lumeras, W & Nesi, M (2002). Synthesis of trifluoromethyl ketones using polymer-supported reagents. Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening 5(3): 197-199.
  • Baxendale, IR, Ley, SV & Piutti, C (2002). Total synthesis of the amaryllidaceae alkaloid (+)-plicamine and its unnatural enantiomer by using solid-supported reagents and scavengers in a multistep sequence of reactions. ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION 41(12): 2194-2197.
  • Baxendale, IR, Ley, SV, Nessi, M & Piutti, C (2002). Total synthesis of the amaryllidaceae alkaloid (+)-plicamine using solid-supported reagents. TETRAHEDRON 58(32): 6285-6304.
  • Baxendale, I.R., Lee, A.L. & Ley, S.V. (2001). A concise synthesis of the natural product carpanone using solid-supported reagents and scavengers. Synlettt 2001(09): 1482-1484.
  • Malkov, AV, Baxendale, IR, Mansfield, DJ & Kocovsky, P (2001). Molybdenum(0) and tungsten(0) catalysts with enhanced reactivity for allylic substitution: regioselectivity and solvent effects. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY-PERKIN TRANSACTIONS 1 (10): 1234-1240.
  • Malkov, AV, Baxendale, IR, Bella, M, Langer, V, Fawcett, J, Russell, DR, Mansfield, DJ, Valko, M & Kocovsky, P (2001). Synthesis of new chiral 2,2 `-bipyridyl-type ligands, their coordination to molybdenum(0), copper(II), and palladium(II), and application in asymmetric allylic substitution, allylic oxidation, and cyclopropanation. ORGANOMETALLICS 20(4): 673-690.
  • Caldarelli, M, Baxendale, IR & Ley, SV (2000). Clean and efficient synthesis of azo dyes using polymer-supported reagents. GREEN CHEMISTRY 2(2): 43-45.
  • Ley, S. V., Baxendale, I. R., Bream, R. N., Jackson, P. S., Leach, A. G., Longbottom, D. A., Nesi, M., Scott, J. S., Storer, R. Ian & Talyor, S. J. (2000). Multi-step organic synthesis using solid-supported reagents and scavengers: a new paradigm in chemical library generation. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1 (23): 3815–4196.
  • Malkov, AV, Baxendale, IR, Bella, M, Langer, V & Kocovsky, P (2000). Pinene-derived bipyridine ligands (PINDY) in asymmetric catalysis. ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY 219(2): U132.
  • Baxendale, IR & Ley, SV (2000). Polymer-supported reagents for multi-step organic synthesis: Application to the synthesis of sildenafil. BIOORGANIC \& MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS 10(17): 1983-1986.
  • Malkov, A. V., Baxendale, I. R., Dvorak, D., Mansfield, D. J. & Kocovsky, P. (1999). Molybdenum(II)- and tungsten(II)-catalysed allylic substitution. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 64(8): 2737-2750.
  • Davis, S. L., Mitchell, W. C., Malkov, A. V., Baxendale, I. R., Mansfield, D. J. & Kocovsky, P. (1999). Molybdenum(II)-catalysed allylation of electron rich aromatics and heteroaromatics. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 64(8): 2751-2764.
  • Malkov, AV, Baxendale, IR, Mansfield, DJ & Kocovsky, P (1998). Molybdenum(II)- and tungsten(II)-catalyzed allylic substitution. ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY 216(2): U548.
  • Malkov, A. V., Baxendale, I. R., Mansfield, D. J. & Kocovsky, P. (1997). Molybdenum(II)-catalysed allylic substitution. Tetrahedron Letters 38(27): 4895-4898.

Other (Print)

Presentation

  • Baumann, Marcus, Baxendale, Ian R., Hayward, John J., Hopkin, Mark D., Jin, Jane, Kitching, Matthew O., Lanners, Steve, Ley, Steven V., Nikbin-Roudsari, Nikzad, Smith, Christopher D., Smith, Catherine J. & Tamborini, Lucia (2007), New opportunities for advanced organic synthesis-flow-based chemical processing, 51: 16th International Isotope Society (UK group) Symposium: Synthesis and applications of labelled compounds 2007. Cambridge, JOHN WILEY \& SONS LTD, 252-253.