PHYS4221 Advanced Physics 4 (2013/14)
Soft Condensed Matter Physics
Syllabus: An overview of soft matter and the length scales, time scales and forces that are relevant. Polymer structure, dynamics and elasticity. Phase transitions in soft condensed matter. Equilibrium phase diagrams and liquid-liquid demixing. The kinetics of phase separation. Self assembly of amphiphilic molecules through aggregation and phase separation. Polymer and block copolymer self-assembly.
Optical Properties of Solids
12 lectures + 2 examples classes in Michaelmas and Epiphany Term
- Optical coefficients, complex refractive index, dielectric constant, classification of optical materials [Fox Chapter 1.1-1.4]
- Optics in the solid state: crystal symmetry, electronic bands, vibronic bands, density of states [Fox Chapter 1.5-1.6]
- Propagation of light in an optical medium: atomic, vibrational and free electron oscillators [Fox Chapter 2.1]
- The dipole oscillator model: Lorentz oscillator, Kramers-Kronig equations [Fox Chapter 2.2, Kittel Chapter 15]
- Dispersion, anisotropy, birefringence [Fox Chapter 2.3-2.4]
- Interband absorption: transition rates, joint density of states, indirect band absorption [Fox Chapter 3.1-3.3]
- Exciton states: binding energy, Frenkel excitons: alkali halides, organic molecules [Fox Chapter 4, Kittel Chapter15]
- Light emission in solids: interband luminescence emission, spontaneous emission rates, solid state optical devices (LEDs) [Fox Chapter 5.1-5.2, 5.4]
- Free electron effects in solids: plasma reflectivity, plasmons [Fox Chapter 7.1-7.3, 7.5, Kittel Chapter 14]
- Optical properties of molecules: electronic-vibrational coupling, configuration coordinate diagrams, Franck-Condon principle, Stokes shift [Fox Chapter 8.1-8.3, Kittel Chapter 15]
- Vibrational states: optically active phonons, polariton coupled optical-vibrational states, polarons, inelastic light scattering [Fox Chapter 10, Kittel Chapter 15]
- Nonlinear optics: nonlinear susceptibility, resonant non-linearities, frequency mixing [Fox Chapter 11.1-11.2]
Modern Atomic and Optical Physics
12 lectures + 2 examples classes in Epiphany Term
- Revision of fine structure; adding atomic angular momenta; term symbols; hyperfine structure; the F quantum number; atomic transitions and selection rules [Foot Chapter 2, Sections 4.5, and 4.6.]
- The hyperfine structure of hydrogen and alkali-metal atom ground states [Foot Sections 6.1.]
- Electric and magnetic dipole interactions. The electron distribution of a superposition of states. Spontaneous emission. The Einstein A coefficient [Foot Sections 1.7, 2.2.]
- Interaction of a 2-level atom with a resonant field. The Rabi solution. Stimulated emission [Foot Section 6.4.2, Chapter 7.]
- The Ramsey technique. Transit-time broadening [Foot Sections 7.4 and 8.2.]
- The Zeeman effect. The Breit-Rabi diagram for hydrogen and the alkali-metal atoms [Foot Section 6.3.]
- Light forces. Photon momentum. Laser cooling [Foot Chapter 9.]
- The atomic fountain clock [Foot Section 9.9]
- Frontiers of metrology.
3 lectures in Easter Term, one by each lecturer.
Lectures: 2 one-hour lectures per week.
Examples classes: These provide an opportunity to work through and digest the course material by attempting exercises and assignments assisted by direct interaction with the lecturers and demonstrators. Students will be divided into groups, each of which will attend one one-hour class every 3 weeks.
Students should discuss with the lecturer the qualities expected in the dissertation, but an indication of these is given in the mark proforma used for assessment. The proforma will be made available to students for their information at the beginning of the Michaelmas Term. The dissertation is summatively assessed.
The marked dissertations along with the completed proformas (giving the marks awarded for the dissertation) will be returned to students before the end of the Epiphany Term.
Problem exercises: See http://www.dur.ac.uk/physics/students/problems/