Staff and Governance
To contact the IMEMS administrative office please use the following details:
T: 0191 334 2974
The day-to-day running of IMEMS is the responsibility of the Core Executive Committee, comprising the Director and Associate Directors and the Administrator.
Publication details for UNESCO Professor Robin ConinghamAli, T., Coningham, R.A.E., Connan, J., Gething, I., Adam, P., Dessort, D. & Heron, C. (2006). South Asia's earliest incendiary missile? Archaeometry 48(4): 641-655.
- Publication type: Journal Article
- ISSN/ISBN: 0003-813X, 1475-4754
- DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.2006.00278.x
- Keywords: Pakistan, The Bala Hisar of Charsadda, Alexander the Great, Sir Mortimer Wheeler, Incendiary missile, Conifer resin, Diterpenoids, Podocarpaceae, Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae, Barite.
- Further publication details on publisher web site
- Durham Research Online (DRO) - may include full text
Author(s) from Durham
A small burnt ball was recovered in 1995 from the basal fills of a ditch surrounding the Bala Hisar, or High Fort, of Charsadda, Pakistan. Associated by Sir Mortimer Wheeler with the siege of the ancient site by Alexander the Great in 327 bce, the ditch forms part of the city's defensive circuit. Using geochemical and microscopic techniques (X-ray diffraction, micro-FTIR, SEM and GC–MS) the ball is identified as an artificial composite of mineral (mostly barite) and flammable resinous organic matter originating from conifers from the Podocarpaceae, Araucariaceae and Cupressaceae. The physical and chemical nature of the find suggests that the ball was ignited in a fire, although whether this was a deliberate or accidental occurrence is impossible to establish. The analytical data, combined with the archaeological context of the find, leads us to evaluate whether the find represents southern Asia's earliest incendiary missile.
Full Executive Committee
Our Full Executive Committee is made up of the Core Executive Committee, listed above, plus a number of executive members including:
International Advisory Board
We are extremely fortunate to have be able to call on the help and guidance of colleagues from around the world who help to shape and guide our direction, strategy and international reach. Our current Advisory Board members are: