We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Otherwise, we'll assume you're OK to continue.

Durham University

Institute of Medieval and Early Modern Studies (IMEMS)

Staff and Governance

Core Staff

The day-to-day running of IMEMS is the responsibility of the Core Executive Committee, comprising the Director and Associate Directors and the Administrator. 

Publication details for Dr Andrew R Millard

Millard, A.R. (2006). A Bayesian approach to ageing sheep/goats from toothwear. In Recent advances in ageing and sexing animal bones. Ruscillo-Cosmopoulos, D. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 145-154.

Author(s) from Durham


For the last 20 years the human osteology literature has contained discussions of statistical problems with
traditional skeletal ageing methods, which lead to “age mimicry”, where the estimated age structure partly resembles that of the reference population. This paper discusses how these problems also apply to animal ageing techniques and proposes a method to overcome them in the case of ageing of sheep and goats by toothwear. A form of transition analysis is developed, using the data of Deniz and Payne as a reference population. The method is tested with other published known age animals. Payne’s A–I mandible wear stages are investigated and found to underestimate variability. The method is applied to the large assemblage of sheep and goat mandibles from Arene Candide, Italy to illustrate the extent of uncertainty in estimating survivorship curves. The limitations of the current model and possible improvements are discussed.


Proceedings of the 9th conference of the International Council of Archaeozoology, Durham, August 2002.

Full Executive Committee

Our Full Executive Committee is made up of the Core Executive Committee, listed above, plus a number of executive members including:

International Advisory Board

We are extremely fortunate to have be able to call on the help and guidance of colleagues from around the world who help to shape and guide our direction, strategy and international reach. Our current Advisory Board members are: